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a treasury of jain Literature 

Edited by Phyllis Granoff 


Oakville-New York-London 


» C* c 


‘-anoff P. E . (PhyUig Emily), 1947- 
rhe Cl6Ver ••’dult.ress & other stories 

!£:% u £ tra ” Slatfid fr °™ S “-krit Jain 

iSBN 0_88962 -^34-8 (bound) ISBN 0-88962-435-6 (pbk.) 

I. Title. 

C8 ‘ 3 '- 54 c90 - M4 «‘-< 

means, rt elecmLw SSiS*StaJ ' r | “™ itle '? ta *W f ™, by any 
formation storage and refnWni ’ ® photocopying and recording in- 

Canada. Offic^dwaretouse a l^St^ 32 ^ 0 ^ 6 ’ ° ntari °’ 1615E9 > 
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ss stasis- - * 

Copyright © Phyllis Granoff, 1990 . 

Cover Illustration & Design by Marion Black 
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Printed and bound in Canada, U.S. 

ISBN 0-88962-435-6 PAPER ISBN 0-88962-434-8 CLOTH 

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’ F -°- Box 1032 > Oakville, Ontario L6J 5E9 

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England 011 ” Calder ( p “ blisl >“) 18 Brewer Street, London, W1R 4A5, 

This book is a collection of translations of Jain stories that were originally 
written either in Sanskrit or in one of the older vernacular languages related to 
Sanskrit. The Jains trace the history of their religion back through a.series of 
twenty-four teachers, Jinas or “Conquerors,” the last of whom, Mahavlra, was 
a contemporary of the Buddha. From the very beginning Jains tpld stories to 
illustrate their religious teachings. Stories fill their existing canon, and-many of 
the commentaries to canonical texts are veritable treasure houses of. stories. 
Indeed in later medieval times some of these stories from the canon and the 
commentaries were gathered together with other popular tales into large and 
often very diverse collections that were aptly called “treasure houses of stories.” 

Early in its history the Jain community split into two groups, the Svetambaras, 
who were concentrated mainly in the north of India, and the Digambaras, who 
were concentrated primarily in the south. While most of the translations in this 
volume are of stories in the Svetambara Jain tradition, the Digambara Jains also 
told and collected stories in Sanskrit and other Indian languages. It is in all of 
these Jain writings that much of medieval Indian story literature as a whole has 
been preserved, and without them we would know much less than we do of 
popular culture in medieval India 

The material in the Jain canon, its commentaries, and the story collections that 
grew from this older tradition is often didactic. Part I of the present book is a 
selection of Jain didactic stories. It begins with Dr BoU6e’s translation of a 
parable from one of the eleven ahgas, which takes us back to the very starting 
point of Jain story literature. This is followed by a long section from the story 
tradition that is preserved in the commentaries to the Avafryakasutra. The promi¬ 
nence given to the AvaSyaka stories here is an accurate reflection of their 
importance within the Jaiq. tradition. The AvaSyaka commentaries are the life¬ 
blood of the didactic story tradition in Svetambara Jainism; they preserve an 
enormous number of stories and were one major source for many later 
collections of stories. By translating a block of stories Dr. Balbir has given the 
English reader the unique opportunity to see the range of stories .that the 
commentarial tradition preserves, and to understand how the stories functioned 
in their original setting. The section on didactic stories continues with examples 
from later didactic story collections, some of which are rooted in the AvaSyaka 
tradition. Dr. P.S. Jain,, who has translated the story of the faithful wife RohinT, 
has chosen to retain much of the verse form of the original, which gives the 
reader the chance to see just how varied in style Jain stories can be. I have 
translated several stories on a single theme, making gifts to monks and nuns. 
The section on didactic stories concludes with a story that illustrates karmic 
retribution. It comes from the Digambara tradition and is translated by Dr. 
Friedhelm Hardy. 



thr!that were told 
also recounted the lives and deeds of neonle Y didactic stories > Jains 
tradition. They also collected and told St ^ "T mpoitmt to their 
boundary line between Jain “Womphi«"Stf S h ° ly places ' ^ 

admittedly fluid; on the one hand hinm-Q w parUcular 311(1 the didactic stray is 
or be used as didactic stories. At foe sStimS mC “ porate ^ctic stories 
m t^otic story collections and yet lack a clear * 0grapbies 00111(1 he preserved 
collections also from dme to time factor ab™ J “ bio toPby 

Who were not specifically connected with f b famous P^ts and longs 
deeds of monks and nnns! pio“ Mdiaon of £ 

12th century on Biographies of the tons die Z°"T’ * mm KS “ Ia riy fr <™ Ihe 
a longer history, bn. toy comin^T^u^ 8 >»™ 

In chapter 1 „f p„ „ „,T k , , P P S “ bjec ’ fa "“dieval toes. 

rnmber of major Jain biography'^coUettiom Fo^T 1 ’’'^ “"toPtos from a 
accounts of lay devotees who became demi r ^ la P ter 2 I have given two 
text on Jain holy places. In chapter 3 Dr^Lef^' aCC0UntS 00016 froni 3 
account of the minister Canakya whom Jain hr Z ^ 1131181316(1 ^ humorous 
celebrate as the power behind the throne of’wS’ T BUddMst SOurces ^ 

4 contains three chapters from the DisaL^ **** Cmpire - Cha P ter 
translated by Dr. Ralph Strohl. Thf chanre^r if 9 ?**' &at have be0 n 
two brothers Bharata and Bahubali andTwx escnb6 ^ conflict between the 
Ch apter 5 is a selection of translations fr ^ f 60 ” 131 reIi gious authority, 
records the deeds of the lay devotees become° ^ pilglimage text that 
Dr - Cort has selected several accounts of mprf^^T 13 ^ m chapter 2 - Here 
are miracle stories or stories of the origin^/* ^ ^ ° f ^ 
descriptive in nature and still othL t * y ^ 0thers 316 more 
literature we would call hymns. Bv nrnvL Pr0perly t0 class of 

Cort has given the English reader the chance f Samp J es of 311 111680 types, Dr. 
his stories inhabit 0 see 1116 ^d of religious world 

HUDgry ~ 

translated a tale of a clever woman who! ^ ?' ^ Part 1 Dr - B abhr has 

being who tests her chastity In Part H nT* both her husban(1 and the divine 

cmrnfrLwflV u mq u °/s'lLp 0 '?Atr t *? ' IanSlated “ "* ““«iou b« an 
by a plurality of s*les and a tai™ „fT„ “ a whole * cbaracmriaed 

lasting appeal. Some a.ori« r^te”1^7,“'“ T* ““toted»its 
bare framework for a sermon while still nfh f lk " t3l6S: others read more like the 
In addition, although theTS 1TL T COml ? rom “^' 

are not even m the same language A single IhKe SIOnes “ to ori i™I 

language, fot t, is uo, uu.2^ 



another, using Sanskrit and the vernaculars side by side. Some of the stories that 
appear here were written entirely in prose, while others were in verse or in 
mixed prose and verse. The stories have been translated by several scholars, and 
no attempt has been made to achieve a uniform translation style. This was a 
deliberate decision; the originals themselves exhibit great diversity and it was 
hoped that at least an impression of that richness might be conveyed by the 
strikingly different translations that each scholar has made. The freedom of the 
translators included the choice of adding footnotes or incorporating necessary 
background information into the text. The originals themselves exhibit the same 
wide range of tone, from scholarly and erudite to popular and easily accessible. 
Several translators kept to the popular vein; others have added notes that will be 
of great interest to specialists as well as general readers. These translations offer 
only a brief glimpse into what is an enormous body of literature. Hopefully the 
availability of these stories in English will help stimulate interest in this warm 
and lively literature. 

I take this opportunity to thank the Dean of Social Sciences ,at McMaster for 
assistance in having the manuscript typed. 

Phyllis Granoff 

List of Contributors 

SdentifiqueinP^ Sheha^puwSiedn^ NationaI de la Recherche 
Landstakakathd was published in 1982. 1111161110118 artides on Jaini sin. Her book 

traditions at the Sou^^^timte ofHeid^ ^ rell gious 
include The Kundla Jdtaka (1970) and Stud' ^ U ^ versity - H* 5 publications 
1988), and “Traditionell iZsche lTJ S ^ agada 1 an * B (1977 

Kunst,” 1983. ***** Vorstell «“gen uber die Fusse in Uterature uS 

Dr. John Cort received his Ph r> tr 
teaching there. His thesis was on Jahh™ Univeisi <y “ re “* lon and * 

Gujatati religion he has pubfeted ,?,„!? if* 10 “«*• °n Jainism and 
Bhaitrhaii and YogeSvara. translations of the Sanskrit poetry of 

University . Her pubhfaJom^clfdTS/Lr'l r6llgionS at M cMaster 

CD- Reidel, 1974) and the book. Monks aM M andArgument » Late Vedanta 
Asia (Mosaic Press, 1988, which she recentlv “SfoT-™ iglous Bi °S™phy in 
Dr. Friedhelm Hardy teaches a I n Wth Dt K-Shinohara. 

“"®>» interest in Jatana^hve'"^' 5 ' * He has * «■» 

on a wide range of subjects in Indian rehrin^ T?° US SCh ° larly P ubU cations 
on South Indian devotional literature. Ud “ g the book Virahabhakti, 

Dr. Prem Suman J ain is head nf 

Sukhadia University in Udaipur in RajastbamStdT md Jain ology at 

:rr on “ d — -■»%% 


soon to appear from Princeton University Press.^ ° Rdm ^ana which is 

^ thesis P on ^l^ed^h^ of Chica g°- He wrote 

works in the Development Office He 


Table of Contents 

Introduction . 1 

List of Contributors .4 

Table of Contents .5 

Part I: Of Manners and Morals: A selection of didactic stories 

Chapter 1 The Peacock’s Egg: A parable from the Nayadhammakahao, 

Willem Boll6e .7 

Appendix: A note on the translation . 12 

Chapter 2 Stories from the AvaSyaka commentaries, Nalini Balbir.17 

Appendix: A note on the Avakyaka tradition and bibliography .70 

Chapter 3 Stories from the later didactic story collections 

a. The Faithful Wife Rohini from the Akhyanakamdnikoka , Prem Suman 

Jain . 75 

b. Stories on “Giving” from the Mulakuddhiprakarana, Phyllis Granoff 84 

c. Karmic retribution: The story of Ya^odhara from the Brhatkathakoka, 

Friedhelm Hardy . 118 

Part II: Of Peoples and Places: Stories from the Biography 
Collections and a Pilgrimage Text 

Chapter 1 Of monks, poets, faithful wives and others, from the medieval 

biography collections, Phyllis Granoff. 140 

Bhadrab3hu and Varaha . * . 141 

Aryanandila .. . . 145 

Jlvadeva.-. 149 

Aryakhapatacarya . 153 

The Poet Harsa . 156 

Madanaklrti . 162 

Two biographies of Mallavadin . 166 



Two biographies of JineSvarasuri . 172 

Chapter 2 Of mortals become gods: two stories from a medieval pilgrimage 

text, Phyllis Granoff . 182 

The Story of the Goddess Ambika.... 183 

The Story of the Yaksa Kapardin . 185 

Appendix to chapters 1 and 2: A note on the translations . 186 

Chapter 3 The minister Cdnakya, from the Parifistaparvan cf Hemacandra, 

Rosalind Lefeber . 189 

Appendix: A note on the translations . 206 

• Chapter 4 Of kings and sages, from the Adipurana, Ralph Strohl .... 208 
Appendix: A note on the translation . 243 

Chapter 5 The Jain sacred cosmos: selections from a medieval pilgrimage 

text, John Cort . 245 

Glossary . 274 

Bibliography . 284 

Appendix to the translations 

1. Jinaprabhasuri . 287 

2. Pilgrimage, sacred geography and cosmography in the Jaina 

tradition. 288 

3. A note on the translations . 290 


Of Manners 

and Morals: A selection of didactic stones 

The Peacock Egg: a parable of 
Mahavlra (Nayadhammakahao 1,3) 

Translated by Willem Bolide 


The Nay adhammakah ao is the sixth text in the canon of the Svetambara Jains. 
It consists of two books containing parables and sermons respectively. The 
parable of the Peacock Egg tells how monks ought to respect the rules that 
govern them. It is formulaic in style, as is much of the Svetambara canon, and 
contains strings of stock phrases that may be found elsewhere. I have indicated 
in my translation where such stock descriptions are to be supplied, and the 
source from which they have been taken. Mahavlra, the founder of Jainism, 
here answers a question by his disciple Goyama Suhamma, who in his turn 
reports to us. 

The Peacock Egg 

50. [97a 5] Thus indeed, Jambu, in those days, at that time, there was a 

city named Campa 1 — description (after Aup § l). 2 Outside this city 
of Campa, to the north-east of it, there was a park called Subhumi- 
bhaga (‘beautiful place’) rich in flowers and fruits of every season, 
delightful like, the Nandana-wood (in Indra's heaven), provided with a 
pleasantly fragrant and cool shade. Now at a place to the north of this 
Subhumi-bhaga park there was a maluyit thicket — description (after 
Naya 1,2; cf. Aup § 3). At that place a jungle peahen 4 laid two plump 
peacock eggs that were produced at the right time 5 , pale like a 
dumpling, not yet showing cracks, unspoilt, in size larger than a fist, 
and when she had laid them she sat (there) protecting, keeping and 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

o**!) 4 her own featlKK wMch sbe spread ov " them 

compliance with each other's wishes folfitw ? 7 u mng “ 

to “DTaTtte^ T^' ^“ P0D 


wealth, gold and silver lend' draught animals ’ possessing much 

*~:,^r™Lr t a 

yu^ues, ante to serve a man in thirty-two wave 12 ■ 

™ fSwr— 

elegantly dressed in her beTdoTf')Tfprone ei8hKen vcmaculare , 

enjoying various pleasures under the great din” of re“S to ” 
smgmg, instrumental music string 22 k„ ,4 “ re P eated dancmg, 

*«-* are. the stods S'big ae 

ha^gZSaSrtacrr^h 1 ^—*•*» ^ 
bedpLiedteSCsTeiu^f^ “ “* pr0per toe; “ ** 

ease; they began the foU^togSSnon-SrT 
very good to have tn»rh fnJ 7 ? Dear foend > Jt would be 

r„° tiy t E 

.be sun shining inrensely red lihe me £2 



frondosa flower, like a parrot’s beak or the (red) half of the Gunja 
berry, the Pentapets phoenicea, the feet and eyes of a pigeon, the 
Koil's red eyes, like a mass of Chinese roses or vermilion — when 
the sun has arisen waking up the clusters of pink lotuses, when the 
thousand-rayed day-maker glows in his radiance. 27 (It would be very 
good) to take this abundance of food (etc.), incense, flowers, perfume, 
clothes, wreaths and ornaments and to enjoy for a while ( viharittae ) 
the pleasure grove beauty of the Subhumi-bhaga park in the company 
of the courtesan Devadatta.” With these words they agreed on this 
point with each other and thereupon sent the next day, when the night 
(...up to) [98 b] radiance, for their servants, and told them thus: “Go, 
good people, cook abundantly food (etc.), take incense (...), set out for 
the Nanda pond in the Subhumi-bhaga park and near that pond erect 
a pavilion on posts, (then) sprinkle it, cleanse it, smear it with cow- 
dung, 28 provide it with an arrangement of fresh and fragrant cut 
flowers in groups of five colours, 29 make it highly delightful 30 with the 
fragrantly rising smell of burning aloe, choice kundurukka, turukkc r 31 
and incense, scent it well \yith fine perfumes and turn it into a fragrant 
bottle, so to speak, and stay waiting for each of us.” (The servants...) 
did so. 32 

Thereupon the sons of caravan leaders gave further ( doccam ) orders 
and told their servants: “As quickly as possible, 33 as soon as it is 
yoked bring a carriage which you have had dexterous people (?) 
yoke 34 with excellent young bullocks matching each other in hoofs and 
tails, and the end of whose sharp horns have been cut level with each 
other; 35 who are steered by nose ropes having thread-strings with silver 
bells and that are exquisitely intertwined with gold;? 6 they should carry 
garlands made of blue lotuses. The carriage should be overspread with 
a network of various jewels and silver and gold bells, and endowed 37 
with auspicious marks.” 38 They (i.e., the servants) for their part (vz) 
brought (a carriage) exactly as they were told. 

After that the sons of caravan leaders bathed, 39 performed a food 
sacrifice and expiatory rites for .good luck, adorned themselves with 
few but very valuable ornaments, entered .the carriage, went to 
Devadatta's house, got out of the carriage again and entered Deva¬ 
datta's house. 

The courtesan. Devadatta saw the caravan leaders' sons approach, 
became glad and joyful, rose from her seat, went seven or eight steps 40 
to meet them and spoke as follows: “The gentlemen should say what 
they have come hither for.” Thereupon the caravan leaders' sons spoke 
thus: “Dear lady, we should like to enjoy the Subhumi-bhaga park for 
a while in your company.” Devadatta then complied with this request 
of the caravan leaders' sons, bathed (etc. as above) and joined them in 


the clever ADULTERESS AM) the hungry monk 

of the city of aJTTZ Q L C nght across 1,16 «®re<' 

po«L goto* oTt ca^ se t«‘“rf, 7 f N “ da ‘°“ s 
water, splashed one another, and alter tahtat T“ 8 “° “* 

Devadatta went out again and, betaking tteSe^ “T* °‘ 
posts, entered it After putting on a11 thfir ?? P avdl0n on 

recovering on a cornfm+ahu , maments, taking a rest and 

•be many 8 foods fe" ■*** —■* - - 

” ssasssss»~i== 

(? ^-wXoniSs T' tK,we ? fOT d "**« up 

net-like (?) bowets" ajflow^tag bowel ^^ "* b ° Wera “ 

1Z7JZTZ7Z ,0 7 77 ****■ 746 

trembling, squawking innriiv ^ ** * Wa/l °’ a ,facket scared and 
standing nd . I ^f' dI y Wanting -few" and 

sons and the maiuya thicket wSTS^f ^ C TT“ I' 3 ?®' 
sons addressed each other saving- “DearfrS* ™ leadeis ' 

zzs£5Si~S*r* m - 

Steml^sSfJf Jll 0 ™ **** W “ ch •fcy spreadlver 

words dtey £5 £S£fflE^^7 ,,h 

servants and told them th«: “Go good neonle Tv 7 forh “ OT ™ 
place them among fe eggs (...).” £ ey '*** md 

grove'te^.'Tte Srthtoilhtga°^Sc f " L”™' “* 

~ ^ “ ** r- - it 

(piTddnam) bSZg vf JT* 1““ ° f —* 

her, returned tom her house e^to Ms * 7 ™ “* ,10,Kmd 
themselves once more in their own business. a “ d e “ Eaged 



55. The next day, the caravan leader Sagaradatta's son, when the night 
( above, sii 52 up to) radiance, went to his peacock egg and 
afraid, anxious, doubtful, divided, unclear in his thoughts 50 (asked 
himself) “Shall I be able to play with this peacock chick or not?” 
Thinking thus he threw the egg up again and again, turned it round, 
stirred it slightly, 50 shook it thoroughly, moved it to and fro, made it 
palpitate, knocked against it, bashed it and made it tick over and over 
again at his ear. Thereupon the peacock egg became addled. 51 
Sagaiadatta, the caravan leader's son, one day [101 a] went to his egg, 
saw that it was addled and exclaimed: “Helas, now I shall not have a 
young peacock to play with.” In consequehce of this he became 
dejected 52 and despondent, placed his head between his hands, was 
overcome by tormenting thoughts and became pensive. 

In exactly the same way, venerable monk(s), whosoever of our male 
or female ascetics parted with his or her hair 53 in the presence of an 
ayariya and an uvajjhaya, 54 left bis family for the life of a religious 
wanderer and is afraid ( above up to) unclear ih his thoughts as to 
the five major vows (or) the six groups of souls 55 in the doctrine of 
the Jainas, he or she should in this existence be despised, reproached, 
blamed, censured and treated with contempt by many monks, nuns, 
male and female lay followers. Moreover, in the next world, 56 such 
people will undergo many punishments, will often have their hair 
pulled out, be rebuked, hit, put in irons, be tormented, suffer the death 
of their parents, brothers and sisters, wife, 57 sons, daughters and 
daughters-in-law. 57 Much poverty, misfortune, association with 
unpleasant people, separation from loved ones, bad luck and distress 
will be their share. Again and again they will err through the jungle of 
samsdra which has neither beginning nor end, and extends 58 in all four 

45. Then Jinadatta’s son went to his peacock egg and, not worried about 
it ( above), thinking: “It is clear/surely 59 I shall have a young 
peacock to play with here” he did not throw it up again and again 
( above up to) his ear and the egg, left in peace, one day broke 
open and out came a young peacock. Jinadatta's son saw it and, glad 
and joyful, he addressed the peacock-breeders and told them: “You, 
good people, watch over this young peacock, protect it, raise it by and 
by with the many things suitable for peacock breeding and teach it to 
dance.” Thereupon the peacock-breeders promised this to Jinadatta's 
son, took the young peacock, went to their dwelling and raised ( 
above up to) dance. 

The young peacock grew up 60 with auspicious marks, signs and 
qualities. Its wings and mass of tail feathers 61 were full-sired, it had a 
hundred eyes on its many-coloured tail, a blue neck and was able to 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

to their social rant and caLsSteTT m<>!Ky “"Ending 

fingers, the young ?** at “Wing of his 

„„ ,. y s peacock danced, bowing its neck like a taii « 

we^detachedH^ ^ “ ** itS wings *°0P as if they 

hond^S a T>:2 r „°f SrulT - '• —0 a 

thousands in goods* 1 through this "young peacock^" "* “ * 
In exactly the same way, venerable monk(s), whosoever ( a<5 in c - 

worshipped , honoted, revered by many m^rSTL.^ k 

asEr*- ^ 

P^^Ies'as^toW^by^r'^M^leAsreti 61 ^ ? **“ “ ° fthe 

of fite Doctrine), L 

reached the placed called c,vw/, • *’ 1,7 U P t0 ) w h° has 

Thus I say (‘Condition of Salvation’). - 

A Note on the Translation 

n,^** d M* Uhr ‘ der J °‘«“ « «) «» no, 
granthabdhi (Bhavnagar 1951) ™,|, Ak| ““,T pllbIisl ” d “ “* Anandacandn- 

****** ** <**> tj£, 2^2,Zfto r rr t- 1 ■>» 

free adaptation in German whSHffer A;- t u L ^ Walther Schubring gaye us a 
by J. Deleu (Wiesbaden 1978) T further '”** fr ° m Ws un P ubIi shed works 

in - Ang. Sutani sU?m 

system stated in my Studien zum Suyagada I (Wtesbaden l 0 77 f T f ° U ° W 
hereafter BSS. I and H respectivelv tin, v baden ‘ 1977 > and n (Stuttgart, 1988), 
the Bhavnagar pothi belong to the commentaij.^ C ° nCludeS five whicb in 


New De lhi 1979 , ^ of Ancient and Mediaeval India (1927), repr. 

London, 1907, p. 1 et ptS^ 0 " ° f ^ Anta S ada - das °° ond Anuttarovavdiya-dasao. 




3. Maluya, Pali maluva , probably is a creeper, Bauhinia vahlii, for which see BSS. II, p. 

4. The pavo cristatus Linn. “Inhabits dense scrub and deciduous jungle (...) always 
excessively shy and alert Slinks away through the undergrowth on its legs, and flies only 
when suddenly come upon (...). Eggs: 3-5, glossy pale cream or cafe-au-lait colour” 
(Salim Ali, The book of Indian birds. 11th ed. Bombay, 1979, p. 36, no. 71). 

5. Sch(ubring) renders pariyagae by ‘fast aufbruchreif which seems to be logically 
impossible for freshly laid eggs, and in view of what will be done with them in the 
course of the story. Paryayena-prasava-kala-kramenagate paryayagate prakrtatvena ya- 
kara-lopat pariyagae (Abh.). MW gives ‘revolved, elapsed, passed (as years); finished, 
done’ for paryagata and ‘to go round, elapse, last, Eve’ for paryagacchati. 

6. For the bond of congeniality see the present author's article “The ^Indo-European 
Sodalities in ancient India”, in ZDMG 131, 1 (1981), p. 187 sqq. As a literary motif it 
is used in India up to the present day, e.g. in S. Rushdie's Midnight's Children. 

7. For the lectio facilior samecca of the text read Abhayadeva's variant samhicca or, 
perhaps better still, samhiccae, see G. Roth, Malli-Jhata. Wiesbaden, 1983, p. 157. 

8. Literally, ‘God-given,’ but in fact equivalent to our ‘Miss So-and-so.’ On Indian 
courtesans see Moti Chandra, The world of courtesans. Delhi, 1973; J.CJain, Life in 
Ancient India as Depicted in the Jain Canon and Commentaries. Delhi, 1984, p. 216 sqq. 

9. Up to this point, the description is taken from Aup ( apatika ) § 11, see Bollee, “On 
royal epithets in the Aupapatikasutra,” JOIB 27, 3-4 (1978), p. 97. 

10. “These were a stock list, which included not only music, dancing and singing, but 
also acting (...), sorcery, archery (...), and clay modelling” (A.L. Basham, The Wonder 
that was India. London, 1954, p. 183). See Kamasutra (Bombay, 1934) 1, 3, 15 (p. 87 
sq.). — Vivagasutta, 2, describing the courtesan Kamajaya, mentions 72 aits. 

11. See Kamasutra 2, 2, 3 (p. 275 sq.). 

12. According to the scholiast, these are also well-known from the Kamasutra, a glossary 
of which together with Yasodhara's commentary would be more useful and urgent than 
further translations, to facilitate finding such details. 

13. These are, in Abhayadeva's enumeration, the ears, eyes, nostrils, tongue, skin and 
mind which suptaniva yauvanena pratibodhitani. 

14. Omitted in Vivaga 2. 

15. The text, which has samgaya-gaya-hasiya only, has been supplied after L, but 
Abhayadeva has the compound go on in a slightly different way. The scholiast (99b 1) 
mentions as a variant sundara-thana-jaghana-vayana-carana-nayana-ldvawia-ruva- 

16. For the metaphorical use of “banner” in the sense of “conceit” see K.R. Norman, 
Elders' Verses I. London, 1969, note on Theragatha 424 ( ussita-ddhaja ). Sansknt 
lexicographers mention ‘pride’ as a meaning of dhvajd (MW). 

17. On courtesan's fees see W. Bollee, Kunalajataka. London, 1970, p. 110. 

18. The kamT-ratha , according to Mallinatha ad Kalidasa, Raghuvam&a 14, 13, was a 
small chariot to be used by women ( stn-yogyo'lpa-rathah ), and only by the wealthy, as 
Abhayadeva explains (99b 3). 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

££■( - A “P 5 a <- 

“ **» *-»-**- - _ 
H “- , : n * L K5£SE£i I?rk,t 

a S£L “ means ^°^ ^ n0t 

23. Or: ^ “* f ° U ° W Ms text ' 

mean ‘great’ y ’ S^na) and drums. Jacobi takes ghana to 

24. Also, e.g., Vivaga 1, 19. 

25. Also, e.g.. Kappa 105 and Vivaga l, i 8 19. 

2 tH’? *"• * whT s 3180 “ N5y5 ^ 1 

Z/ ‘ ^ Roth . °P- cit, p. 121, note 63. 

» K ! Tn “ BmMt - <* *. P- 3 .hough,. 

ThtoangaSLwh^l^B^^ 05 ^ -0. S~n and whi* (tg . 

■* and whita (o^),7 g ^ ! 5 tr ,T ”*r*» 0*4. yellow, c™„„, uL S 

msicad of odau). In Pai^flowers of five 77 “ 4 V “ ay * 1 25 ' 32 <”* pkaWtamma 

~ «■ - *• - -* 7£-* **• s * »(TBb). 

30. Thus Jacobi at Kappa § 32 for uddhuyabhirama. 

31. Kundurukka is olibanum i.e the 

(Barnett, op. cit,p. 3 note 4V turukkn i* ^ C gUm rcslD of Boswe llia thurifera tree 
(Barnett, l.c.). ? n0te 4) ’ *"*» ■« also olibanum (MW) or the resin of other trees 

32. As in Naya 1, 8, 46, (ed. Roth). 

34.' S^~~r UPPly " S * U “ ’• ~ 

yo,i»». » his Uvasaga-dasSo ^ 

~t; rrs 

S L H '” ' he> “ :h ° 11>a “** W “ ,mM (T 99b 

’adorned wid, „eek-«J s J- 206 ,*” 1 “»‘™d by Ho™/,, 

f> way bullocks JU iT,« Jfe f“o^ ” H ''‘ T “* “ to »- “ 

S^udf p d „ d fc Roy(J p,^ ** ta *» » f 

37. U™ _S,. 1,^7 ” “«*“■»»-*■**« j«» (T 99b 11). 

Ih “ bul “e Leumann, ”“ h '=*plioadon in 

reference to Hoemle's note, op. cit., p. n 6 & here ' however > there is no 



38. T 99b 13 mentions another additional epitheton sujata-jugga-jutta-ujjuga-pasattha- 
suviraiya-nimmiyam, for which see Hoemle, l.c. 

39. The following clich6 has been supplied from Aup § 17. 

40’. See Bolide, “Traditionell-indische Vorstellungen Uber die FuBe in Literatur und 
Kunst”, VAVA 5 (1983), p. 229. 

41. The background of this striking yet frequent expression is not dear to me. The centre 
is the most distinguished part of the andent Indian dty. 

42. ' Hattha-samgellfe. For the second part of the rare compound, which T 101b 13 is 
explained by hastavalambanena', see Leumann’s Aup Glossar, Buhler's Paiyalacchi 
Namamala, vs. 221 and Jacobi's Bhavisattakaha, Glossar s.v. samgiliya. 

43. Apparently a hapax legomenon denoting a vanaspati-vikesa (T, l.c.). 

44. Acchanam ti asanam (T 101b 14), c.f. Pali acchati (CPD) and R.N. Shriyan, A 
critical study of <the> Mahapurana of Puspadanta, Ahmedabad, 1969, p. 98 no. 269. 

45. See G. Roth, op. dt., p. 202-220.1 do not see why in our passage this should not be 
a bower, but a “stattliches GebSude” (Roth, p. 202). 

46. Rendered ‘Zweiglauben’ by Roth, l.c., after the scholiast's ambiguous explanation 
salah sakhah, athava &ala vrksa-visesah (T 102a 1 sq.). 

47. ‘MaBwerkgehduse’ (Roth, l.c.). 

48. ‘Trembling’ is followed by two more participles: ‘upset’ and ‘running away.’ 

49. Kalusa-samavanne: mati-malinyam upagatah (T 102a 6). 

50. Asarei: isat-sva-sthana-tyajanena (T 102a 7). 

51. Poccadam: a-saram. (T 102a 10); for this rare word's (Dravidian ?) etymology see 
Turner, CDIAL, no. 8395. 

52. This dichd occurs also in Naya (L) 1,1, 46 and resembles the one in Kappa Jinac § 
92 which is used of Tisala fearing the death of Mahavira in her womb. 

53. Munde agarao an-agariyam not in the Bhavnagar pothi. Cf. in LI, 1, 101 and see 
BSS. IL p. 92. 

54. For these kinds of teachers see Schubring, Doctrine, § 141. 

55. Such as have earth-, water-, fire-, wind-bodies belong to the vegetable kingdom. 
These five do not move of their own, are thavara, as against the sixth group — tasd — 
who are self-moving, such as animals and mankind. See Schubring, op. dt., § 118 and 
Dasav 4 (chaj-jivaniya) and, for the form chaj-jiva-nikaya, Leumann's Aup Glossar, s.v. 

56. The following dichd is also found in Suy 2, 2, 81 where, however Sramanas and 
Brahmanas who in their sayings do not propagate ahimsa are threatened with these 
punishments in the future ( agantu , § 80) which is more suitable. 

57. As in the beginning also nuns are addressed, one would expect also pai-maranani and 

58. Cf. Suttanipata 740 puriso digham addhana samsaram. 

59. Su(v)vattae: Sa. su + vyakta + kam ? 

60. The next words of this stock phrase, viz., vinnaya-parinaya-mette ‘as soon as he had 
reached the years of discretion’ and jowanagam anupatte ‘having readied puberty’ I pass 
over as being not applicable to an animal. In fact, these and the next compounds up to 
pehuna-kalave are used of the child Mahavira at Kappa, §§ 51 and 52. 



61. For the rare noun pehuna which Shriyan (op. cit., no 1122) classes as a pure DeST 
won! see also Turner's (CDIAL 8991) connection with Sa. preksana ‘show.' Unto 
^jhe vedha is identical with Kappa § 9 and 51, where it becomes metrically 

in " “ adapKd bw *i 

f^Som^ga-siro-dhare: langulabhangavat-simhadi-puccha-vakri-karanam iva (T 

Pr ° bably ^ Sh0W its P 08 ^ flings as opposite to Sa. lohita-nayana 

u^Snd th V,ng 7™ Wth 3nger ° r paSSi ° D ’ (MW)- scholiast did not 

understand this and mentions Svetapahga only as an alternative to svedapanna which 

makes no sense. Cf. Sa. sitapahga ‘peacock’ (MW), a compound Dave (Tes to mean 

1985 n p 270^t V “ *** 

1985, p. 270 sq.). — The pothi adds ginhai after seyavange. 

64 Avayariya-paima-pakke (or, with 1 _ ayiriya-palnaaS)-. amUnuu-Sariri, prthak- 
%Z4£a^I™~ PiCChm Pah!m yav ° S ° “** *“* pota^ayas,, karma- 
65. Paniehim: panitaih-vyavahdrair hoddddibhir (?) ity arthah (T 102b 5) 

A " p 5 found ' e ' 8 - - 

67. Here the Bhavnagar text reads java vitivatissati. Evam khalu, Jambhu ( ) whereas 
Lcontmues as at Suy 2, 2, 82 and at the end of Naya 1,2 which does not at ^fit o^ 

68. Vinayena ~ Sa. vinatena. 

69. This is not true, of course. At Suy 2, 2, 80 aigara dhammdnam is used of the 
founders of the 363 philosophical schools. 


Stories from the Avasyaka commentaries 

Translated by Nalini Balbir 


The Avatyakasutra is one of the most important texts of the Svetambara Jain 
canon. Written in ArdhamagadhI, the Avatyaka starts with the fivefold homage 
to the Teachers (pancanamokkara ) and then proceeds to describe the six 
necessary duties which a monk or layman is to perform every day. These six 
required duties, the “ avatyaka are as follows. 1) The cultivation of equanimity 
(samaiya), 2) praise of the 24 Jinas ( cauvvisatthaya ), 3) showing respect to the 
religious teacher ( vandana ), 4) repentance (padikkamana), 5) undisturbed 
abandonment of the body ( kaussagga ), and 6) renouncing specific things such as 
particular food items (paccakkhdna ). The Avatyajoasutra may seem short by 
comparison to other Jaina sutras, but its brevity is hardly an indication of the 
important position that it occupies in the Svetambara Jain tradition. The 
Avatyakasutra became the centre around which a vast corpus of exegetical 
literature developed over the course of time. The translations I have done here 
are of stories that occur in these commentaries. I have given further information 
about the tradition of commentaries to the Avatyaka in an appendix for those 
who may be interested. The appendix also includes some brief remarks on the 
stories that I have translated and a brief bibliography. 



Table of contents 

A. How can samayika be gained? 

1. By compassion: the two doctors 

2. By involuntary expulsion of kartnan: the elephant-driver 

3. By a fool's penance: Indrandga 

4. By charity: Krtapunya 

5. By humble behaviour: Puspa&ala’s son 

6. By the knowledge called vibhanga: the ascetic Siva 

7. By ownership and loss: the two merchants from the two Mathuras 

8. By misfortune: the two brothers 

9. By attending a festival: the conversion of the Abhiras 

10. By seeing magnificence: the King Dafarnabhadra 

11. By respect shown or not shown: the acrobat Ilaputra 
Notes on stories of section A 

B. Definitions and illustrations of repentance 

1. Stepping back 

2. Taking care 

3. Avoiding negative points 

4. Warding off 

5. Turning back 

6. Self-reproach 

7. Blame 

8. Cleaning 

Notes on stories of section B 

C. A collection of 32 catchwords defining Jaina Yoga 

1. Confession: about two wrestlers 

2. Complete discretion: about two friends 

3. Firmly keeping to religious orthodoxy: about two monks 

4. Penance observed without support: about Mahagiri, etc. 

5. Learning: the foundation of Rdjagrha, etc. 

6. Not taking care of one's own body 

7. Not longing for fame: Dharmaghosa and DharmayaSas 

8. Not being greedy: about Ksullalcakumara, etc. 

9. Forbearance: success in a svayamvara 

10. Straightforwardness: about two pupils 

11. Purity: about a merchant; about Narada 

12. Right faith: about a painting 


13. Concentration: about the young Suvrata 

14. Following straight behaviour: about two brothers 

15. 'Being well-behaved: about the young Nimbaka 

16. Being of resolute mind: about Pandusena’s brothers 

17. Disgust towards worldly life: Candraya&a etc. 

18. Deceit: about Satavahana’s minister, etc. 

19. Proper behaviour: the two doctors 

20. Obstruction of karmic matter: about the nun Sri 

21. Refraining from personal faults: about the young Jinadeva 

22. Refraining from all sensual pleasures: a father and his daughter 

23. Renouncing the mulagunas: the Enlightenment of a barbarian king 

24. Renouncing the uttaragunas: about two monks 

25. Rejecting all possessions: the 4 Pratyekabuddhas 

26. Not being careless: the courtesan Magadhasundan 

27. Observing good conduct at every moment: Vijaya 

28. Obstruction of karman through meditation: Pusyabhuti 

29. Forbearance of mortal pains: Dharmaruci 

30. Renouncing attachments: Jinadeva 

31. Practice of atonements: Dhanagupta 

32. Devoted adherence to the precepts: Marudevi 
Notes on stories of section C 


A. How can samayika be gained? 

1. By compassion (anukampa): the two doctors (AvC / 460,91-461,13). 

In the city of Dvaravatl lived the Vasudeva Kxsna. 1 He had two doctors 
Dhanvantari and Vaitarani. Vaitarani was destined for Emanapahon but no 
Dhanvantari. Vaitarani used to talk 'gently to the sick monks. He used to teU 
them aU that should be done and to instruct them about what was pure and 
permissible for monks. He used to prescribe for them P ure 
cures. If he himself had the necessary medicinal plants, he used to give them to 
them. Dhanvantari, on the other hand, used to prescribe for them reprehensible 
cures, which were not suitable at all for monks. When they said, How can we 
use such things?,’ Dhanvantari used to answer that he had pot 
treatises meant for religious people. So the two of them practiced their medical 
art in the whole of Dvaravatl, doing much harm and making much money. 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

One day the Vasudeva Kisna asked the Tirthamkara N™; « Wo • . 

- many poor souls, „ beie ^ ^ wo banned 

Then the Lord explained - 

bim, bu, .hey willnmbe able .oTove t %JZZ T* 

a pure and shady place and go on. Y ^ lead ** monk to 

Come to . the place wbe re fc 

be sees f 

—s, ss b^e'™rzit r Tifb of Ms ? d 7' he 

medicinal plants fit for extracting thorns w 6 m ° UDtain md wil1 bnn § down 

ss d“ £r rJr 

The monk had heard about him. 5 Then he told him t , . 


^r^tr b ■* °° m *»»• * 

beav^ly gl^y, saylug, , „ we ^ to you .^ £ * 

. ™ e ” 0Dl “ “* Phce wherc <** «•» monks were Tbev asked 

How did yon manage ,0 come hem?' The monk mid tau .he whoST 

doZv^^acZmT i s" m T ) 't n “ ta K *«“* * 

hZfiHlrtellvSTt E T andl f i0a ** f °™” W*™ur bad only 

s ,o Sy fi rs,:Zn““ - - 



2. By involuntary expulsion of karman (akamanijjara): the elephant-driver 
(AvC 1461,13-465,6)J 

There was the city of Vasantapura. There lived the young wife of a rich man. 
She was taking a bath in the river. A young man saw her and said: 

1. “This river is asking you whether you have enjoyed your bath, O you 
whose thighs are like the trunk of an elephant in rut! The trees of the river ask 
you also, and we do too, bowing down at your feet!” 

Then she also answered him: 

“Happy may these rivers be! Long life to these trees on the river. We shall try 
our best to please those who ask whether we have enjoyed our bath.” 

But he did not know who she was or where she lived. 

3. “A child can be captivated with food and drinks, a girl of marriageable age 
with ornaments, a courtesan with skillful speech, and an old woman with harsh 

The girl had children with her to help her. They were sitting on a tree and 
looking at the scene. The youth gave them flowers and fruit and asked, ‘Who is 
she? Whose daughter is she?’ 

‘She is the daughter-in-law of so and so.’ Clearly he could not resort to bad 
conduct to get her. He thought over the matter. Then came a nun in search for 

4. “She looks as bright as the saffron flower and full of grace with her 
monastic robe; anointed with fresh Aloe wood, she resembles the new crescent 
of the autumnal moon. Since the nun bursts out laughing playfully when she is 
spoken to by handsome youths, surely, she goes in search of love while in 
search of alms.” 

He served her. So she was pleased and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’ 

‘Speak to the daughter-in-law of so and so on my behalf.’ 8 

The nun went there and said, ‘My lady, a young man full of so many fine 
qualities asks for you.’ 

The girl was washing some dishes. She became angry, and with her band 
smeared with lamp-black she stamped the mark of her five fing ers on the nun's 
back. Then she threw her out by the back-door. The nun went bade to the youth 
aad reported, ‘She has not even said her name.’ But the boy understood that the 
five fingers meant a rendezvous on the- fifth day of the dark fortnight. Then, on 
that fifth day, he again sent the nun in order to find out the place for their 
meeting. The girl shamefully hit her and threw her into a clump of aSoka-trees 
by a gap in the fence. Again the nun went to the youth and reported, ‘She has 
not even said her name. She has hit me and thrown me out by a side-door.’ The 
boy understood that she had indicated the place of their meeting. So by the side- 
door he went to the clump of asoka-trees. There they slept together until they 

the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

were seen by the father-in-law. He realized that this boy was not his soa So he 
took an anldet from the girl's foot. She had been conscious of what he did So 
she sad to her lover. 'Go away, quietly. You will have ,o help a* ' 

Then she went m to her husband and said, ‘It's very warm here. Let us go to 

wrrri°tr s h’ Both of them wem ** siept ^ ** 

as asleep, she woke him up, saying, ‘Do people in your family always do 
■tags hte Hus? My father-in-law toot an autle. fJm y foo, wmITw! 

Go to sleep,’ he said. ‘You will get it back in the morning.’ 

® ld told ** husband what he had seea The husband, very angry 
said to him. Are you mad old man?’ ^ ^ 

‘I saw a man that was not you,’ the father said. 
acc^ationT ^ ** asked ’ ‘Shall I clear myself of this 

‘You should indeed.’ 

And so she took a bath and went to the temple of a yaksa. at was like this- 
gudty person could not walk between the legs of the yaksa without being 

at girl went runrnng. At that moment her lover appeared, disguised as a 
demon, and caught her by her sari. So she 9 said to the^aksa, 'I s^ar that I 

V 1“ D t ? e , t0UCh 0f “y® 6 other than the man who was given to me 
by my parents and this demon. You be the judge.’ 

»n T 3k?a baffl6d md pondered > <Look at the type of things she thinks 
upjlveu I am decked by her. There „ indeed no in d Z^Ta 

And while the yaksa was thus pondering, the lady beat a quick retreat. 

her^he Zu ITS reb,lked by eveIybody - Beca “ s ' of his anxieties about 
her, he amid not sleep any more. That came to be known by the kina who 
appointed him as a watchman of the harem. y S ’ ° 

ofnlr^ 31 elephant used t0 stand under the window of a sleeping-room- one 
o the queens was in love with the elephant-driver. So in the night the elephant 
used to stretch its trunk through the window. The queen used to go down on it 
In the morning she used to come back up in the same way. So trine passed. 

, . “ day ele P h ant-driver struck her with the elephant’s chain because she 
had taken a long time to come. She said, ‘There is a certain an old maTwho 
does not sleep. Don't be angry.’ ’ no 

The oid man saw her and thought, ‘When even such royal ladies behave like 
this, what is one to expect from others?’ So he decided to sleep, totemoJZ 

b “‘ “ oU ^ matter was reported to the king 

said, Let him sleep. On the seventh day he finally got up. The king asked 



him what had happened. The old man said, ‘There is one of the queens, I don't 
know which one, who behaves in a very bad w<iy.’ 

So the king got an elephant made of Wu'ndri-flowers. All the ladies of the 
harem were asked to step over this elephant in order to worship him. All agreed 
to do so, except that one, who said, ‘I am afraid.’ 

6. “To avoid a chariot one stays at a distance of five fore-arms, at ten for a 
bull, for an elephant at a hundred; a bad person can be avoided only by exile.” 

So the king hit her with a lotus stalk. She pretended to faint and fell to the 
ground. Thus he knew that she was the culprit He said: 

7. “You are used to climbing on a maddened elephant but you are afraid of 
an elephant made of bhinda-Qo wers. You faint now that you are hit by a lotus 
stalk. You did not faint then, when you were beaten by a chain.” 

Her bade was uncovered, and the marks of the chain could be seen. Then the 
king put those three (the elephant the elephant-driver and that lady) in secluded 

The elephant-driver was asked to make his elephant play a stunt The king 
posted people with bamboo sticks in their hands on either side of the elephant. 
The elephant raised one leg. 

‘Is that what this animal can do?,’ people said. ‘Let these two be kille d.’ The 
king was still very angry. Then the animal raised two legs, then, the third time, 
three legs and stood on only one. People then shouted in applause, saying to the 
king, ‘How can you destroy such a jewel?’ So the king calmed down slightly 
and said to the elephant-driver, ‘Can you make him come back to his initial 

‘If you give us your assurance of safety.’ The king did. Then by means of the 
hook the elephant was made to come back to his initial position. He turned 
around and stood on the ground. 

Then the elephant-driver and the lady were made to dismount and were 
sentenced to exile. 

They stayed in a deserted house in some secluded place in a border village. 
Then, at night, a thief who had done harm to the village people entered that 
house. The villagers said, ‘We have surrounded the house. Let nobody go inside. 
We shall catch him at dawn.’ The thief was lying down and somehow came near 
that lady. She felt his touch. He came nearer and she asked, ‘Who are you?’ 

‘I am a thief.’ 

‘Be my husband,’ she said. ‘We shall say that he is the thief.’ 

And at dawn the elephant-driver, who had been pointed out by her, was 
seized. He was impaled on the stake which pierced right through him. 

The lady went on along with the thief. Then they came to a river. The thief 
told her, ‘Wait in this thicket of reeds until I cross over with these clothes and 
ornaments.’ He left her and crossed over hurriedly. She said: 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

8. “The river appears full of water. It is full to the brim. AH my belonging 
my friend, are in your hands. As you wish to cross over to the other side Sn£ 
you wish to abscond with my things.” y 

He replied: 

L 3 man Wh ° h3S been your ***** ** a long time 

for one you made your intimate by lying, a reliable one for an unreliable one. 
owmg your real nature, what wise man would bust you?” 

‘Where are you going?,’ she asked. 

deatt ’ s ° “ uid you •*****— 

As for the elephant driver, pierced by the stake, he was asking people for 
water. Then a Jain^devotee said, ‘If you utter the mantra to the five entities 
(pancanamokkara) , I shall give you some.’ He went to bring water In the 
meantime, while uttering the formula, the elephant-driver died. He became a 
Vyantara. That Jain devotee was caught by the policemen. 

The Vyantara made use of his uv^i-knowledge until he could perceive 
onus. He then saw this Jam being sentenced to death. He magically produced 
a rode and released him. Then he saw that lady in the thicket of reeefrand felt 

on^ththa^ L“ aglC he *°° k on the dape of a Jackal. That jackal went about 
° ; J? th ° f Z nver ’ holding a P iece of meat > until it saw a fish. Leaving 
a«de die piece of meat, it ran towards the fish. The piece of meat was snatched 
away by an eagle and the fish slipped into the water. The jackal lamented 
She said: 

10 , - I ^ Vmg 351(16 P iece o f meat, you are longing for the fish vou 
jac . vmg lost the fish and the meat you lament miserably, O jackal.” 

. He answered, “O you, who are covered by a cloth of leaves in your thicket 
of reeds, deprived of your husband! Having lost your husband antfyour lover 
you lament miserably, you hussy.” y 10ver 

She was ashamed. Then the god assumed his real appearance He told her to 

to’L°dw°Sh 51 “ nd he '*“? aKired allowed her to come back 

Thus the elephant-driver gained samayika by involuntary expulsion of karman 

3. By a fool's penance (balatavaj; Indranaga (AvC 1465,7-466,9) 

There was the city of Jlmapura. The house of a merchant had been destroyed 

md P mT^ 7 Clty a y0ung b0y caUed In< franaga. He was hungry 

and ril and was looking for water. What did he see? All had died and the peoS 

had fastened their doors with thorns. So the child went out through a hole He 
wandered in the city with a bowl searching for alms. People usefto ^e hL 
something because they had heard about him. He grew up in that man^ w^ 
people always giving him something out of compassion. 



One day a merchant came from Rajagrha. Wishing to go back there the 
merchant had a proclamation made in the city. Indranaga heard that proclama¬ 
tion and set out with the caravan. There he got some cooked rice which he ate. 
The next day he took no food. There he remained without eating. The merchant 
observed all that and he understood that the boy was keeping fasts: He was an 
ascetic whose marks were not visible. On the following day, while he was 
wandering for alms, the boy was given abundant and rich food by the merchant. 
He remained without food for two days, leaving that food uneaten. The 
merchant understood that the boy was keeping a three days’ fast. He began to 
feel some regard for the boy. On the third day, while wandering for alms, 
Indranaga was addressed by the merchant, ‘Why didn't you come yesterday?’ 
The boy remained silent. The merchant understood that he had kept a six meals' 
fast Then he offered him abundant and rich food, and with that he remained for 
another two days. So other people too felt respect towards him. Even if 
somebody other than the merchant invited the boy, he did not take anything. 
(According to others Indranaga used to take food once a day and thereby 
reached MtAstapada.) 11 

Indranaga was told by the merchant not to take anything from anybody until 
they reached the town. They went to the town. The merchant had a monastery 
built in his own house. Then he shaved the boy’s head and had ascetic robes 
made for him. Indranaga became very famous, but even then he did not want 
any food. Then on the day of his fast-breaking people came with food and he 
accepted some, but it was not known from whom. In order to find out, the 
people resorted to the town crier, ‘Whoever had offered food, let him hit the 
drum!’ The people would come. So time passed. 

The Lbrd held his general preaching. 12 To the monks who were talking 
together about’alms, he said, ‘Wait a moment. It is not time for food.’ After he 
had had his food, the Lord said to them, ‘Come down.’ To Gotama he said, “Go 
and tell Indranaga on my behalf: ‘You, eater of several rations a day, an eater 
of only one ration wants to see you.” 

Gotama did so. The boy angrily replied, ‘You are the ones who eat several 
hundred’rations. I eat alone; therefore I am a single eater.’ Then he calmed 
down and after a while said, ‘This monk surely does not lie. How can what he 
says be so?’ 

He finally got the knowledge of the Scriptures, ‘I am indeed an eater of 
several hundred meals, since on the day of my fast-breaking several meals were 
prepared. These monks eat only one ration which has not been especially 
prepared for them. So Gotama is right.’ 

After intense thoughts he remembered his former births. He became a 
Pratyekabuddha and uttered the chapter, ‘The Perfect Indranaga had said.’ 13 He 
was Emancipated. 

Thus samayika can be gained by a fool's penance. 


4. By charity (dana): Krtapunya (AvC 1466,10-469,4). 

There was the son of a cowherd-woman. On the occasion of a festival people 
cooked some milk-rice. There were children in the neighborhood. The boy saw 
them eating. So he addressed his mother, ‘Give me some milk-rice too.’ 

‘I don't have any,’ she replied worriedly, and she burst out in tears. 

The neighbors asked what the matter was. As they insisted, the woman told 
them. Full of compassion, one after the other they brought some milk and some 
rice grains. The old woman cooked some milk-rice. The child was bathed and 
a plate full of milk-rice with melted butter and honey was served to him. 

Then came a monk who was at the end of a month's fast While the old 
woman was busy inside’the house, the boy thought, ‘Let me do some pious act,’ 
and he gave the monk one third of his plate. Then he thought that it was too 
little, and gave a second third. Then again thinking that something else, such as 
sour milk, would not be good with this, he finally gave the monk the last third. 
(Here the purity of this gift, from the points of view of the thing given, etc. 
should be described). 14 

Eds mother thought that he had eaten the whole plate, so she filled it again 15 , 
and the boy filled his stomach very greedily. The following night he died from 
serious intestinal disorders. He went to the world of gods. 

He fell down from there and was again bom in Rajagrita as the son of the 
wealthy Dhanavaha and Bhadra. While he was still in his mother's womb, 
people used to say, ‘The soul who will be bom there has done good deeds.’ 
Therefore, when he was bom, he was given the name Krtapunya. He grew up, 
learnt the arts and was married. His mother and some friends took him to a 
courtesan. After twelve years his family was completely ruined. However, he did 
not leave the courtesan. His parents died. Finally his wife sent her own 
ornaments and a thousand coins. The chief-courtesan understood that the boy 
was penniless. So she sent back the ornaments and another thousand coins. Then 
she gave orders to throw the boy out, but the courtesan did not want to obey 
her. So the chief-courtesan herself threw him out, accusing him of theft, and 
saying, ‘The house is going to be repaired. Go away.’ He left, but he lingered 
just outside. A servant then shouted at him, ‘You have been thrown out and still 
you stay here!’ So he went back to his own house. Ifis wife got up hurriedly. 
He told her all the story, and overcome by grief, he asked, ‘Is there anything 
with which I can travel elsewhere and do business?’ So she showed him the 
ornaments and the thousand coins the chief-courtesan had acquired in exchange 
of the cotton she had spun, 16 and that she had given her. On that very day a 
caravan was about to leave. Krtapunya took his possessions and went along with 
it He spread his bed outside a temple and spent the night there. 

A certain mother had leamt from some merchant or other that her son had 
died in a shipwreck, and she had given this man some money, telling him. 



'Don’t disclose this nows to anybody. 1 She feared that her possessions would fall 

to the king’s lot if she had no heir. 

That very night she went there thinking to adopt some parentless 
she noticedKrtapunya. She woke him up and adopted turn. She took him home, 
who had disappeared for so long!’ To her four daughters-m- 
iTSe said, ‘Here is your young brother-in-law who bad disappeared for so 
long.’ They became very fond of him. In that house, too, he spent 
He got five children from each of these four girls. Then the old lady said, Let 
us nC throw him out’ The girls could not bear that They Feared some 
sweets for him for the trip and filled them with precious stones, thinking that 
they might be of some use. Then they made him drunk, earned him to that same 
temple placed the provisions by his head and went back home. A cool wind 
woke hkn up. It was morning. That very day the caravan returned and his wife 
sent somebody to look for him. And so that person took him back homo His 
wife got up hurriedly. She took the provisions. He entered the house. His body 
*553 With unguents and so on. At tot time, when he had left home, ins 
wife was pregnant. They now had a son eleven years old. 

The boy came back from school, crying, ‘Give me some nee, so that e 
schoolmaster does not beat me.’ His mother gave him one of those sweety He 
wentOTt^atingit, and saw the jewel inside. His school-mates saw it too. From 
that time on every day they would give the jewels to the cake-seller, tefting mtu 
to give them cakes in exchange. Krtapunya, too, ate those sweets He open 
Remind saw the jewels. He said, ‘I had hidden them there out of fear of the 
customs officers.’ Thanks to these jewels he was able to expand his business. 

Secanaka, the best of King Srenika’s elephants had been caughtma‘ nverby 
a water-snake The king was deeply distressed, but his minister Abhaya said, 
T^ly be relied if we* find a rock oysud. But tore are somauy 
precious stones in the royal treasury that it would take too long to find onre So 
L drum was beaten, •Whoever^ gives a rock crystal wdl be gtven half the 
king dom and the king's daughter. 

The cake-seller brought one. The water was dried up. The snake realised that 
it was going to be cast on to dry land. The elephant was released. 

The king wondered how the cake-seller could have gotten this jewel So he 
askpd him, ‘Where did you get it?’ 

As the questions became insistent, he finally answered, ‘The son of Krtapunya 

gave it to me.’ , , ^ 

The king was happy, saying, ‘How could have I mamed my ^ughter to 
anybody else?’ He called Krtapunya and gave him his daughter. He gave him 
territory, too. Krtapunya then enjoyed life. . . „ 

Later on that courtesan came. She approached him, saying, 
waiting for you for so loug! 1 kept my hair twisted into a smgle plan‘ 

I searched for you through all the small streets. Only now have I seen you. 




Then Krtapunya told Abhaya, ‘I have four other wives in this city. But I do 
not know where.’ 

So a Jain temple was built. A yaksa, who looked exactly like Krtapunya, was 
made out of clay. Its solemn inauguration was proclaimed. Two doors were 
arranged, one for entry, the other for exit. Krtapunya and Abhaya were sitting 
together on high seats placed near the doors. The Fullmoon festival was 
proclaimed, ‘Take the image inside. Perform the inauguration.’ It was announced 
in the city that all the women should come with their children. People came, and 
among them these four wives. Their children came to sit on the yaksa's knees 
saying, ‘It’s daddy!’ Thus the wives were recognised. Abhaya rebuked the old 
lady . 18 Krtapunya’s wives were made to come and stay with him. Then they all 
enjoyed life together. So Krtapunya was now in possession of numerous 

The Lord Vardhamana came there to hold his general preaching. Then 
Krtapunya asked the Master, ‘What is the reason for my success and failures?’ 
‘The gift of milk-rice you offered,’ the Master said. Full of inrfiff^nce for 
worldly life, Krtapunya gave it up. Thus, Enlightenment can be gained by 
charity too. 

5. By humble behaviour (vinaya); PuspaSala's son (AvC 1469J-11) 

There was in Magadha the village of Gobbara. There lived the householder 
PuspaSala, and his wife Bhadra. They had a son whom they called Puspa^ala- 
suta. The child asked his parents, ‘What is my duty?’ ‘You should obey your 
parents. For 

1. “There are only two gods in the world of souls, the father and the mother. 
The more important is the father, in whose power the mother is.” 

So the child used to wash his parents’ feet and mouths. (The full description 
is to be supplied). He used to serve them like gods. 

One day the village-head came to their house. The parents surrounded him in 
great haste to offer hospitality. Then the boy thought, ‘For them, he is the god. 
So if I worship him, I shall do my duty.’ Thus he showed him obedience. 
Another time, the head’s head came, then the latter’s head and so on. Finally the 
boy started serving king 3renika himself. 

The Lord Mahavlra held his general preaching. Srenika went out with great 
pomp and bowed down to the Lord. The boy said to the Lord, ‘I wish to serve 

The Lord said, ‘As for me, I am to be served merely with a broom and a 
begging-bowl .’ 19 

Having heard that, the boy was Enlightened. So much for humble behaviour. 
[6. By the knowledge called vibhanga: the ascetic Siva (AvC / 469,12-472,10). 
Story in Canonical prose identical to Viyahapannatti XI 9] 

I 7. By ownership and loss (samyoga—viyoga): the two merchants from the two 
| Mathuras (AvC l 472,11-474,4). 

There were two cities with the name Mathura. A merchant went from northern 
Mathura to southern Mathura. There, there was a merchant of equal status who 
offered him hospitality. They both became intimate friends. They thought, ‘Our 
friendship will become even more solid if we arrange a union between our son 
and dau ghter.’ So the southern one asked the northern one for his daughter as a 
bride for his son, and the northern one promised her. (They were still children). 
In the meantime, the merchant from southern Mathura died. His son took his 

One day he took a bath. Golden pitchers were placed in the four directions. 
Beyond them were placed silver pitchers. Beyond those were placed copper 
pitchers and beyond those earthenware pitchers. On another day he prepared 
everything needed for his bath. The golden pitchers which had been placed in 
the eastern direction vanished in the sky, and likewise for all four directions. In 
this way all the pitchers vanished. When he got up from his bath, the bath-stool 
also vanished. He became anxious. He sent away the dancing girls. Then he 
went back home. The table was laid. Dishes made of gold and silver had been 
prepared. One after the other they began to vanish. The merchant stared at them 
as they v anis hed As his main plate was about to vanish too, he took hold of it. 
Only the piece he seized with his hand remained. The rest vanished. Then he 
went to the treasure-house and what did he see? It was also empty. All that he 
had deposited there had vanished. Not a single ornament was left All his 
interest too vanished. 

People said, ‘We don't know you.’ His male and female servants, too, 

The merchant thought, ‘Let me give 15 ) worldly life.’ And he went forth at the 
feet of the monk Dharmaghosa. He studied samayika, the eleven Arigas (of the 
Jaina Canon) and so oa 

He still had the piece of the plate with him and, out of curiosity to see if he 
would be recognised, he went to northern Mathura in the course of his religious 
wanderings. All his jewels had gone to his in-laws, and the pitchers too. While 
the merchant from northern Mathura was bathing and being praised in song, the 
pitchers had come. He had used them to bathe. Then at lunch time, all the food- 
implements had come to him, and had arranged themselves in due order. 

The monk entered the house. The caravan-leader's daughter was there, young 
and lovely, holding a fan in her hand. The monk noticed all the food-imple¬ 
ments. The caravan-leader brought him some alms. Though the monk took the 
alms, he remained there. 

So the caravan-leader said, ‘What, Venerable monk! Are you looking at this 




I don't care about the giri,’ the monk replied. ‘I am looking at the 
implements. And he asked, ‘How did you get them?’ 

‘They have been passed down from my ancestors.’ 

‘Tell the truth.’ 

‘While I was taking my bath, all these bath-implements came to me, just like 
that. The same happened with all the other things. At lunch time, all the food 
implements just came here. Then the treasure-houses were filled up. Deposits 
could be seen. Some debtors I had never seen before brought them and gave 
them to me.’ 6 

‘All that was mine.’ 


Then the monk told him everything, about the bath and so on. ‘If you don’t 
believe me,’ he added, ‘look at this piece of plate.’ And he produced it It 
immediately stuck to the rest of the plate. The monk told him his father’s name 
and the merchant realised that the monk was his son-in-law. He got up and 
while embracing him he burst into tears, saying, ‘All this is yours. Stay here. 
This is the girl who was promised to you earlier.’ 

But the monk said, ‘If a man does not give up worldly pleasures first, then 
the pleasures will leave him first.’ 

Then the merchant, too, felt disgusted towards worldly pleasures ‘Will they 
leave me, too, as they left him?’ So he decided to give them up. 

So, one gained samayika because of union with what was his, the other one 
because of separation from it 

8. By misfortune (vasanaj: the two brothers [Vasudeva and Baladeva] (AvC 

TWo brothers were going in a cart. A yamalundi-saake was writhing about at 
the side of the road. The elder brother said, ‘Turn the cart back.’ But the other 
one drove on. That snake was a conscious being and understood their talk. Then 

it was cut by the wheel. It died and was reborn as a woman in the city of 

The elder brother died first and was reembodied in her womb. He was bom 
as her son. He was cherished. The other brother also died. He was reembodied 
in the womb of the very same woman. As soon as he was conceived, his mother 
thought, Let me leave him aside as I would a stone.’ But, in spite of the 
attempted abortion, the foetus did not die. So a baby was bom. The mother gave 
him to one of her servants, asking her to leave him somewhere. The baby was 
covered and taken away. While he was being carried away, his fatw a 
merchant, saw him. The servant told him what had happened. So he gave the 
baby to another servant and the boy was brought up there. The elder boy was 
called Rajalalita and the other one, Gangadatta. Whatever the one received 

he used to give to the other boy who was not loved by his mother. Whenever 
she saw him, she used to hit him with a stick or a stone. 



Then, later on, it was the Indramaha festival. The father told his elder son, 
‘Bring your brother secretly. He will eat something.’ The boy brought 
Gangadatta. He was hidden under a seat and fed. Somehow or other the mother 
happened to notice him. She seized him and threw him out. He fell into a dirty 
pool. He cried. His father bathed him. 

In the meantime, a monk happened to pass by to collect alms. The father 
asked him, ‘Venerable monk, can there be a son who is not loved by his 

‘Yes, indeed.’ 


The monk explained: 

1. “The one, the sight of whom makes anger increase and affection become less, 
should be known to have been a foe in a former birth. 

2. The one, the sight of whom makes affection increase and anger become less, 
should be known to have been a relation in a former birth.” 

‘Venerable monk,’ the father asked, ‘Will you accept him as your disciple?’ 


So Gangadatta gave up worldly life. Out of affection towards him his brother 
too gave up worldly life and became the disciple of that same teacher. They 
were very careful monks ( Iriydsamitd ). They used to practice asceticism without 
hindranc e (anissitam tavam). Then Gangadatta expressed the following wish as 
a reward for his penance, ‘If all this bears fruit may I be a source of joy for 
people in my future births!’ Such was the wish he expressed. He practiced 
severe penance. Then after death he went to the world of gods. When he again 
fell from there and came down to earth he was bom as Vasudeva, the son of 
Vasudeva. The other one was Baladeva. 20 

Thus as a consequence of misfortune he got samayika. 

9. By attending a festival (ussava): the conversion of 
the Abhiros (AvC 1475,6-11). 

There were Abhlras who lived on the borders of civilization. They listened to 
the Law from a monk who described to them the world of the gods. In that way 
they properly understood the Law. 

One day, perhaps at the occasion of the Indra festival, or some other festival, 
they went to the town. (It should be described as Dvaravatl is). There they saw 
people fully attired with ornaments, wearing shimmering and perfumed clothes. 
They said to each other, ‘Here is the world of the gods which the Jain monk 
described earlier. If we go there, we shall do good, sincfe we too shall be reborn 
in the world of the gods.’ 

Thus they went and told the monk, ‘That world of the gods you described to 
us, we have seen it for real.’ 



‘The world of the gods is not like that,’ the monk said. ‘It's otherwise. It has 
innumerable qualities different from what you saw.’ 

Thoroughly excited with joy, the Abhlras gave up worldly life. 21 

Thus samayika can be gained on the occasion of a festival. 

[W. By seeing magnificence fiddhi); the king Daiamabhadra see section C, 
story No. 4]. 

11. By respect shown or not shown ('(a)-sakkdra): the acrobat Ildputra (A\C 

After hearing the Law from an authentic elder, a brahmin and his wives gave 
up worldly life. They led a very rigorous religious life, but their love for each 
other did not leave them. 22 One of the ladies still had some pride: she was a 
brahmin indeed! After death they went to the world of the gods and enjoyed life 
for the life-time they had. 

There was, on the other hand, the city of Havardhana which had Da as its 
tutelary deity. The wife of a caravan-leader who had no child worshipped her. 
The former brahmin fell from the world of the gods and was bom as this lady's 
son. He was therefore given the name of flaputra. He studied the arts. As for the 
brahmin's former wife, she was bom in an acrobat's famil y 

Both the boy and the girl had now reached marriageable age. One day the boy 
fell in love with the girl's beauty. Though he asked for her, he did not get her. 
Her parents said, ‘We shall give you the equivalent of her weight in gold. She 
is our imperishable treasure. But if you set off on tour with us 23 and learn our 
art, we shall give her to you.’ 

So Haputra set off on tour with them and learned their art. Then he was asked 
to give a show in front of the king on the occasion of a wedding-ceremony. The 
company went to Bennatada. The king attended the show together with his 
harem. Ilaputra was on the stage, but the king had eyes only for the girl. ‘The 
king did not give any money. There was loud applause: ‘Acrobat,’ people said 
to Ilaputra, ‘Do a falling stunt’ 

On the top of a bamboo there is a piece of wood. Two nails are fixed on it 
The acrobat wears shoes which are pierced at the bottom. Then, holding a sword 
and a shield in his hands, he jumps into the sky. The nails should be fitted into 
the holes of the shoes by seven jumps forwards and backwards. If the acrobat 
fails, he falls down and is broken into pieces. 24 

That was the feat Ilaputra did. The king went on gazing at the young girl. 
People created an uproar. Nobody gave any money since the king did not give 
anything. The king thought, ‘If this acrobat dies, the girl will be mine.’ So he 
said to Ilaputra, ‘I did not see. Do it again.’ The boy did it again, but again the 
king did not see. He did it a third time. A fourth time he was asked to do it 
again. The audience was disgusted. Standing on the top of the bamboo, Haputra 
thought, ‘Enough of worldly pleasures! This king is not even satisfied with so 


many wives. He wants to attach himself to this actress, and in order to fulfill his 
desire he wants to kill me.’ He was ready to give up worldly life. 

One day in a merchant's house he saw some monks who were receiving alms 
from fully adorned ladies. He noticed that the monks looked very peaceful, and 
said, ‘Happy are those who have no more desire for sexual enjoyments. I was a 
merchant's son. See what condition I have reached after having left my family!’ 

In that very place, having achieved indifference for worldly objects, he got 
Omniscience. The indifference of the girl too should be fully described, and also 
that of the chief-queen. The king, too, felt remorse. All four became Omniscient 
and Emancipated. 

So much for respect. 

Or there is the case of Marid who gained samayika after having seen the 
respect shown by the gods and the demons to the Tlrthamkara Rsabha. 25 

B. Definitions and illustrations of repentance {padikkamana ). 

Here are eight iUustrations pertaining to the synonymous designations of 
repentance (padikkamana) 

1. Stepping back (AvC II 53,6-54,8). 

Stepping back (padi-kkamana ) is sixfold: from the point of view of desig¬ 
nation, position, substance, place, time, and religious meaning. 1 [...] Stepping 
bade from the point of view of religious meaning is the stepping back of the one 
who is endowed with right faith and other qualities. It is filustrated by the 
example pertaining to the distance ( addhdna ). 

A king wanted to build a mansion outside a city. On the auspicious day he set 
out the measuring lines and appointed a guard with the warning, ‘If somebody 
comes inside, he is to be kiUed. He alone is not to be kiHed, who, when asked 
to do so, does not walk on the measuring lines, but steps back into the same 
footsteps: he may be released.’ That was the warning he gave. 

The place was divided into eighty-one parts. How then? The place was a 
square which was divided into three parts, then again into three parts, thus into 
nine parts. Each of these nine parts was in turn divided twice into three, that is 
to say eighty-one parts. In each of the nine main parts four deities (Soma, 
Varuna, Yam a and Vaiffravana) were installed in the four directions, and one 
was installed in the centre. Thus there were forty-five deities in all. 2 

While the guards were inattentive, two wretched villagers happened to arrive. 
The guards saw them only as they were stepping forward. With their swords in 
their hands they shouted, ‘Stop, you bastards, how did you come inside?’ 

‘What's the harm?,’ one of them, an insolent rogue, said and he started 
r unnin g here and there. He was kiUed on the spot by the guards. The other one 
said, ‘I cam e inside without knowing that it was wrong. Don't kill me. I shall do 
exactly what you say.’ 




The guards helped him up and said, ‘If you do not move away elsewhere than 
into your own footprints, you will at least be able to escape.’ 

The poor man was very scared and stepped back into his own footprints. He 
was released and was able to have his share of happiness in this world. The 
other one was deprived of it. 

That is the parable. Here is its interpretation. The king is the Tirthamkara. 
The place for the mansion is self-control which is respected or not. Die guards 
are the dangers of the world of transmigration. The villagers are the monks: the 
one who stepped back behaved in accordance with the Scriptures, but the other 
one did not. His death is the world of transmigration. Such is the religious 
meaning. When one has gone astray due to some negligence caused by the 
sense-organs and so on, he must immediately recite the mea culpa formula. 

2. Taking care (AvC II 54,9-55,2). 

Taking care (padiyarand) too is sixfold and should be fully described in the 
same way as stepping back. It is illustrated by the example of the mansion 
( pasada ). 3 

In a certain city there was a wealthy merchant He possessed a newly built 
mansion complete with all good characteristics and full of jewels. He instructed 
his wife how to look after the mansion and left for a trip. She was concerned 
only with herself and when a part of the mansion was broken or destroyed, she 
would say, ‘What does such a small thing matter?’ One day a shoot of pippal 
started growing. Again she said, ‘What does such a small shoot matter?’ But 
when the shoot grew it cracked the mansion. Die merchant came back and saw 
that it was destroyed. 

He threw his wife out and had another mansion built He married another wife 
and said to her, ‘If this mansion is destroyed, you too will meet with the same 
fate.’ Then he went away. As soon as she saw a small crack, she used every 
means to have it repaired. Similarly, she used to examine all the painting and 
the panelling three times a day, so that the house remained exactly as it was. 
The husband came back and was delighted. He made his wife the owner of all 
their wealth. That is the parable. 

The merchant is the teacher. The mansion is self-control. The merchant's 
wives are the monks. The one who destroys self-control or despises it has bad 
fortune. But the one who gives it its full meaning or who carries out an 
atonement whenever he has failed and puts it right again has perfectly pure 

3. Avoiding of negative points (AvC II 55,3-11). 

Avoiding of bad points ( pariharana ) too is sixfold. It is illustrated by the 
example of the carrying-pole for milk ( duddha-kdya ). 

There was a son of a noble family. He had two sisters who lived in different 
villages. He had a daughter, and his sisters had sons. All grew up. The two 
sisters came simultaneously to ask for their niece in marriage 4 Their brother 



| said, ‘Which is the dearer of two eyes? Go away and send me your sons. I shall 
I: give her to the one who is more thoughtful.’ They went away and sent their 
I sons. Their uncle gave both of them the same pots, saying, ‘Bring back some 
I milk from the cow-house.’ They went, filled up the pots with milk and hung 
V them on the extremities of a bamboo-pole to carry them. 5 
| There were two ways. One was winding but was smooth. The other was 
l straight but full of tree stumps and therefore rough. One boy went by the 
| straight road. He stumbled and the two pots were broken. The other boy 
| wandered along the other way but eventually arrived. Their uncle said, ‘I told 
| you to bring some milk. I did not say anything about coming slowly or quickly.’ 

The first boy was thrown out. The other one got the girl. 

| That is the parable. Here is its interpretation at the spiritual level. This son of 
|- a noble family is the Drthamkara. His daughter is the goal of Perfection. The 
I boys are the monks. The milk-pots are moral conduct. Just as the ways can be 
? rough or smooth from the point of view of matter, place, time and mental 
disposition, in the same way the negative points should be avoided, viz. matter, 
I place, time and mental disposition, 
f 4. Warding off (AvC II55,12-56J). 

| Warding off (yarana) too is sixfold. It is illustrated by the example of the 
l avoidance of poisoned food ( visa-bhoyana ). 

i A certain king went to besiege another king's city. The latter king poisoned 
| the water. 6 The caravan set up its camp. Learning that food and drink were not 
f far away but had been poisoned, and thus would cause the death of his men, the 
1 other king had a proclamation made, ‘Whoever drinks water here or eats fruit 
| will die. There may be some who are eager for food. Let those people resort to 
I tasteless waters or tasteless fruit.’ And the king went away. Those, who avoided 
I food survived. Diose who did not died. 

! Here is the interpretation. The kings represent the Tirthamkaras. The 
poisonous drinks are the occasions where self-control is not observed. The men 
I are the monks. Similarly, at the spiritual level, the one who avoids evil deeds is 
| saved from the world of transmigration. 

| 5. Turning back (AvC II 56,4-57,6). 

| Turning back ( niyatti) too is sixfold. 

I a. Here is the example of the first of two girls (do kannao ) 7 . In a certain 
I town there was a weaver. Some rogues used to weave in his workshop. This 
| weaver had a daughter. One of the weavers used to sing with a very melodious 
[: voice. She became infatuated with him and they had sexual intercourse. The 
| man said, ‘Let us go away.’ 

[ ‘I have a friend,’ she said. ‘I cannot leave without her.’ 

I ‘Let us take her with us,’ he agreed. 


The weaver's daughter told her friend what was happening, and she agreed It 

™ " ,he *0 ftey ran away. And bSLse * e Ty toey 

waited for some nme. Then somebody sang: y 

1. If the karnikara-trees are in blossom ...” 

The girl went on singing, ‘This mango-tree is scolded by the spring: 

If the tornikara-tiees are in blossom, it is not proper for you, mango-tree to 
blossom. Have you not heard the proclamation of your internal^ mentis 

th^^S “■ lhe ^ treeS ‘ S ‘ U *** weaver ’ s ^ter behaves like 
th.s she drought, is it any reason for me to do the same? She is a harlot who 

Subs ““'. Bad <*« - 0 . affect bet. nor an^Sg 

else. After all she rs a weavers daughter. But in my case, it would affect mv 

re Putehon for seven generations, and the whole city would reproach 
went tot Prete,Kled 10 have for 8° tten ter jewelry-box and by this trick she 

sssrs r.ssf"* 

reliriom f UStrati ° D t0 turning back in the literal and the 

ehgious meaning. In a group of monks there was a novice. Thinking that he 

" “ *?* *?—* 0f “l~ - d >0 -Sfc 

teacher sent him forth as a mendicant. One day, because of the rise of bad 
karman, he ran away thinking that he would come back later While he was 

St 0 '“some r ^ S0UDd ° f 3 SOng ' S0Dg gaVC ““ a "“r ^ 
benefit. Some young warriors were singing the following piece: 

a L? 1 / b , attle u maD Sh0uld kee P ^ Poises or die. A man bom in 

a good family should not bear the insults of a man of inferior status.” 10 

° fm SOng ’ ° D a batfle - field some soldiers who had 
A^hl k “ C0Dgratu lated by their master had stopped fighting 

shouted, ‘Youtm Jll k h° ^ “* Wh ° Clu ° g ° n t0 the of ^ side 
Haunch A bad receivmg blows re die back as you go awayt’ 
Having heard this, they went back, and remained firm. They rushed against the 

k ' The,X maStCr ^gretelated them and afterwards, 
oeanng the utle of good warriors, they looked fine 

■sittr ^ ° f •“» ««& he became womed: 

Similarly, the battle represents the life of a monk. If I take flight, I shaft be 

hlTent back He c° f T “S**" ^ ^ S3y ’ '** man is a ^der. * So 

he went back. He confessed, repented and fulfilled his teacher's desires Thus the 

stanza was an incentive at the religious level. 

6. Self-reproach (AvC II 57,7-60,12). 

twfSS? ‘°° k S “ oli HeK “ “ Station. The second of the 

two girls (do kannao) u was a painter's daughter. 



A certain king asked his messenger, ‘What do I not have that other kings 

‘You have no hall of paintings.’ 

It was ordered and begun to be built The work was shared out among the 
corporation of painters. The daughter of one of the painters went to bring food 
to her father. The king was coming along the road on his horse, which ran at 
full speed. She drew aside and somehow was saved. Her father left the food and 
went to relieve himself. In the meantime the girl took the paints and drew the 
picture of a peacock's feather on the paved ground. The king happened to go 
there. The girl was standing there, her thoughts being elsewhere. The king's eyes 
fell on the feather and he stretched his hand in order to take it. He hurt his nails. 
The girl burst out laughing and said, ‘My fools’ chair cannot stand on three legs, 
and I was just looking for the fourth one. You indeed are the fourth one!’ 

‘How?,’ the king asked. 

She said, ‘I was bringing rice to my father when a man came riding his horse 
in the middle of the town. He felt no pity at the thought that he might kill 
somebody somehow. My own merits kept me alive! The second leg is the king 
who shared out the hall of paintings among the painters. In every family there 
are several persons who paint. As for my father, he paints alone. The third leg 
is my father. While painting the hall of paintings he has spent much of what he 
acquired before . Now he must make do with whatever food he gets. What kind 
of a fool is he! And when the food is brought to him, he goes to relieve 
himself! The fourth leg, it's you. How? Everybody surely thinks, ‘What is a 
peacock's feather doing in a place like this?’ And even if someone had chanced 
to bring one from somewhere, it would have, in any case, not escaped notice.’ 

‘True. All these people are fools,’ the king agreed, and he went away. The 
girl's father took his meal. She went back home. The king sent persons to ask 
for her in marriage. She told her parents to give her to the king. But they said, 
‘We are poor. How can we treat the king and his retinue properly?’ So the king 
gave them money and they gave him the girl. 

The girl instructed her servant in the following way, ‘When you are 
massaging me and the king, you should ask me to tell a story.’ 

When the king was ready to sleep, the servant said, ‘Mistress, the king tarries 
with us. Tell some story.’ 

‘I shall,’ the girl said. 

First Riddle 

“Somebody had a daughter. Her parents and brothers gave her to three suitors, 
because they were not the type of people one could refuse. The time for the 
wedding arrived. In the night, the girl was bitten by a snake and died. One suitor 
ascended the funeral pyre with her. The other one undertook fasting unto death. 
The third one strove to obtain a favour from a deity who gave him a magic 
formula capable of bringing the dead back to life. Those on the pyre were 



restored to life. The three dead persons got up. To which of the three should she 
be given? Is it possible that a single girl be given to two or three husbands?” 

“ Explain.” 

I am feeling sleepy. I want to sleep. I shall explain tomorrow.” 

Out of eager interest for this story, the next day, too, the king said that it 
should be this lady's turn. Again she was asked and gave the answer, “The one 
who brought her back to life could be her father. The one with whom she came 
back to life could be her beloved brother. So she should be given to the one 
who undertook fasting unto death.” 

“ Tell me another story.” 

Second Riddle 

She said: “The goldsmiths of a certain king were in an underground chamber 
from where they could not go out. They had as lights jewels and precious 
stones. They were making ornaments for the harem. 

One of them asked, ‘What's the time now?’ 

Another one answered, ‘It's night ’ 

How can he know, since he sees neither the moon nor the sun? 

I am feeling sleepy.” 

The next day she explained, “ He is blind at night Therefore he knows.” 

“Tell me another story.” 

Third Riddle 

She said: ‘There was a king. He punished two thieves. He put them in a 
basket and threw it into the sea. For some time, it bobbed up and down. 
Somebody noticed the basket, took it and saw the men. 

That person asked them, ‘How many days is it since you have been 
abandoned like this?’ 

‘It's the fourth day,’ one of them 

How did he know?” 

The next day she explained, “ He suffered from quartan fever. Therefore he 

“Tell me another story.” 

Fourth Riddle 

“There were two co-wives. One possessed some jewels. She did not trust the 
other one, fearing that she might take them from her. She decided to put the 
jewels in a pot and put the pot in a place where she could see it while going out 
apd coming in. The pot was sealed. The other one learnt about her secret and 
took the jewels away. She sealed the pot exactly as it had been before. But the 
other one knew that the jewels had been taken away. 

How did she know since the pot had been sealed?” 



The next day she explained, “This pot was made of glass. So when they were 
there, the jewels shone. When they had been taken away, they did not” 

“Tell me another story.” 

Fifth Riddle 

She said: “A certain king had four excellent men: 

1 . An astrologer, a chariot-maker, a champion-fighter and also a doctor. His 
daughter was given to the four. To one only was she married. 

How? This king had a very lovely daughter. She was taken away by some 
vidyadhara. Nobody knew where she had been carried away. The king said, 
‘Whoever brings this girl back will have her.’ 

The astrologer said, ‘She has been taken in such and such a direction.’ 

The chariot-maker made a chariot which could go through the sky. The four 
men sat in the chariot and flew away. They followed the vidyadhara. The 
champion-fighter killed him. While killing him he also beheaded the girl. The 
doctor brought her back to life with the help of life-giving medicinal herbs and 
she was led back home. The king gave her to all four men. The girl said, ‘How 
could I belong to four men?’ Let me enter the fire. I shall be the wife of the one 
who enters it with me.’ 

‘All right.’ 

Which one of them will enter the fire with her? Whose wife will she be?” 

The next day she explained: “ The astrologer knew with the help of a sign 
that she would not die. Therefore he followed her in the fire. The others refased. 
Under the place of the fire the girl had had an underground passage dug. Pieces 
of wood of the type suitable for a funeral pyre were placed there. When the fire 
was lit, the astrologer and the girl went out through the underground passage. 
She became the astrologer's wife.” 

“ Tell me another story.” 

Sixth Riddle 

“ A woman of wicked disposition, who wanted to go to a ceremony, 
borrowed some bangles. She pledged some money as surety. She gave the 
bangles to another lady's daughter. When the ceremony was over, she did not 
give the bangles back. Several years passed like this. The owners of the bangles 
asked for them. The lady said, ‘I shall give them back.’ And so it went on until 
the gir t had grown up and could not take off the bangles any more. Then she 
said to the owners, ‘Give up the matter. I shall give you some more money.’ 
But they were not willing. 

‘Can we then cut the girl’s hands off?’ 

She proposed, ‘I shall have exactly the same bangles made and I shall give 
those to you.’ Then, too, they were unwilling: ‘You should give us those very 
same ones,’ they insisted. 



How could the matter be solved? How should they be answered so that the 
girl's hands are not cut off?” 

She explained, “ They should be told, ‘If you can give me those very same 
coins which I gave you, I shall give you back those same bangles.”’ 

Since that painter's daughter kept on telling similar stories every day, the king 
called for her for six months. Her co-wives started seeking weak-points in her. 
She used to enter her private apartments alone, and putting in front of her her 
old jewels and her old clothes, she used to reproach herself, ‘You are a painter's 
daughter. These clothes and so on belong to your father. This glory belongs to 
the king. Having left aside the others, who are royal daughters bom in high 
families, the king attends upon you. Do not get a sense of pride from it. Do not 
behave in a wrong way.’ That's what she used to do every day when she had 
locked herself inside. Somehow the co-wives came to know about that They fell 
down at the king's feet saying, ‘May you not die because of her! She is doing 
black magic. ’ But the king investigated, heard and was delighted. He invested 
her with the turban of the chief-queen. 

It is the same with self-reproach, like this, ‘Soul, wandering in the world of 
transmigration, in animal and infernal births, you have somehow come to human 
birth and acquired faith, right knowledge and right conduct Thanks to them you 
now deserve to be respected and worshipped by all. Do not take a sense of pride 
there from, thinking that you are very learned and so on. Do not behave in a 
wrong way. If you happen to behave in a wrong way, you will have to suffer 
from it’ 

7. Blame (AvC II60, 13-61J). 

Blame {garaha ) too is sixfold It is illustrated by the example of the lady who 
killed her husband (pai-mariya). 

There was an old brahmin professor and his wife, who was young. While 
giving oblations to all the gods, she used to say that she was afraid of crows so 
that, every day, pupils appointed by their professor used to guard her, holding 
bows in their hands. One of the pupils noticed ‘This girl is not innocent. She is 
an expert.’ Then he started spying on her. 

One day, she went to visit a mendicant and crossed the Narmada river with 
a pot. One of those crossing the river with her was seized by an alligator. He 
started to hit the animal. 

‘Close his eyes,’ she advised. He did so and was released 

‘Why did you cross at a bad ford?,’ she asked him. 

The pupil turned back reflecting on all that. The following day she again gave 
oblations and it was this pupil's turn to guard her. He said: 

1. “In the daytime you are afraid of crows. At night you cross the Narmada. 
You know the bad fords and you know that alligators' eyes should be closed.” 


So she understood that he had seen her. She started hanging around him. 
‘What! In front of my professor?,’ he said. So she killed her husband She 
threw the corpse in a basket and went to the forest in order to leave it there. She 
was stopped by a Vyantari deity. She began to roam around in the forest and 
was unable to bear the hardships of hunger. The corpse which she was carrying 
on her head started dripping. She was blamed by the people: ‘It's a husband- 
killer who roams around like this.’ She was smitten with remorse and asked 
them, ‘Please give some alms to a husband-killer.’ 

2. “Addicted to love, I killed my old husband. Longing for a young man, I 
forgot family and virtue.” 

For a long time she kept falling at their feet, and at the feet of others 
likewise. When she fell at our feet, her basket fell down. She gave up worldly 
life. Thus, bad behaviour must be censured. 

8. Cleaning 

Cleaning ( sohf) means annihilati on of faults. It is sixfold, and should be fully 
described. It is illustrated by two examples: the example of the clothes (yattha) 
and the example of the antidote iagaa). 

a. Here is the example of the clothes (AvC II 61,11-13) 

In Rajagiha reigned king Srenika. He gave a pair of linen clothes to the 
launderer. It was the period of the fullmoon festival (= Holi). The launderer 
gave the clothes to his two wives who were going with him. Srenika and his 
minister Abhaya went incognito for a stroll to the fullmoon festival. They saw 
the clothes: they had been dyed with betel! The launderer’s wives came back and 
were rebuked by their husband who cleaned the clothes with saline earth. Next 
morning he brought them back. He was asked to tell the truth, and told it. 
Srenika was pleased, thinking, ‘What a skillful person he is!’ 

Similarly, the monk should cleanse himself of all faults by confession and 
other means. 

b. For the example of the antidote, see the section called Namaskara, above 
(AvC I 554,9-13) 

Seeing that an enemy army was coming to besiege his town, a king thought 
that he had better pollute the water. He summoned the poison-maker. Poison 
balls were made. The doctor came with only a very small quantity of poison. 
The king was angry, but tie doctor explained, ‘It can affect a hundred thousand 

‘How?,’ tiie king asked. 

An elephant whose life was coming to an end was brought A hair on his tail 
was raised up. Just through the tip of that one hair the poison was given to him. 
It could be seen making him colorless. The whole animal became poison: 
whoever eats tins poison becomes poison. Such is the poison which can pierce 
a hundred thousand people. 



JL?” Z ,0 , ^ iS effM? I “ dee ‘ 1 ' A *“« ™ applied 

p effea 0f ““ Poison ™ diminished and 

™*Ih!fhS m °f' '°°’ sbo " ld “““ over O* Prison of spiritual mistakes 
with the help of such antidotes as self-reproach and so on. 

For all illustrations, the lesson is to be developed accordingly. Thus the 
mTcle S r nym0US deSigQati0nS ° f WW-4 have been 

C. A collection of thirty-two catchwords defining “Jain Yoga.” 

1. Confession (aloyanS); about two wrestlers (AvC 11152,9-15312) 

The city was UjjayiM and the king Jitafetru. He had a wrestler called Attana. 

te m w«r **“• °" ** tanl. on the seashore 

there was the city of Soparaka, the king of which was Simhagiii He used to 

ae 7“"“ Wh ° WOn - ABana used 10 *» <° contest, and 
year after year, he used to win the flag of victory. The king thought, ‘This man 

who comes horn a foreign kingdom always wins. For me it is ^ humiliation ’ 
Then he went in search of a rival competitor. 

str^h W r° driDking SOme melted feL He ascertained his 

srtength. When he had realized it he fed him. Attana came back again (Thinkine 

** 7 StUng ' C0ntests 1,1 hture he had left his toJr^ith m 
He waf ^ S ’ * With0Ut and reached Soparaka). 

, ated m 00111681 b y fisherman turned wrestler. He went back 

to the place where he lived, thinking, ‘This man has the strength of a you™ 

person. I am now unfit.' So he went in search of another wrestler. He heard that 
there were some in Saurastra. 

in^Bhr^r^ 6 ^ he .^ PeDed t0 See a P^ghman in the suiround- 
B ^accha, m the village DuniUakuviya. With one hand he was 
andling the plough, and with the other one he was pulling up the cotton-plants 

ZLT ploughman's wife came with food for her husband. Attana 

his W3S a ^ 0f nce md a P ot of vegetables. Hie ploughman took 

“w W6nt t0 TeheVe himSelf - Even then ' Attana kept on examining his 
S""® t0 everythin8 - At night he asked for a place to stay 
nlrnurh ^ h 8131116(1 t0 hlm - During the conversation he asked the 

Were ' plou8hmantM tom. The wrestler said, 

H^!, t ,rah, P r P T d “ nK ' , "“ cs and P ur 8» tivK - and fed them to the ploughman. 

He taught him hand-to-hand fighting. When the time of the great fetival came 
again, he wen. there exaefly as he used to do. The firs, day wtenSfil^ 
place between the two wresflers, _ die fonner codon-man and u?W 



fisherman-, neither of the two won or was defeated. The king went away in 
expectation of the next day, and the two wrestlers went back, each to his own 
house. Attana asked the former cotton-man, ‘Tell me, my child, where you have 
been hurt. ’ The boy told him. Attana rubbed him and with the help of a massage 
he made him like new. The king also sent the former fisherman some persons 
to rub him, but he dismissed them, saying, ‘Even the father of this wrestler 
would not scare me! Not to speak of this poor boy!’ On the next day, they a gain 
fought and were equal. On the third day the fisherman was standing helpless in 
the ring, covered in bruises. 

‘Cotton-man!,’ Attana shouted and the wrestler pulled his opponent's head as 
he would have seized a cotton-plant and it fell to the ground like a pumpkin. He 
was congratulated. He went back to UjjayinT and had his share of all kinds of 
pleasures. The other one died. 

Thus, the flag of victory is the aim to reach. Attana embodies the teacher. The 
wresders are the monks. The blows are the errors. The one who makes 
confession to his teacher is devoid of thorns and wins the flag of Emancipation 
in the ring of the three worlds. 

2. Complete discretion (hiraval&va); about two friends (AvC II 153,12-154,10). 

And now, to what type of person should one make confession? The one who 
does not repeat it to somebody else, — such is the type of person one should 
serve. Here is an example. 

In the city of Dantapura, there was the king Dantacakra and the queen 
SatyavatL She had a pregnancy-longing, ‘How might I enjoy myself in a 
mansion made of ivory?,’ she wondered. In order to get ivory the king had a 
proclamation made, ‘A suitable price will be paid. But the king will punish the 
one who will not give his ivory.’ 

In the same city lived Dhanamitra, a merchant, and his two wives, Dhana&T, 
the elder one, and PadmaSri, the younger one. He loved the latter more. 

One day, a quarrel broke out among the co-wives. Dhanairi said, ‘Why are 
you so proud? What do you have more than I have? What? Would a mansion 
like Satyavatfs be made for you?’ 

‘If it is not made,’ PadmaM replied, ‘I am no more.’ She locked the door of 
her inner-apartments and she remained there. The merchant came back and 
asked, ‘Where is Padmairi?’ The female servants told him. He went in there 
and tried to placate his wife but she was not placated: ‘If I don't get it,’ she said, 
‘I won't live.’ 

The merchant had a friend, Didhamitra, who came to visit him. He asked 
what was the matter. Dhanamitra explained everything. The friend answered, 
‘Let the mansion be made. May you not die because of her death; if you die, I 
shall also die. The king has made a proclamation. So let us manage secretly.’ 

Then Drdhamitra took clothes, jewels and lacquered-bangles suitable for the 
tribesmen as payment for ivory, and went to the forest. He got some tusks, made 

the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

cartS rr.*" im,de b ” dles of era.«, loaded a carnage and 

2,1 tey were enterillg ** dty '™ 
pulled apart by a bull. Suddenly, a tusk fell down. The policemen saw it Th™ 

arreted Drdhamitra and brought him to the king. He was sentenced to death. 

When Dhanamitra learnt about this, he came. He fell down at the king’s feet 

and explained, I am the one who had these tusks brought’ When Drdhamitra 

was ed questions, he said, ‘I don't know this man. Who is he?’ 

That is the way they spoke for each other. The king asked them questions 

them aSSUra “ CeS of ^ «« whole matter was 
revealed. The two men were well-treated and sent away. 

Similarly, the acarya should abstain from revealing what has been confessed. 

3 . h F J™ y ke . epm i g to reli Sious orthodoxy in difficult situations (avalsu dadha- 
dhammaya): about two monks (AvH 667b l-668aj) 

wishe^TJm r 6 ^5 l ®f yinr - There Uved v ^, a merchant As he 
d g0 J 3 ° Cam pa, he made a proclamation (like Dhanna in the Nava- 
. Jf 1 ™ ^ . A monk caUed Dharmaghosa responded to it. When the caravan 
had entered far into a forest, it was plundered by tribesmen, and w^sSS 

re and there Along with other people the monk had gone deep into the forest 
They were eating roots and drinking water. He was also inviteS by them to do 

fooi on one side ' « a ■»* ^ 

en^S^fntT * P10 "l dea,i, ■ •* was not depressed but fell of 
endurance, Omniscience came to him, and he was Emancipated 

Jden of Y^unl ^ *** WaS Yamuna - To west - to was the 

ST Yamunavakra (to the river Yamuna was making a bend) The monk 

sawto ? ** plaCS - 7116 happened to pass by aS 

or stones over him. The rising of anger made him suffer. He died and vZ 

nf m S >at n e ?’ ^ COming ° f gods > wh0 tolled him, and the coming 
of Sakra on his celestial car Palaka should be narrated. g 

hnf-re' hC bCCame reStless - &tknL threatened him with his thunder- 

olt If you leave worldly life, you will be released.’ The king left worldly life 
In the presence of an elder he made the following resolution, ‘If, while goJg for 
^ms. I remembeu I shall uo, e* aud If I have suufed to eat, i shall feTe fee 

„ I ” Z 3y : ir /* ? oneli Hal this Loid did not take food even for one dav 
He suffered physically. Danda suffered mentally. y * 

^Penance observed without support (anissiovahana): about the teacher 
Mahagin and others (AvC II 155,9-157,13). reacner 

The monk Sthulabhadra had two disciples, Aryamahagm and Aryasuhasdn 
Maha^n was Suhastin’s preceptor. Mahagiri entrusted ingroup tfZnE^o 
Suhasnu. Though fee W mligtous way of life had beca£ olokfe. te dS 


not want to be connected anymore with the Community, and albeit living inside 
the Community, he used to practice spiritual exercises proper to the Jinas' way 
of life . 4 During the course of their religious wandering, they reached Pataliputra. 
There lived the merchant Vasubhuti. After having heard the Law from them, he 
became a true Jain layman. One day he said to Suhastin, ‘Venerable master, you 
have given me the means to be saved from the world of transmigrations. I have 
explained it to my relatives, but it does not appeal to them. Maybe you could 
just happen to go to them and tell them.’ Suhastin went there and taught the 
Law. Then Mahagiri entered. When he saw him, Suhastin immediately got up. 
Vasubhuti asked, ‘Do you also have another teacher?’ 

Suhastin answered by praising Mahagiri's qualities: ‘The Jinas' way of life has 
disappeared, but even so he practices spiritual exercises proper to their rule.’ 
Thus Suhastin spoke at length of Mahagiri. He gave the layman’s vows to 
Vasubhuti and left 

When Vasubhuti’s relatives had taken their food, he said to them, ‘Make sure 
that some food remains left over, in case a monk of this quality comes. A gift 
of this kind would yield good results.’ On the following day, Mahagiri entered 
the house for alms. Seeing such an extraordinary happening, he considered the 
matter to see whether the food was suitable from the four viewpoints . 5 He 
understood that he had been recognized, and left without taking this food, 
saying, ‘You have made this food not proper for me.’ 

‘How?,’ Suhastin asked. 

‘Because yesterday you got up for me to show me respect. 

Then Mahagiri and Suhastin left for Vaidiga. After they had worshipped a Jina 
image there, Mahagiri left for Elakaksa in order to visit the sacred spot 

Why was this place named Elakaksa? 

In former times it was the city of Da^arnapura. A Jain laywoman of this city 
was married to a non-Jain . When she used to observe the necessary duties 
prescribed for the evening and to abstain from food, he used to make fun of her, 
saying, ‘What? Would anyone get up at night to eat!’ One day he said, ‘I shall 
also abstain from food at night.’ 

‘You will fail,’ she replied. 

‘Have I ever gotten up to eat?,’ he said. So she allowed him to take the vow. 
A deity thought, ‘He makes a mockery of this true Jain lady. So let me teach 
him a lesson today. ’ The husband's sister also lived with the couple. At night 
the deity assumed her appearance and came with a delicacy. The man started to 
eat it The Jain lady wanted to stop him, but he said, ‘O stop chattering. I don't 
care a hoot for what you say.’ The deity gave him a blow. His eye-balls fell to 
the ground. Fearing that dishonour would come on her, the Jain lady stood in 
kdyotsarga. 6 At midnight the deity came and asked her why. ‘To avoid 
dishonour coming on me,’ she answered So the eyes of a ram which had just 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

M Se h r„ r r “soM ft*‘ m0mtog «* ' You, eyos 

layman. o“ of S It. ? “ and **«“« - <me L 

you come from?,’ the reply was ‘From tho ple “ sed t0 ask> <Where do 
lives.’ (According to others’ it was’the kina fnT ram ‘ eyed man 

So Da&mapura came ,o be’ known as mM^f***™ ^ ™ m ‘‘' eye<1) - 

4^-2^5Ssr'ssr ,fc '-- fc «* 

“■“S’" “ Ved 1116 D ^- 

on Mount *“*? “ k Pta “ 

has never been worshipped before by iZ„J L P K he 

mind and came. As for the kin 0 k y understo °d what he had in 

worshipped the Lord in great ma^^ncTs^ ^ magn . ificence ’ md 
magically provided the elephant weight tusl^On h A ^ 5vaiia - He 
produced eight ponds on earh nf tho, a- ° n each of ^ tasks he 
eight leaves and ^n each of thfl^ P °f ? lght l0tUSes> on each ofth e lotuses 
tZ th l thilty - tW0 W of dramatic shows. 

nghn Then, ^ *T “ » 

Mount Da^amakuta. Hence then*™ nf f eet were mipnnted on 

tiptoes’). Seeing such a wonder. DaSarnabhadnS^'H^dd^^ 
such magmficence? Sakra has practiced the Law T u if W 1 aCquire 
le* worMiy life. Such was d/otrgin *' ^ d 

b“^rr S uir h « 

of monks entered the house 3 5S2iT^SSjS1£“* ° f ^ pab 
Where are you from, monks?,’ she asked. 

We belong to Suhastin, ’ they said ‘We are lnnUrw, t , 
showed them the cart-shed. They stayed^ g * ^ t0 Stay ’ She 

£L*!££ir*t ** ,eacher Was the lesson called ’Nalint- 

sleep he heard something ThinkhtTZ ft ma " S ‘ 0 ”' “ ** wote “P *»»» 

monks’ ZlZZ^ed^ ZT m ^ dhiSfMmerbinb! ’' v ®'»' | te 

Nabntgutma f am “Je ^ 



life for a long time, but I shall endure fasting unto death.’ Suhastin refused 
because the boy had not asked permission from his mother. So Avantisukumala 
pulled out his hair himself. In order to avoid his taking the ascetic’s marks 
himself, Suhastin finally gave them to him. 

In a cremation-ground there was a thicket of kanthara-tiees. There the boy 
renounced all food, preparing himself for a pious death. Attracted by the smell 
of the blood which was flowing from his tender feet, a female jackal and her 
young came. The mother ate one leg, the young, the other one. They first ate the 
knees, then the thighs and the belly. Avantisukumala died. Perfumed water and 
showers of flowers poured down from the sky. The teacher made confession. 
His wives asked questions among themselves. The teacher told them what had 
taken place. The pious Bhadra went to the cremation-ground along with her 
daughters-in-law. All of them left worldly life. One of them who was pregnant 
drew back. Her son had a temple built in that place. It has now become a Saiva 
temple, adopted by the Hindus. This is narrated in the Uttaraculika. 9 
[5. Learning (sikkha): From the foundation of Rdjagrha to Bhadrabahu and 
Sthulabhadra (AvC II 157,14-188,10) 

[See E. LEUMANN, TJbersicht iiber die Avakyaka-Literatur. Hamburg,1934, 
p. 24b, 37-27b,6; Nalini BALBIR, paper to be published in Bulletin d'Etudes 
Indiennes 6.1988]. 

6. Not taking care of one’s own physical condition (nippadikammaya): about 
a young man whose behaviour should not be followed (AvC II 188,11-189,3). 

In the city of Pratisthana lived the merchant Nagavasu and his wife Nagairi. 
Both were true Jain devotees. Their son Nagadatta had no taste for sensual 
pleasures and left worldly life. He observed that the Jinas were worshipped and 
respected. (This should be fully described. The full description of those monks 
who were observing kdyotsarga is also to be supplied). He said, ‘I shall observe 
the Jinas’ religious way of life.’ 10 His teacher refused, but the boy did not care 
and thought that he would observe it without anybody's help. He went away, and 
observed kdyotsarga in some secluded Vyantara-temple. In order to prevent his 
death a deity endowed with right faith took the appearance of a woman and 
came to his side with some food. She worshipped the Vyantara and said, ‘Take 
this food, you fasting ascetic.’ He took rice with sesamum and various eatables. 
After having eaten, he again stood in kdyotsarga. (Those who follow the Jinas' 
religious way of life do not sleep). He had dysentery. The deity informed the 
boy's teacher, ‘Your pupil is in such and such a place.’ Then some monks were 
sent to fetch him, and they brought him back. The deity said, ‘Give him some 
bilva berries. The dysentery ceased. He was then taught not to treat his body in 
that way. 

7. Not longing after fame (annayaya): how the monks Dharmaghosa and 
Dharmayasas practiced penance (AvC II 189^-191,6). 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

Z? 2, ^ ^ ™ Aji,asera - ^ 1— 

Now, in UjjayinI lived Pradyota's two sons p-siata n ^ ^ 

left worldly life. Palaka was placed on the threne He Zd 1° P P° p51aka 

dhana and Avantivardhana Palato ^ A . e - He had two sons, Rajyavar- 
dhana as crown-p^d - **»» 

“ a “ <* 

DharinI whom he had seen in fi.n k the imsiispecting and trusting 

messenger to her. DharinI refused his He^n^thf' *** * 

and again, but she replied contemptuously ‘rwt *e messenger again 

front of your brother?’ Then the tog killed him fThe ^ “ 

supplied). g ^ d ( ^ rhe ^ description is to be 

10 h “ t a «« - * 
along. In KauSambi she asked Jain mine f 7**° W3S 3 Jam iayman md wen t 
in *yo«ar g <, in 

bowed down to them Since che Z • A , Iang ' ^arim went there and 
allowed to enter monastic life Inan’ 0DS1 ^7 l ° ^ 3 ^ 3in laywoman > she was 

With her name and her ornaments ni 1 3p K 3 ? ne . nts - She du S U P die seal 
palace, and remained hidden. ' e y in the court-yard of the 

°\ tt fa Kmce 0f "* P***- attneted by the glitter of 
tadrS? ““ T 4 ■“>ta ohief-queen (He" 

child (ba s TZllT "**, b ? ^ she ““ the 

s sirsSd^ 5 ' a ~ he “ta s rtaSr°^; 

hastened to Kausambl with all his foSf * refUSed t0 ^ “ Avandsena 



As for the two monks (Dharmaghosa and Dharmayasas), after the completion 
of the funeral rites, the first one thought, ‘Let me also get such glory as 
Vinayavatl,’ and he renounced eating right in the city, preparing himself for a 
pious death. The second one, Dharmayasas, who was not longing for splendour, 
renounced eating in a lonely place, inside a mountain cave, on the bank of the 
Vatsaka river, between KauSambI and UjjayinI. 

Avantisena besieged KauSambl. The population was in distress, so no one 
went to see Dharmaghosa, who finally died without having obtained what he 
desired. As there was no way out through the gates of the city, he was thrown 
over the wall. The nun DharinI then thought, ‘Let me disclose my secret so that 
the people will not suffer.’ She entered the ladies' apartments, and taking 
Maniprabha aside she said to him, ‘Why are you fighting against your 
brother?’ 12 

‘How?,” he asked. Then she told him everything in due order. ‘If you don't 
believe me,’ she added, ‘then ask your adoptive mother.’ 13 He asked her. She 
understood that the secret had certainly been disclosed, and she told him what 
had happened. She showed him the seal with the name and the ornaments 
belonging to Rastravardhana. Now convinced, he said, ‘If I draw back, I shall be 
dishonoured,’ and he added, ‘Tell the matter to Avantisena too.’ 

‘All right,’ she agreed, and went out. Avantisena was informed, ‘The nun 
wants to see you.’ 

The nun came in. No sooner had her personal servants seen her feet, than they 
recognized her. They fell at her feet, and burst into tears. Avantisena was told 
that she was his mother. He too fell at her feet, bursting into tears. Dharihl 
explained everything, that Maniprabha was his brother. 

The two kings met outside. They embraced each other and burst into tears. 
They stayed for some time in KauSambl. Then the two of them hastened to 
UjjayinI. Their mother too was taken there together with the chief-nua They 
reached the bank of the Vatsaka river. Seeing the monks of this country 
climbing up and down to pay their respects to Dharmayasas, they asked them 
questions. Then the monk was shown respect by them too. On the next day, the 
king also hastened to that place. The nuns told him , ‘He has completely given 
up eating, so we shall stay with him.’ Then the two kings also stayed. Every 
day, they worshipped DharmayaSas. The monk died. Then the kings went away. 

Thus, though he was not longing for worship, this monk got it, while the 
other one, who wanted it, did not get it. 

8. Not being greedy (alobha): about Ksullakakumara and others (AvC II 

There was a city Saketa. The king there was Pundarika, the crown prince 
Kandarika. The crown prince's wife was YaSobhadra. Pundarika desired this 
lady. The crown prince was murdered. The lady went to Sravastl. She had just 
become pregnant. 



The religious teacher was Ajitasena, the chief-nun Klrtimatr. Yaiobhadra 
became a nun at her feet (One should supply here the same full description as 
in the case of Dharini 14 except that Yaiobhadra did not leave her child). She 
gave him the name of Ksullakakumara. He became a monk. When he became a 
young man, he thought that he would not be able to bear the religious life. He 
took leave of his mother, ‘I am going,’ he said. She instructed him. Even then 
he did not want to stay. Then she said, ‘Come now, for my sake enter the 
religious life for twelve years.’ He agreed to do so. Again, he wanted to take 
leave. ‘Ask leave from the chief-nun,’ his mother replied. She told him to stay 
for twelve years. The preceptor said twelve years. The religious master said 
twelve years. In all, it made forty-eight years. Still, he did not want to stay. 
Then they let him go, but his mother said, ‘Do not roam here and there Go 
chrectly to your grandfather Pundatika. See, I took with me this seal with a 
name which belonged to your father, and also this precious blanket Take them 
and go.’ Ksullakakumara went to the city. He spent the night in the cart-shed of 
the king intending to meet the king on the next day. 

That very night a dancer was dancing, and Ksullaka too attended the show 
with the audience. It so happened that after having danced the whole night, at 
dawn the dancer fell asleep. Then her manager thought: ‘The audience' is 
satisfied. Much money has been earned. If at this point she becomes careless, 
we shall be offended.’ Then he sang the following song: 

You have recited well, you have sung well, you have danced well, O Hark 
^eepr^ AftCr haVing St00d 61111 f ° r l0Dg nights ’ don,t careless through 

Ksullakakumara left her the precious blanket Die crown prince Ya^obhadra 
was there. He gave her a pair of earrings, worth 100,000. There was also 
Srikanta, the caravan-leader’s wife, who gave a necklace, the minister 
Jayasandha, who gave a sword, the elephant-driver Kamapala, who gave his 
hook. Whether one was satisfied, displeased or no matter what he paid, everyone 
was noted down. If the name was known, all the better. If not, a vertical line 
was written down. In this way, note was taken of everyone. 

The next morning Ksullaka was called and asked, ‘Is it you who gave the 
blanket?’ He told all his story, that his father had been murdered, that he was 
not able to tolerate the right life, that he had come to the king's feet in order to 
take the kingdom. The king agreed to that, but Ksullaka said, ‘Enough of that. 
The dream is over. When I die, let the self-control which I have previously 
observed not go to waste.’ 

The crown prince explained, ‘I had a plan to commit a murder. The king is 
old and I thought he would not give me the kingdom.’ He, too, refused the 
kingdom, though the king was ready to give it to him. 

The caravan-leader’s wife said, ‘As my husband has been absent from home 
for twelve years and is continuously on the road, I was thinking of taking 
another man.’ 



The minister confessed that he was preparing a plot together with some other 

The neighboring kings had told the elephant-driver, ‘Kill this elephant or 
bring it to us.’ The king told them to do so, but they too refused. They followed 
the path opened by Ksullakakumara and entered the religious life. All of them 
gave up their greed. 

9. Forbearance (titikkha); success in a svayamvara (AvC 1448,10-450,10). If 

There was a city Indrapura. The king there was Indradatta. His dear and 
beloved queens gave him twenty-two sons. (According to others, they were all 
bom from only one queen). Each in bis individual kingdom was as dear to the 
king as his own life. The king had also married the only daughter of his 
minister, but had soon lost interest in her. One day, the king saw her as she had 
just finished her bath. ‘Who is she?,’ he asked. 

‘Your queen,’ was the reply. Then he spent a night with her. She normally 
took a bath following her monthly courses; now she became pregnant She had 
been told before by the minister, ‘When you are pregnant, you should tell me.’ 
So she informed her father of the day, and also of the hour, the exact moment 
and what the king had said to her as a welcome. He took note of everything on 
a tablet, and kept it safe until a boy was bom after nine months. On that very 
day his servants’ children Aggiyaa, Pawayaa, Bahuliya and Sagaraa 17 were also 
bom. They all shared the same birth day. 

The minister took the boy to the schoolmaster, who made him learn the arts 
of writing, counting and so on. While the schoolmaster was teaching the boy, 
the servants’ children used to annoy him, and because of the lingering effects of 
their past deeds to beat him too, 18 but he did not care about it a bit, and learned 
the arts. Die twenty-two princes also were made to learn, but they used to butt 
with their heads the master to whom they were entrusted. And when the master 
beat them, they would tell their mothers. They would say, ‘Is it so easy to give 
birth to a son?’ So these children did not leam anything. 

And at that time in Mathura, the king Jita^atru had a daughter named 
Siddtrika. (According to others, her name was Nirvrti). She was led to the kin g 
fully adorned. The king said, ‘Whomsoever you like as a husband will be 
yours.’ She considered, ‘Let whoever is a brave and valiant hero be my 
husband. Die king will give him his kingdom.’ So takin g with her a military 
force and chariots she left for Indrapura. 

The numerous sons of king Indradatta were there (Or: a messenger was sent 
^ all the kings were invited to come). Indradatta came to know about the girl's 
Arrival. Flags were erected. An arena was prepared. Eight wheels were 
“regularly whirling around on the same axle. A puppet was placed in front of 
foom. The challenge was to hit it in the eye. 

With full equipment the king came out together with his sons. The princess, 
beautifully attired, was standing on one side. (The arena and the kings, the tax- 



collectors die soldiers, the chiefs are to be fully described following the account 
° Draupadl ^ king’s eldest son was a prince called Srfmalin. He was told 
My son, you can have this girl and the kingdom provided you hit this target.’ 
The prmce was glad, thinking that he was surely more capable than all the other 
fangs. He was mvited to hit it But he was not at all an expert. In the middle of 
at gathering he was not even able to hold the bow. Somehow he finally held 
xt and shot, ‘Be that as it may,’ he thought. The arrow broke. Similarly, another 

one lost one arrow, another one two, another one three. Others even shot 

The minister had also informed his grandson. He had brought him on that day 
and so he was present at the gathering. The king was in complete distress, 
claspmg his hands together, ‘Alas, I have been humiliated!’ The minister asked 
Why, my Lord, are you distressed?’ 

‘They have brought dishonour on me,’ the king said. 

‘But you have another son, who is an expert, 1 the minister replied. ‘He is the 
pnncc Surendradatta. Let him be tested too.’ 

‘Where does this son of mine come from?,’ the king asked. 

The circumstances of the boy's birth were explained to him. The king was 
happy and said, ‘If you shoot through these eight wheels you will have the good 
fortune to get the happiness of the kingdom and the girl Nirvrti.’ 

Then the prince took his place, seized the bow and shot an arrow in the 
direction of the target. The four servants' children were beating him from all 
sides. The other men were standing at his side with swords in their hands. The 
twenty-two pnnees also created especially perverse hindrances. But the boy 
bowed down to his master, the king and the audience. His master also was 
frightening him, ‘If you miss the target these two men will make your head fall 

But Canng a bit about to®* men > ^ princes or the four servants' 

children he estimated the holes of the eight cart-wheels, aimed through the 
holes when they became as one in line, and with an undeviating eye, not paying 
attention to anything else, he pierced the puppet in the eye. 

There was loud applause and cheer. He won the girl. 

To get human birth is as difficult as it was to bit this target. 20 
10. Straightforwardness (ajjava); about two pupils (AvC II 193^-9) 

In Camps there was the teacher KauSkaiya. He had two pupils. One had a 
handsome body. Therefore he was called Arigaisi. The second one was called 
Rudraka. He was a pickpocket. The two of them were sent to fetch wood. 
Anga^i came back with his load of wood. As for the other one, he enjoyed 
himself during the day, and in the evening remembered his task. He then 
astened to the forest and there saw Arigarsi coming with his load of wood. He 
thought, I am going to be thrown out.’ 

Now, a female cowherd called Yogayasa, who had brought her son Panthaka 
his meal, was coming with a load of wood. Rudraka killed her with a club, took 



her load of wood and returned by another road, ahead of Arigarsi. Trembling he 
gave the wood to his teacher saying, ‘Your nice pupil has killed the poor 
YogayaSa.’ (A full description is to be supplied here). Arigarsi came back. The 
teacher expelled him. He retired to a forest and kept thinkin g He conceived 
good thoughts, remembered his previous births, practiced self-control and 
reached Omniscience. The gods extolled him. The gods said that Rudraka had 
accused him wrongly. Then the people blamed Rudraka and he thought, ‘It is 
true .that I have wrongly accused Arigarsi.’ Through thinking he was En¬ 
lightened. He became a Pratyekabuddha. The brahmin and his wife left worldly 
life. The four of them were Emancipated. 

11. About purity or hearing (sui: Sk. suci/sruti): about a merchant; then 
about Narada. 

a. AyvH 705a,7-705b,3. 

There was the city of Saurikapura. There lived the yaksa Suravara. There also 
lived the merchant Dhananjaya and his wife Subhadra. They bowed down to 
Suravara. Since they wanted to have a child, they entreated him and promised 
him a gift. ‘If a son is bom to us, we shall sacrifice a hundred buffaloes to you.’ 
They were successful. The Lord held his general preaching with the hope of 
Enlightening the couple. The merchant went to attend it. He was Enlightened. ‘If 
the yaksa allows me, I shall take the layman's vows.’ The yaksa was appeased. 

According to others: when the merchant had taken the vows, the yaksa askf-H 
for the buffaloes. Out of compassion for living beings, the merchant refused to 
give them. He made a hundred pieces of his own body, and prepared several of 
them, t hink i n g, ‘How lucky I am since I have spared living creatures this pain.’ 
Having put to the test this man's magnanimity, the yaksa himself was Enlight¬ 
ened. Or: he made flour-bulls 21 and gave them to the yaksa. 

b. AvC fl 193,13-194,12. 

The Lord had two disciples, Dharmaghosa and Dharmaya^as. They were 
reciting the Scriptures at the foot of an asoka tree. They stayed there in the 
morning, but as in the afternoon the shade did not move, one of them said, ‘You 
have magic power.’ 

‘No, you have,’ the other replied. The first one went to a secluded place to 
relieve himself, and the shadow stayed the same. The second one too, and it 
stayed the same. Then they realized that neither of them had any magic power. 
They asked the Lord, who said: 

Here in Saurika in the time of king Samudravijaya, there was a non-Jaina 
ascetic called Yajnayasas and his wife Somamitra. They had a son, Yajnadatta 
30(1 a daughter-in-law, Somaya^a, who gave birth to a son, Narada. They lived 
0n the crumbs that they could pick up. They used to eat one day and fast the 
day. In the morning they used to leave Narada at the foot of this asoka tree 
go gathering their crumbs. 



Now, it happened that Jimbhaka gods attending on Kubera came that way and 
noticed the boy. Investigating by means of their avadhi- knowledge, they 
understood that the child had fallen from the world of gods, and out of 
compassion they stopped the shade above him. So much for the question 
concerning the asoka tree and the origin of Narada. 

When he was grown up, the Jrmbhaka gods taught him the magical sciences, 
the so-called Prajnapti-sdence and the others, so that he was able to wander 
through the sky with a pot made out of glass and shoes made out of jewels. 

One day he went to Dvaravatl, and was asked by Krsna, ‘What is purity?’ He 
was unable to unravel this question. He delayed giving an answer and making 
an excuse he left for Purvavideha. There the Vasudeva Yugabahu was askin g 
the Tirthamkara Slmandhara, ‘What is purity?’ and the Tirthamkara answered, 
‘Purity is truth.’ With this one word the Vasudeva understood everything. Then 
he went to Aparavideha. The Vasudeva Mahabahu was asking exactly the same 
question of the Tirthamkara Yugandhara, 22 and he too understood everything. 
Later on, he went back to Dvaravatl and said to Vasudeva, ‘What did you ask 
me at that time?’ 

‘What is purity?’ 

‘Purity is truth,’ Narada said. 

‘And what is truth?,’ Krsna asked. Again, Narada was confused. Vasudeva 
blamed him, saying, ‘Where you put that question, you should have put this one 

‘I have not asked the Master about truth,’ Narada replied. He started thinking. 
He remembered his former births and was Enlightened. He then pronounced the 
first lesson, “he says what is worth learning.” 23 

12. Right faith (sammaditthi): about a painting (AvC II 194,13-195,4). 

In Saketa lived the king Mahabala. 

He asked, ‘What do I not have that other kings have?’ 

‘A hall of paintings.’ 

It was caused to be built Two famous artists were appointed. Vim ala and 
Prabhasa. They were separated by a curtain as they painted. The first one 
painted, the other one prepared the floor. The king was happy with the first one 
and treated him well. When asked, Prabhasa said, ‘I have prepared the floor; at 
the moment I am not painting.’ The king was wondering what that floor looked 
like. He went to see. The curtain was removed. The painting of the other artist 
could be seen on the floor. The king became angry. Prabhasa explained the 
matter to him, saying, ‘The light is reflected here.’ The picture was covered. He 
saw only the plaster and was happy. ‘All right,’ he agreed. 

Similarly, right faith should be practiced with utmost purity. 

13. Concentration fsamahi,); about the young Suvrata ("AvC II195, 5-10). 


There was the city SudarSanapura. There lived Susunaga, a householder and 
his wife, SuyaSa. They were good Jaina devotees. They had a son, Suvrata. His 
development as an embryo went well. He had an easy birth. He grew up well 
too. But as he reached marriageable age, be was Enlightened. He took leave of 
his family and left worldly life. He assumed the rules of the solitary religious 
life. Sakra praised him. The gods put him to the test in a friendly way. One said, 
‘May he be lucky, this chaste young man!’ Another added, ‘Who is unlucky 
since he has broken the continuity of his family!’ But the young Lord remained 
indifferent Similarly, the gods showed him his parents being addicted to the 
objects of the senses or speaking badly of him when they were about to die. 
Even then, he remained indifferent Then the gods magically produced the 
various seasons. A heavenly lady gave him a passionate glance, embraced him 
and gave long sighs of delight. 24 Even then, he became still more resolute in 
self-control. He reached Omniscience and was finally Emancipated. 

14. Following straight behaviour (ayarovaga): about two brothers (AvC II 

In Pataliputra lived the brahmin HutaSana and his wife JalanaiikM who were 
good Jaina devotees. They had two sons, Jalana and Dahana. All four of them 
left worldly life. Jalana was straightforward, but Dahana was very deceitful. 
When told to come, he went; when told to go, he came. He died without having 

The two brothers were bom again in the Saudharma heaven, as members of 
Sakra's internal assembly. They lived there as gods for five palyopamas. The 
Lord came. His general preaching took place in Amalakalpa in the park 
Amraiala. The two gods came there and gave a show. One said that he would 
magically produce something straight and produced something crooked, and 
vice-versa. The other one said that he would produce something straight and did 
so, or something crooked and did as he said. 

Seeing all these transformations, Gotama asked the Lord. Then the Lord 
explained that all this was the despicable result of illusion. Jalana, who acted 
according to straight behaviour, reached Emancipation. 

15. Being well-behaved (vinayovagaj: about the young Nimbaka (AvC II 

The city was Ujjayinl. There lived the brahmin Ambarsi and his wife Maluka 
who were good Jaina devotees. Maluka died. Together with his son the brahmin 
left worldly life. The boy was ill-behaved. He used to throw thorns on the 
latrines, to sneeze while the monks were reading and studying, or to create 
disturbances when the exact moment came for them to do something and thus 
ruin that time for their religious acts. In every matter he used to behave in the 
way opposite to good conduct. Then the monks said to their superiors, Either 
he goes or we go.’ The boy was thrown out. His father, too, followed him. They 
went to the feet of another teacher. There also the boy was thrown out. It is said 




that the same thing happened at all the five hundred monasteries of Ujjayinl. He 
was thrown out of all of them. 

The poor father went to relieve himself. He wept 

‘Why are you weeping, daddy? the boy asked. 

‘You really deserve the name of Nimbaka,’ the father said. ‘Because of your 
miserable behaviour, I too have no place to stay, and it is not possible for us to 
return to worldly life!’ Then the young boy also became upset and he said, 
‘Daddy, let both of us together find some place.’ 

‘We shall not find any place,’ the father replied. 

Then, when they went to some monks, the monks became very agitated. Their 
superior said to them, ‘Don't be like this, brothers. They will be guests for 
today. Tomorrow they will go.’ But the father and the son stayed. The young 
novice examined the latrines three times a day. 25 (Here right conduct observed 
by him is to be fully described). The monks were satisfied. Nimbaka became the 
best of the novices. He served the five hundred monasteries of Ujjayinl with the 
utmost zeal. They would not let him go. Thus, later on he became in every way 

16. Being of resolute mind (dhii maij; about Pandusena's daughters (AvH 

There was a city Pandumathura. There lived the five Pandavas. They left 
worldly life and placed their sons on the throne. They hastened to Lord 
Aristanemi's feet. They wandered in Hastikalpa looking for alms. While 
wandering, they came to know about Lord Nemi’s death. They rejected the food 
and the drink they had got, and on Mount ^atrunjaya, they completely gave up 
eating, preparing themselves for a pious death. They reached Omniscience and 
were Emancipated. 

In their family there was another king whose name was Pandusena. He had 
two daughters called Mati and Sumati. As they wanted to visit the Jaina temples 
in Gimar, they embarked on the boat called “Bull of Waters,” going towards 
Saurastra. A portent occurred. People prayed to Rudra and Skanda. As for the 
two girls, they earnestly concentrated on self-control, thinking that death had 
come. The ship was wrecked. They gained self-control and the state of 
Omniscient beings. They died and were Emancipated. Their corpses were carried 
away somewhere. Susthita, the master of the Lavana ocean, extolled them A 
divine illumination was produced there. Thus it became the sacred place called 
Prabhasa (“Light”). 

17. Disgust towards worldly life (samvega): about Candrayasd, Sujata and 
others (AvC II 197,8-200,10). 

In Campa there lived the king Mitraprabha and his queen Dharinl, the 
caravan-leader Dhanamitra and his wife DhanairL After hundreds of prayers to 
the family deity DhanaM gave birth to a son. People used to say, ‘Who is boro 
in such a family which has wealth in plenty has a good birth.’ Therefore, after 



the regular twelve days had elapsed, the boy was named Sujata (Well-bom). It 
happened that he was as beautiful as a young god. His charm was a subject of 
conversation. So other people also came to know about it Our heroes were good 
Jaina laymen. 

In that same city lived the minister Dharmaghosa and his wife Priyarigu. She 
heard what Sujata was like. One day she told her servants, ‘When Sujata 
happens to pass by, tell me, so that I see him.’ Once the boy, surrounded by a 
group of friends, happened to come by that way. The servants informed 
Priyarigu. She came out, and the other co-wives came too. On seeing Sujata they 
said, ‘She is lucky whose lover he will be!’ 

One day the ladies were talking together, ‘What charm he has! ’ Priyarigu was 
providing Sujata with clothes and ornaments. (They should be fully described). 
She had a good time with him. So time passed. (The loveliness of his hands 
should also be fully described). Then came the minister. He walked slowly so 
that the harem should not suspect anything and he looked through the keyhole. 
He saw Priyarigu engaged in sexual intercourse. He reflected that the harem had 
been violated, but said to himself, ‘Let this matter remain secret in order to 
avoid the ladies becoming even more unrestrained if the secret is disclosed.’ He 
wanted to murder Sujata, but he was scared because the boy's father was well 
treated by the king. Thinkin g that he should not kill him himself, he looked for 
a stratagem. He found one. 

One day, Ire managed to have a forged letter written by the spies. The letter 
was supposed to have come from a feudatory opposed to Mitraprabha. It was 
addressed to Sujata and said, ‘Kill Mitraprabha. You have his complete 
confidence. You will get half the kingdom.’ The letter was brought. The minister 
then transmitted it to the king, who was furious. The authors of the letter were 
sentenced to death, but the minister hid them. Mitraprabha thought, ‘If Sujata's 
murder comes to be known by the people, there will be unrest among my 
citizens; and much to my shame that king would see to it that all knew about 
my act. So I shall kill Sujata through a stratagem.’ 

At one border of Mitraprabha's kingdom there was a city named Araksuri. 
‘Die ruler of that place was Candradhvaja. Mitraprabha sent him a letter saying, 
‘I am sending Sujata to you. Kill him.’ He then called Sujata and told him, ‘Go 
to Araksuri. There become the king's confidant and look into his affairs.’ Sujata 
we nt to Araksuri. Candradhvaja saw him and thought, ‘Let me first make him 
1 trust me. Then I shall kill him.’ Everyday they used to have a good time 
f together. Seeing his beauty, his character and the way he behaved, Candradhvaja 
I understood that he had probably violated the harem, and that this was the reason 
; wh y he should be killed. But wondering how he could destroy such beauty, he 
| took him aside, told him the whole story, and showed him Mitraprabha's letter. 
| 4 Do as you feel,’ Sujata said. 

I I shall not kill you,’ the king answered. ‘Do one thing. Remain hidden.’ 




And Candradhvaja got him to marry his sister CandrayaSa. How awful! She 
had a skin-disease. He lived with her. Sexual intercourse made the disease grow 
SujSta too slowly contracted it Thanks to him, CandrayaSa too became a good 
Jama laywoman. She was thinking, ‘It's because of me that he also has been 
rurned ’ and she felt disgust towards worldly life. She gave up eating, preparing 
herself for a pious death. Sujata himself took care of her funeral. 

CandrayaSS became a god; she made use of ava^/»'-knowledge. She saw the 
situation and came to Sujata, bowed down to him and asked, ‘What can I do’’ 
He too felt disgust towards worldly life and thought, ‘If I can see my parents I 
shall leave worldly life.’ The god magically created a rode above the city The 
inhabitants came with incense in their hands, fell at the god's feet and politely 
asked about the incident. The god scared them, ‘Sons of a slave, Sujata, a true 
Jaina devotee, has been ill-treated by the minister in spite of his innocence. I 
shall make powder of you, and I shall release you only if you bring him here 
and please him.’ 

‘Where is he?’ 

‘In the garden,’ the god said. 

The king went there with the citizens and apologized. Sujata took leave of the 
king and of his parents and left worldly life. His parents too did the same. All 
reached Emandpation. 

As for the minister Dharmaghosa, he was sentenced to banishment. Later on 
his qualities became known. ' ' 

1. “As the eyes, so the character; as the nose, so the straightforwardness; as 
beauty, so wealth; as the character so the qualities ” 


2 “With half-dishonest and half-straight people men are half-dishonest and 
half-straight With dishonest ones, they are dishonest. With straight ones, they 
are of straight behaviour, having seen how their hands and feet, their ears,’ then- 
nose, their teeth and their lips are.” 

Later on, he also felt disgust towards worldly life, thinking that he indeed had 
been responsible for Sujata's ruin because of his desire for pleasures. He 

departed. His wanderings led him to Rajagiha. He left worldly life at the feet of 
an elder. 

In the course of his religious life, Bahu&uta (viz. Dharmaghosa) reached 

AT^ tt T Ura " The 111161 of ^ place was Abhagnasena. Varatta was his minister. 
While he was wandering for alms, Bahiriruta went to Varatta's house. A dish of 
muk-nce dressed with butter and honey was brought. A quarrel broke out, and 
a drop (of blood) fell in the dish. BahuSruta did not want this dish on which 
something had fallen. Varatta saw all that from a window. Then flies came 
oown and landed on the rice. A pet-cuckoo wanted to catch the flies. A cat ran 
after the bird. A neighborhood dog ran after the cat The house-dog too ran after 
him, thinking that the cat was his. Both started a fight. The dogs' masters too 


stood up. Scuffles broke out all round. Everybody went out The guests joined 
forces and went out. It became a very big fight. Varatta thought that this was the 
reason why the monk refused the food. This led him to good thoughts. He 
remembered his former births and became Enlightened. A deity brought to him 
the necessary equipment. 

During the course of his religious life, the ascetic Varatta reached Sum- 
sumarapura where the ruler was Dhundhumara. He had a very beautiful daughter 
called Arigaravati who was a pious Jain laywoman. A non-Jain lady ascetic 
happened to come there and was defeated by Arigaravati in a debate. She felt 
resentful about it, and thought, ‘I shall make her fell in a family where there are 
many co-wives.’ Thus she drew AhgaravatTs portrait on a board and went to 
king Pradyota in Ujjayim. The king saw the portrait and put questions to the 
ascetic, who told him who it was. Then he sent a messenger to AngaravatT's 
father's territory, but Dhundhumara threw him out, saying, ‘My daughter will be 
married for love and if politeness is shown.’ 

On his return the messenger exaggerated the matter to the king, who became 
angry and went out with all his army. He besieged Sumsumarapura. Dhundhu¬ 
mara stayed inside the city, because he had only a small army. 

The ascetic Varatta was standing in kayotsarga in a yatoa-temple located at 
a cross-road. The king Dhundhumara was scared because of the power of his 
enemy. He asked his astrologer, who said, ‘Wait until I examine the omens.’ 
Some children who were playing took fright and came crying to Varatta. ‘Don't 
be scared,’ he said. The astrologer came back and told the king, ‘Victory will be 
yours.’ Then at midday Dhundhumara swooped down on his enemy when he 
was occupied with his meal. The king Pradyota, who had besieged the city, was 
captured. The gates of the city were locked. 

‘From which direction does die wind blow for you?,’ Pradyota was asked. 

‘Do as you think right,’ he said. 

‘How would the death of such an important ruler help?,’ Dhundhumara 
replied. Thus Arigaravati was married to him with great pomp. The gates of the 
city were opened, and Pradyota stayed there. 

(According to others, his tutelary deity told Dhundhumara to keep a fast The 
deity magically produced the children. The omen was obtained.) 

One day Pradyota wandered around the city, and seeing that the king 
Dhundhumara was not powerful, he asked Arigaravati, ‘How was I captured?’ 
She explained what the monk Varatta had said. Pradyota went to him saying, ‘I 
bow down to a monk who has knowledge of omens.’ The venerable Varatta 
became fully aware: from the leaving of worldly life up to the children he had 
magically produced, everything came back to his memory. 

CandrayaSa, Sujata, Dharmaghosa and Varatta, all reached the Goal through 
disgust for worldly life. (According to others, the succession starting with 




7 s worldI) ' “ fe up ,0 Surarabara "'***“ nanated: »■*» 

IS. Deceit Ipaiiihij, about Satarahana's minister, and then about two non- 
Jam ascetics (AvC II 200,11-201,12). 

a. 27 There was in Bhrgukaccha the king Nahapana whose power lay in his 
treasury. On the other hand, there was in Pratisthana Satavahana whose power 
lay in his army. He attacked Nahapana. As Nahapana was very rich, he used to 
give a hundred, thousands, a hundred thousands, or millions to those who would 
ring back a hand or a head. So every day Nahapana's men used to kill enemies, 
atavahanas men also used to kill and bring back some, but their king did not 
give diem anything. As Satavahana had no more soldiers, he retreated The 

following year he came again, but then also he was defeated and went away So 
time passed. 

One day, his minister said to him, ‘Accuse me of some crime, banish me and 
imprison some men.’ The king did exacdy so. As for the minister, he left the 
place and went to Bhrgukaccha, taking a load of sweet-smelling bads. He stayed 

f hT P 1C ' nCWS Spr6ad “ the ne ighboring kingdoms that 
Satavahana had thrown out his minister. In Bhrgukaccha nobody knew him. If 

somebody asked him, ‘Who are you?,’ the minister said, ‘I have been given the 
name of Lord Guggula.’ If anybody recognized him, he gave the reason why he 
had been thrown out They considered it was rather trivial. 

Then Nahapana came to know about all that He sent some men to Guggula 
but Guggula did not even want to hear about becoming Nahapana's minister The 
ng himself came. He took Guggula back with him and appointed him The 
minister, knowing that he was trusted said, ‘Through good deeds one can get a 
kmgdom. Let the path to another birth be prepared.’ Nahapana spent money on 
temples, stupas, ponds, and tanks, and thus all the money ran out His former 
mimster summoned Satavahana to come. Nahapana again spent everything. He 
said to his mimster, ‘You are a resourceful man.’ 

‘I shall manage,’ Guggula said. ‘Bring the ladies’ ornaments.’ 

Again Satavahana went back to Pratisthana. Then Nahapana used up the 
^ amamera. Wh£n th6y Were 311 S° ne ’ Satavahana was summoned to 
come by his former mimster. Nahapana had nothing left which he could give. 
He ran away. The city was captured by Satav ahana 

b. In Bhrgukaccha there were the teacher Jinadeva and two non-Jain 
disputants, the brothers Bhadantamitxa and Kunala. They took the drum out in 
order to invite people to challenge them. While going to visit a Jain temple 
Jinadeva came to know about it. He took up the challenge. The dispute took 
place in the royal court. The red-robed ascetics were defeated. Later on those 
two realized that without knowing the Scriptures of these Jains they would never 
be able to answer questtons. So they deceitfully left worldly life at Jinadeva's 
feet. (See the account of Govinda for the full description). 28 Then they studied 


and understood the Scriptures. They really believed in them and became Jain 

19, Proper behaviour (suvihi): the two doctors. 

[See section A, story 1: above pp. 1-3]. 

20. Obstruction of karmic matter (samvara): about the nun Sri (AvC II 

Here is an example a contrario to illustrate obstruction of karman. In 
Rajagrha 6renika put a question to Lord Mahavlra: ‘There is one celestial 
dancer who gave a show and then went away. Who is she?’ 

The Lord explained, ‘In Varanasi lived the old merchant Bhadrasena. His 
wife's name was Nanda. They had a daughter &ri. She became an old maid and 
was never asked for in marriage. Lord Par&va came for his general preaching in 
the park of Kostaka. Sri gave up worldly life. She was entrusted as a disciple 
to the nun Gopali. She first led her religious life enthusiastically, but later on 
she became distressed: she used to wash her hands and feet all the time. (See 
the full description in the account of DraupadI). 29 When she was forbidden to do 
so, she got up, went elsewhere and settled in a separate house. She died without 
having made confession or repented and was bom again on Mount Cullahim- 
avanta in a lotus-pond as a gods' courtesan called Sri. She did not practice the 
obstruction of karman. One should behave exactly in the opposite way. 
(According to others: Srenika put the question because she had the appearance 
of a female-elephant and was trumpeting). 

21. Refraining from personal faults (attadosovasamhara): about the young 
Jinadeva (AvC II 202,8-13). 

In Dv&ravatl lived the trader Arahanmitra and Anudhari, his wife. Both were 
true Jain devotees. Jinadeva was their son. He became sick and could not be 
cured. The doctors said, ‘Eat meat.’ He refused. All the relatives, his father and 
his mother, out of affection for their son, gave him permission. He did not want 
to, ‘How could I break a vow which has been kept for so long? It is said: 

1 . Rather enter a blazing fire than break a vow practiced for a long time. 
Rather death, indeed, with perfectly pure conduct than the life of somebody who 
failed to observe good behaviour.’ 

Thus he refrained from personal faults. ‘I am going to die,’ he thought, and 
therefore abstained from all reprehensible action. Although he was beyond 
reproach, still he practiced abstention from food, etc. He left worldly life. As he 
had reached the stage of very pure thoughts, he became Omniscient, and was 
soon Emancipated. 

22. Refraining from all sensual pleasures (sawakamavirattaya); about a 
father and his daughter (AvH 714bf>-715a,7). 

In the city of UjjayinI, there was the king Devalasuta, and his beloved wife, 
whose name was Locana. One day, this king was lying on his bed, while the 
queen combed his hair. She noticed a grey hair and said, ‘My lord, a messenger 




has come.’ The king got up hurriedly, with fear and joy: ‘Where is he?’ So she 
explained, Its the messenger of religion.’ Gently winding the hair around her 
finger, she pulled it out. It was placed on a golden tray wrapped in two fine 
pieces of cloth and circulated throughout the city. The king was restless 
thinking, ‘Our ancestors left worldly life before their hair had become grey, and 
I have not yet done so.’ He then placed his son Padmaratha on the throne and 
left worldly life. His wife, too, did so. Out of affection for them, the male 
servant Sangaka and the female servant Manumatika too left worldly life. All of 
them went to the hermitage for ascetics located on. Mount Asita. After some 
time Sangaka and Manumatika went back to worldly life. 

The queen had not informed the king previously about her pregnancy. The 
embryo went on growing. The king was restless, thinking that he was now 
dishonoured, and he kept his wife hidden from the ascetics. The tender queen 
died during the delivery but gave birth to a girl. She was brought up drinking 
the milk of other lady ascetics. She was given the name ArdhasankaSa. 

She became a young lady. She used to make her father rest on his way from 
the forest, and he fell in love with her young grace. He thought, ‘Today or 
tomorrow I shall take her.’ Once, as he started running with the intention of 
taking her, he fell on the wood pile of a hut. As he fell down he thought, ‘Alas 
such is the result of my action in this world! Who knows what it would be in 
the next world?’ He became Enlightened, acquired the knowledge called avadhi 
and recited the lesson “One should indeed be averse to all desires.” 30 Now free 

from attachments he entrusted his daughter to the nuns. As for him, he attained 

23. Renouncing the m. (mulagunapaccakkhana): the Enlightenment of a 
barbarian king (AvC II 203,12-204,6). 

In Saketa there was the king Satrunjaya. Jinadeva, a true Jain layman lived 
“ere- He went on a pilgrimage to Kotivarsa. The people of that place were 
barbarians. Cilata was their king. Jinadeva offered him all types of precious 
stones, jewels and cloth-material. There, all these things were unobtainable. 

‘Wonderful! these beautiful jewels! Where do they come from?,’ Cilata asked. 
With the thought that maybe Cilata could be Enlightened, Jinadeva explained 
that the jewels came from “another kingdom.” 

The king said, ‘I want to go and see these jewels. But I am afraid of your 
king.’ 3 

Dont be afraid,’ Jinadeva replied. He then sent a message to his king, who 
answered, ‘Let him come.’ Cilata was taken to Saketa. It was Mahavlra's 
general preaching. Satrunjaya went there with his retinue. Crowds of people 

went with great pomp. Seeing all this, Cilata asked Jinadeva, ‘Where are these 
people going?’ 

‘Here is the jewel-merchant,’ was the reply. 

‘Let us go and see,’ Cilata said. 


The pair of them went there. They saw the Master's rows of parasols, lion- 
thrones (The full description is to be supplied). Cilata asked how the jewels 
might be obtained. The Master then described the material jewels and the 
spiritual ones. 31 

‘Give me the spiritual ones,’ Cilata said. 

The Master said that they were to be obtained by the monk's broom and the 
dust brush for the alms-bowl. 32 

Cilata gave up worldly life. 

24. Renouncing the u. (uttar agunapaccakkhana): about two monks (AvC II 

There was the city Varanasi. Two monks were spending the rainy-season 
there: Dharmaghosa and Dbarmaya£as. They were observing one month's fast. 
At the time of the fourth fast-breaking, after having done recitation during the 
first three hours, understanding during the second three hours, and after having 
remembered what they learnt, in the third three hours they went away, in order 
not to stay always in the same place. Overcome by autumnal heat, they were 
thirsty when they crossed the Ganges, but even mentally they did not long for 
water. They crossed over the river. The deity of the Ganges magically produced 
some cow-sheds: she showed full respect to the monks (The full description is 
to be supplied). Then she called to them, ‘Come on, monks, take alms.’ They 
were ready to accept When they understood the form and shape of this, they 
refused the deity's offer, and ran away. Later, out of compassion, the deity 
magically produced a rainstorm. The earth became wet. Comforted by a cool 
wind, the monks reached a village. There they took suitable alms and broke their 

[25. Rejecting all possessions (viussagga): the four Pratyekabuddhas (AvC II 

[See the fully developed version of Devendra's Uttaradhyayana commentary 
edited by H. JAOCOBI, Ausgewdhlte Erzahlungen in Jaina Maharastri, Leipzig, 
1886, pp. 34-66 and translated by J. J. MEYER, Hindu Tales, London, 1909.] 
26. Not being careless ( appamada): the story of Magadhasundari, a courtesan 
(AvC 11 209,1-8). 

In Rajagrha, the king was Jarasandha. He had two very eminent courtesans, 
MagadhaM and Magadhasundari. The former thought, ‘If she were not there, 
the king would be mine alone, and also the fame.’ So she started seeking weak 
points in her rival. One day when Magadhasundari was to dance, she threw 
among the kamikara-flowers some golden needles smeared with poison so that 
they looked like saffron. Magadhasundari* s supervisor saw that the bees were 
not settling on the karnikara-flowers, but were attracted towards the mango-trees, 
from which she inferred that something was wrong with the flowers. She 
thought, ‘If I say that worship made with these flowers would be impure, or that 
they are smeared with poison, it would be somewhat vulgar. So I shall use a 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

axsr she went ° d to -—on 

sang the following giti: 8 composition, but that day she 

mdeistood that the SmeTfect" t” ° rdim ^. stan2a ' •“* *> 

and danced gracefully, and was not tricledf 17,118 ’° aV ° ld them ’ She san « 

She abided them, and, always careful, she danced and sang without mistake 

a n0 ‘ “*«“’ ■—» <— a even for a second or half 

-S'CiTr 86 “■ KH Vijaya Ujjayta- „ 

had to do for sTm^rlhe nZST* ° f ““ he 

Thinking that small herbs would sprout from the ^ by P ° Unng ram - 

Natapitaka for the rainy-season in a N 3 M u ■ & ^ 1DS ’ be stayed 111 the village 

with my teacher, but even here, I shall aaas I have ?° Ught ’ '/ 301 DOt staym S 
a sthapamcarya-stand 33 in front of him He used t been teught t0 - So he put 
the daily duties the MvotJZ JS a f measure the tJme . to observe 
In the middle of the day also after He USed t0 P ractice confession, 

resolves aboat he USed ^-^eously to make 

would himself answer, ‘Yes ,34 (Like thfr th^ t0 ab ° Ut the 311(1 
monastic conduct shotid be des££ d ) ° f f ° r §° od 

WhatTs m ° ment be was busy ’ ‘What have I done? 

Pusya^n T “« ^bata.’-^ hved 

devotee. Hs dt^CaS^s ? Mng who •*»* a to 

depressed. One day, the teacher thoughfTshSTteorif 38 ** T* 
meditation.’ at is similar to what is called jSf - ^ myself m Subtle 
absorbed in it, he controls his artier; , a ^ ia P ana > hut when one gets 

Since the monks who were at Pusvabh“H ,m f SUCh & ^ ^ he iS uncon scious). 
called Pusyamitra whT oZl 2d u ^ P ° Stulants ’ ** tea ^er 

agreed. Then th^acher^atTdinV ab °° t “* plan ' ^dple 



and looked. He stayed there for a long time. The teacher did not move. Neither 
did he speak or stir in the least. There was also no sign of breathing in and out: 
his breathing was indeed so subtle! Then the monk went to tell the others what 
he had seen. They became angry, ‘Brother, our teacher is dead, and you haven't 
even told us!” 

‘He is not dead,’ Pusyamitra said. ‘He is meditating. Don’t disturb him.’ 
(According to others: Pusyamitra did not tell the truth, because he was a Saivite 
ascetic in disguise who in fact intended to propitiate the ghost of the dead, since 
he was a teacher endowed with all the auspicious marks). 

You can go and see tonight. ’ The monks started quarrelling with Pusyamitra, 
but he stopped them. Then they went away, informed the king and made him 
come, ‘Our teacher is dead, and this false ascetic does not allow his body to be 
taken away. The king also looked and he too came to the conclusion that he 
was dead. He did not believe Pusyamitra. A bier was arranged. When he came 
to know about this decision, the disciple thought that his teacher had probably 
died. The teacher had previously told Pusyamitra that in case of a fire, or any 
other emergency, he should touch his toe. So he did. The teacher woke up: 
“Brother, why have you disturbed me?” 

“Look at what your disciples have done!” 

The teacher rebuked them. 

Such is the type of meditation in which one should get absorbed. 

29. Forbearance of mortal pains (udaa maranantie): the monk Dharmaruci 
(AvC II 211,1-9). 

Even if there are pains which end in death, one should bear them. Here is an 

In the city of Rohitaka, there was a group called Laliya. There lived Rohinl, 
an old courtesan. As she had no other means of livelihood, she used to cook 
food for the group, and so time passed. 

One day, she took a bitter pumpkin, prepared it with lots of spices and cooked 
it. It was so spoilt that it could not be put in the mouth. ‘The group is going to 
blame me,’ she thought. So she quickly cooked another one. ‘Let me give the 
bad one to monks wandering for alms so that it does not go to waste,’ she 
thought. Then the monk Dharmaruci, who was at the end of one month’s fast, 
came in. The pumpkin was given to him. He went back and confessed to his 
teacher about what he had received. The teacher took the dish. He perceived an 
acrid smell and investigated it. He realised that whoever ate the pumpkin would 
die and told Dharmaruci to throw it away outside. 

The monk took the food and went to the forest with the idea of throwing it 
away at the foot of a dry tree. While he was removing the string binding his 
alms-bowl, his hand was smeared with some of the pumpkin. It came in contact 
with the food in one place. Because of the smell ants gathered. All that ate died. 
Dharmaruci thought, ‘Let me finish this dish alone to avoid the murder of living 




beings.’ So, alone in a pure place, he confessed and repented. He carefully 
examined his mouth-cloth, and, blameless as he was, ate that food. Very intense 
pains came. He endured them and was Emancipated. 

30. Renouncing attachments after careful consideration (sanganam ca 
parinna); the caravan-leader Jinadeva (AvC II 211,11-13). 

In Camp a there was the caravan-leader Jinadeva, a true Jain layman. After he 
had made a proclamation, he set out for Ahicchatra. After sometime he reached 
a forest The caravan was plundered by tribesmen. Our true Jain went on 
walking, got lost and entered the forest and what then? In front of him was a 
fire; on the path were some tigers; on both sides was a cliff. He was afraid, 
realising that he was without any refuge; he spontaneously assumed the 
behaviour of a monk: he practiced equanimity, and stood in kayotsarga. He was 
eaten by wild animals. He was Emancipated. 

31. Practice of atonements (payacchittakarana): the teacher Dhanagupta 
(AvH 724a,6-8). 

Somewhere, in a city, there is the teacher Dhanagupta. Although he does not 
possess Omniscience, he is said to know how to give atonements. He knows 
which one helps to purify and which one does not. He knows it through hints 
given by his pupils' gestures. The one who carries an atonement from him easily 
crosses over: he cleanses his transgression and gets a greater expulsion of 
karmic matter. 36 

32. Devoted adherence to the precepts of Omniscient beings (arShana): the 
Emancipation of Lord Rsabha's mother, Marudevi. (AvC II 212, 3-9). 

Bharata was in Vinlta. It was the general preaching of Lord Rsabha. (See the 
Kalpasutra for the full description). Seeing Bharata's magnificence, Marudevi 
said to Bharata, ‘Having given up such a magnificence as yours, your father is 
wandering alone without shelter.’ Bharata said, ‘What is my magnificence 
compared to my father’s? If you don't believe me, let us go and see.’ Bharata 
came out with all his forces, and Marudevi too. She sat alone on an elephant, 
and what then? She saw rows of parasols and a group of gods who were 
pr aising her son: the glitter of Bharata’s clothes and ornaments faded away. 
Bharata said, ‘Have you seen your son’s magnificence? How could mine be 
compared to it?’ She started to think with joy. She reached the eighth gunas- 
thana called apurvakarana 31 . She did not remember her previous births since she 
had risen up from life in a vegetable body. 38 There itself, on the elephant's back, 
she reached Omniscience. She was Emancipated. The first human being to reach 
Emancipation in this descending era was Marudevi. 


1. Apart from the 24 Tuthamkaras Jaina mythology has other heroic categories who run 
parallel to them: the 12 Cakravartins, the 9 Baladevas, the 9 Vasudevas, and sometimes 


- -» 

vSS»-«=«—»» MI0HNS0R B “* 1960 ' vo1 

2 . terfTte two doctors is slightly bener tan the other, yet bod, a» hope** >“»*. ^ ^ ^ 

u -— 

rXr^phecy nsmued by Nenn (told i» the to*) »d the echnd story (.old in the 
rS^ve litenmrethe ^ 

7 °m «™**e. motives end sjenres of due 

MEITE, "Ihe Tale of the elepham-dnve, » «s. 545 . 559 . 

8 . For (»o„ Jaina) nuns a. hind or wicked go-betw~»s see Isobelow *ebon C sto^ 17. 

0 Read sa instead of C ed. so. r 

10. For Ihe posilive effects of this fortnula in tdl sorts. -£*£ 

ROTH, “Notes on the Pamca-Namokkara-Parama M g 

Library Bulletin. Mahavlra Jayanti Volume 38. 1974, 1-1«. 

11. tena ya tarn atthavayam laddhellayam not very h * vereached Nirvana? 

the mythical mountain where the first Jma Rsabha » supposed to have reac 

12. Throughout these translations this is my rendering of samosarana. 

15. Read bharitam instead of bhamta. C ed. 

16. sewn, luppd—: not very clear. As a basis for 

- - 

17. In Jaina narrative liters Abh^a is used - a model of cleverness, sunder to Bubal 
in more recent times. See again below section B story 8 a. 

18. i.e. the one who had adopted Krtapunya and then thrown him out. 

19 Similar ohrase in section C story 23 (end). 

* Since ill connected wtft« S" — ^ 

in Hemacandra’s Trisastisalakapurusacanta VHI.5.1 23 ( 

153-154) and other Nemi's biographies; see also above n.i. 

21. For conversion of tribal populations to Jainism see also sectron C s ory • 



22. The negative particle, omitted in C ed., has to be supplied. 

23. hindati C. ed. is obviously a mistake for hindasi. 

24. See fig. 87 “Actors and pole-dancers” in Moti CHANDRA— U.P. SHAH New 

Documents of Jama Painting. Bombay, 1975. ’ 

1962 “o f i r VI,73 Ce HemaCandia ' S Trisastim ^P“rusacarita trans. JOHNSON, Baroda, 


L This refers to the mode of argumentation known as niksepa on which see B. BHATT 
5) _ anomcalNlk sepa Studies m Jatna Dialectics , Leiden, 1978 (Indologia Berolinensis’ 

2. This paragraph refers to the preliminary rituals to be performed before a construction 

19^ rTTn , Bar0da ’ 1950 ’ P - ^ 31111 Samaranganasutradhdra. Baroda, 
1966, chapter 11) and is not found in AvH. ^ 

3. Parallel version in commentaries on Uttaradhyayanasutra 4.10. 

lSryT 9 OT Manage of Cousins in India f Journal of the Royal Asiatic 

mages ’ Pait Pl3yed ^ Ae matema] ^cle in such 

5 ; See an illustration of such a bamboo-pole for instance in India Observed. India as 
viewe y ritish Artists 1760-1869. Victoria and Albert Museum. 1982 No 100 
6 . Similar motif in story 8b of the the present section. 

]' ^^hword do kannao is used for stories, 5 and 6 and should be understood 

", 8 kan ™ ( N °- 5) + ega karma (No. 6). Parallel version to No. 5a in Jayasimhasuri's 
Dharmopadeiamalavivarana. Bombay, 1949, p. 61. 

8 . And the Mango-trees are the best. 

9. Parallel version in Jayasimhasuri's DharmopadeSamalavivarana, p. 62. 
lO^Asecond quotation identical to O. BOHTLINGK, Indische Spriiche 5824 is adduced 

1L ?! D0 :1 f0r 1116 catchword - A Xoty wi* a similar framework and partly different 
mserted riddles is found m the Uttaradhyayana Iradition in the saga of the Pratyekabud- 
dha Naggai: see for inst^ce J. CHARPENTffiR. P accekabuddhageschichTl Upsaia, 
1908, p. 134ff.; H. JACOBI, Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Uahdrastri, p. 49ff. 


of the word avalla ' 1 foUow ** Sanskrit ch5 y 5 avaUable * ** 

2. Scone words in this sentence are unclear. 

D “ ^ *■ 



4. This refers to the so-called Jinakappika , a very rigorous religious way of life suitable 
for spiritually advanced monks only, on which see for instance, C. CAILLAT, 
Atonements in the ancient ritual of the Jaina monks. Ahmedabad, 1975, p. 41. 

5. See section A, note 14. 

6. A very common Jaina ascetic posture especially well-known from the colossal image 
of Bahubali in &ravana Belgola (Kamatak): one stands erect, does not move, and looks 
at the tip of his nose. 

7. Thus this episode serves two didactic purposes. It has also to be supplied above in 
section A, story 10. 

8. See Agamic Index. Vol. 1 Prakrit Proper Names. Ahmedabad, 1970 s.v. 

9. “A Canonical text not extant now”: see ibidem. 

10. See above note 4. 

11. Le. his nephew, see p. 58. 

12. Avantisena is Maniprabha's elder brother and was bom before their mother Dharini 
left worldy life. 

13. Le. Avantisena's wife, also named Dharini: see the very beginning of the story. 

14. This refers to the Dharini of story No. 7 who became a nun. 

15. = Av. niryukti vs. 1290: three vaitallya-padas and one caruhasini-pada, as Prof. A. 
Mette (Munster) kindly suggests. 

16. In the section which I translate here one only finds a cross-reference and must refer 
to the passage where the story has been first adduced, viz. as die seventh of the ten 
examples serving to illustrate the difficulty of getting human biith. 

17. No satisfactory Sanskrit form is found for these slaves' names. 

18. Translation based on the relevant passage in AvH, since AvC is not clear 

19. See Nayadhammakahao 16: S CHUB RING p. 52. The whole scene naturally reminds 
a reader of DraupadTs svayamvara in the Mahabharata. 

20. See n. 16. 

21. Compare the sacrifice of a wheat-cock ( pistakurkuta ) in M. BLOOMFIELD, Life and 
Stories of the Jaina Saviour Parivandtha. Baltimore, 1919, p. 196. 

22. There are Tlrthamkaras, Cakravartins, Baladevas, Vasudevas (and Praiivasudevas) in 
each region of the Jain cosmology: see, for instance, Helen JOHNSON'S translation of the 
Trisastisaldkapurusacarita voL 1, p. 386ff. 

23. For Narada’s childhood see for instance Trisasti VIIL 5.28-42: trsl. vol. V p. 154-155. 
As a rsi, Narada is said to be the author of this sentence, the first one of the 

24. This is an avatar of the upasargas the Jinas have to face in their religious lives. They 
can be mild or violent. 

25. A sign of careful behaviour. 

26. See E. LEUMANN, Die Avasyaka-Erzahlungen Leipzig, 1897, p. 14ff. for the full 

27. The rivalry between the Satavahana kings and the 3aka Ksarahata (represented by 
Nahapana) is an historical fact: see Jyoti Prasad JAIN, The Jaina Sources of the History 



f T- p ' K - SB - DEO 30.3- 

4, 1954, p. 276£f. on fee cleverness of Satavah ana’s minister. 

28. For Govinda, the pattern of such stories, see Nisiha-cunni vol. HI p 260 

^ f0U0Wing AvH - ^ teXt rcfers 10 account of 

TZlT ^ a fr nnU * ahd0 . 16) ' * e whole *<*7 rather teminds one of fee account 
feetL^no *“ Sketched “ Pupphaciilao (10th Upahga of 

CagCr 10 rcHgiOUS “*> ^ later become disguled take 
care of their bodies in a way not allowed to nuns and refuse to change their behaviour 

30. This might be a quotation, but I could not trace it. 

31. The ratnatraya, Le. right faith, right knowledge and right conduct. 

32. On gocchaga see S.B. DEO, History ofJaina Monachism. Poona, 1956, p. 614. 

S« S XVl J K^rf FBCHE ^ Leiden, 1978, Pan a p. 10-ll'a.d 

prate AVI It acts here as a substitute for fee teacher. 

34. Measuring the time {kalagrahana) in order to know when to perform or not perform 
ligious acts is very important in Jainism and the topic is fully dealt wife in th^iv. 

35. A very subtle type of mediation where breathing becomes impossible to be perceived 

at ° nements is one of * e "tain Actions of the acarya: see C. 
Atonements passim. 

37. See P.S. JAINI. The Jairta Path of Purification. Delhi, 1979, chart p. 272-273. 

38. Uncertain. I have not been able to trace any parallel to this feature of fee story. 

APPENDIX: The Stories of the Avasyaka TYadition 

^ developed around the Avafyaka sutra is so important and 
extensive that Ernst Leumann, a pioneer in the study of this field of Indology 
was prompted to com a special term for the Avafyaka and its commentaries. He 
cafied this entire corpus of material the “AvaSyaka-Iiteratur,” a term that is still 
current among students of Jainism. 

In fact, fire commentaries to the Avafyaka became so important that the actual 
Avafyakasutra has been superseded by its oldest commentary, the versified 
Ayafyakamryuktt in Prakrit which in its present form is comprised of about 2000 
stanzas. Without its prose commentaries however, the niryukti could hardly be 
of any use; it really consists for the most part of lists of catchwords without any 
yntactical link between them and demands further explanatory material. Thus 
one has to read the niryukti simultaneously with its Prakrit curni, or commen¬ 
tary, which ns ascribed to Jinadasa(ca. 6th-7th cent.) and with the mixed Prakrit- 
Sansknt tikas by Haribhadra (8th cent) and Malayagiri (llth-12th cent.- 
incomplete). These texts together form a coherent body of material. Another 
group of texts concentrates on a part of the niryukti and lays more emphasis on 

fT Phy d0gma ‘ ^ *** is re P reseate d by Jinabhadra’s 
Visesavakyakabhasya and its prose co mmentary 


All of these various methods of Jaina exegesis aim at helping the aspirant 
reach his spiritual goal by moral improvement, but they show considerable 
variation in the means they chose to carry out this task. Jain scriptural exegesis 
often resorts to highly formulaic and abstract schemes (such as the niksepa ) 
which are designed to bring us as close as is possible to the true meaning of the 
fundamental words and notions in a text On the other hand, as might be 
expected in the Indian context, Jain commentators also give to edifying stories 
a major role in elucidating important concepts, and it is here that the Avakyaka 
commentaries stand out In fact they are the main source upon which many 
Svetambara medieval narrative anthologies such as Jayasimha's Dharmopadeia- 
malavivarana (11th cent), the Akhyanakamaniko&a, the Mitlakuddhiprakarana, 
the Upadefapada, the Upadefamdla, and the Kathakofa have drawn. Thus they 
are the starting point for any investigation into Jain narrative literature, its 
history and its remarkable vitality. 

Stories are not distributed equally throughout the Avakyaka commentaries. 
They are concentrated into sections of various sizes organized around important 
terms. In my translations I have chosen to present three such sections (A:eleven 
stories; B:eight stories; C:thirty-two stories) which I consider as good representa¬ 
tives of the general process of storytelling in the Avakyaka commentaries. In 
sections A and B, which deal with the first and the fourth of the six necessary 
duties ( samayika and pratikramana), the niryukti bands down two chains of 
catchwords: the first one lists technical terms and the second one offers a 
corresponding list of illustrations ( niryukti 845-846, 1233, 1242). Samayika, 
which has the restricted meaning of equanimity, here covers a very broad range 
of ideas (compassion, humble behaviour, etc.). It refers most generally to the 
acquisition of a state of mind which makes a person conceive of worldly life as 
negative and realize that he should leave it. As for pratikramana, it is subjected 
to a specific exegetical device which consists in defining the meaning of a 
concept by giving “synonyms” ( egattha ; Sanskrit ekdrtha ) or rather, approxima¬ 
tions. In section C, the biggest narrative section in the whole corpus, five verses 
list thirty-two catchwords which work as labels for different aspects of Jain 
conduct (yogasamgraha ). Then comes for each story one stanza enumerating the 
proper names of characters and places or religious terms connected with that 
story (N1274-1320). 

In several cases a reader may feel that the logical connectibn between a given 
term and the story meant to elucidate it is rather loose or unexpected (ex. C 23, 
C 24). The feet that the same story can be used two or three times, serving 
different didactic purposes, proves to some extent that the connection between 
story and the term it is meant to illustrate is not hard and fixed (ex. A 1 *= C19; 

For all three sections, my translations are based on the texts of the full stories 
as they appear in the prose commentaries. Generally speaking, it can be said that 
the story handed down by the curni and by the tikas is the same. Differences, 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

where they occur, are mostly in the wording. In most cases, I have selected the 
cury version because it is considered to be older and was probably less affected 
by the process of Sanskritisation than the tikas were. In a few cases, however 

have used Hanbhadra’s text I have given the precise textual reference at the 
beginning of each translation. For the sake of convenience I have also provided 
die stones with titles and Sanskridsed the Prakrit names. My Sanskrit renderings 
follow that given in the Dictionary of Prakrit Proper Names. 

As can be seen, the stories represent different literary genres, though they are 
u oimly labelled as drstantas or uddharanas (examples) by the commentators. 

e thus read short anecdotes, the characters of which are anonymous, as well 
as parables, short stones, small novels, folk tales (A 2), humorous riddles 

aCC0UDt f ° r a P lace ' name (B 4), or even pseudo-’ 
histoncal accounts (C 18) and a Jaina avatar of the 1001 nights (B 6). 

In my opinion at least two details prove that these Avafyaka stories represent 
an intermediate stage between an oral tradition which would give the narrator (a 
preaching monk) great freedom and a fixed written tradition which would imply 
a more njpdly unvarying text In many cases, we are given a kind of narrative 
framework where episodes are quickly sketched in a somewhat abrupt manner 
and where descriptive elements have almost no place as such but are only 
referred to casually and meant to be supplied by the teller of the tale This is 
conveyed by the technical term vibhdsd which I have always rendered as “the 
frill description is to be supplied” (viz. from relevant Canonical sources or by 
drawing from the narrator’s imagination). On the other hand, phrases such as 
anne bhanana, “others say,” appear in the stories, referring to narrative variants 
and divergent opinions on some details of the stories; they imply a desire to fix 
tire text and justrfy its authority. I have retained these phrases in the translations, 
usrng the formula according to others,” since they are characteristic of this 

Krt!Tko°L naiTaXlVt hteratUre ' The y ^PPear for the most part in the later 

When compared with the later narratives of the KathdkoJas , the Ava&aka 
stones seem much cruder. They are mainly concerned with the behaviour of the 
characters they show. Thus the narrative element prevails over description and 
even toe religious background, though all-pervading, appears in a simple and 
disoete manner through a few recurrent terms or motifs (memory of former 
birtos, kayotsarga, pancanamaskdra, keeping of fasts, preaching of monks, 
cnticism of meat-eating and sacrifice, avadhi-knowledge). 

We are taken among merchants, acrobats, wrestlers, weavers, brahmins, 
monks and novices kings and queens. We come across some customs of 
th T- , mar I?! ge 0f ^ 4) ’ marnage anaaged during childhood without 

2 ^ h (A ?) ’ C0DflictS resultin S from ™aniage between 

pereons of different faiths (C 4). We learn about toe technique of acrobats (A 
11), about the training of wrestlers (C 1), about conflicts concerning deposits a 
favorite topic for small anecdotes (B 6: sixth riddle), about traffic in ivory (C ?) 


But social conservatism is toe norm. We see how a king who wants to marry a 
poor painter’s daughter buys her, how this girl must compensate for toe social 
gap by telling stories (B 6: Jaina avatar of 1001 nights) and how she has to bear 
the envy of her co-wives. We leam how the difference in their social status 
plays a part in the different behaviour of a weaver’s daughter and a brahmin's 
daughter who are close friends (B 5). 

Editions used 

AvC = Avakyakacurni. 2 vols. (1-11). Ratlam, 1928-29. References are to the 
page and line of this edition. This uncritical edition is far from satisfactory. 
However in the present work notes concerning the wording have been limited to 
extreme cases of error (omission of negations...). 

AvH = Haribhadra's Avasyakatfkd (also containing the niryukti), Bombay, 1916- 
1917 (Agamodaya Samiti). References are to the page and line of this edition. 

Bibliography of studies connected with the 
A vasy aka-commentaries 

Ludwig ALSDORF, Jaina Exegetical Literature and the History of the Jaina 
Canon”: Mahavira and His Teachings. Ed. A. N. UPADHYE et alia. 
Bombay, 1977: 1-8. 

Ludwig ALSDORF, “Zwei neue Belege zur ‘indischen Herkunft’ von 1001 
Nacht”: Kleine Schriften. Wiesbaden, 1974: 518-558 [p. 545fif: text and 
translation of AvC 1 553ff]. 

Nalini BALBIR, “The monkey and toe weaver-bird. Jaina versions of a pan- 
Indian Tale”: Journal of the American Oriental Society 105.1.1985: 119-134 
[Ed.trs] of AvC 1 345-346. 

Nalini BALBIR, “The Perfect sutra as defined by toe Jainas”: Berliner Indo- 
logische Studien 3.1987:3-21 [AvN 880-886], 

N alini BALBIR, “Anadhyaya as a Jaina topic": to be published in Wiener 
Zeitschrift fur die Kunde Siidasiens 1990 [AvN 1321-1417]. 

Klaus BRUHN, tiilahkas Cauppannamahdpurisacariya. Ein Beitrag zur 
Kenntnis der Jaina-Universalgeschichte Hamburg, 1954 [esp. for problems 
connected with Rsabha's and Mahavlra's biographies as they are sketched in 
the AvaSyaka-commentaries). 

Klaus BRUHN, “AvaSyaka Studies 1”: Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus. 
Gedenkschrift fur Ludwig Alsdorf. Wiesbaden, 1981: 11-49 [rich and 
suggestive methodological study]. 




Klaus BRUHN, “Repetition in Jaina Narrative literature”: Indologica Tauri- 
nensia 11.1983:27-75. 

Jagdisch Chandra JAIN, Prakrit Jain Katha Sahitya. Ahmedabad, 1971 [Hindi 
paraphrase of some Av. stories]. 

Ernst LEUMANN, “Die alten Berichte von den Schismen der J aina ”* Indische 
Studien XVILLeipzig, 1885:91-135 [AvN 778-784]. 

Ernst LEUMANN, Die Avafyaka-Erzahlungen. Leipzig, 1897 [Critical edition of 
stories included in AvC 1 44-124 and connected commentaries. A presenta¬ 
tion, translation and glossary are being prepared by Nalini BALBIR and 
Thomas OBERLEES]. 

Ernst LEUMANN, Ubersicht iiber die Avafyaka-Literatur. Hamburg, 1934. [still 
the basic book for any study of this field of Jainism]. 

Adelheid METTE, “The tale of the elephant-driver in its AvaSyaka-version”: 
Pandit Kailaschcandji Shastri Abhinandana Grantha. Rewa.l980:549-559 
[AvC 1 461-465:infra section A story 2]. 

Adelheid METTE, “The Tales of th tNamaskdra-vydkhya in the AvaJyaka-curni. 
A survey”: Indologica Taurinensia 11.1983: 129-144 [AvC 1 503-590]. 

Katrin VERCLAS, Die Avafyaka-Erzahlungen iiber die Upasargas des 
Mahavira im Vergleich mit den Versuchungen des Bodhisattva in der 
buddhisten Literatur. Hamburg, 1976 [Dissertation; esp. stories in AvC 1 269- 

Albrecht WEBER, “Uber die heiligen Schriften der Jaina”: Indische Studien 
SVIL Leipzig. 1885 [pp. 50-76 about Av. sutra, AvN and commentaries], 

Theodor ZACHARIAE, Kleine Schriften zur indischen Philologie, zur ver- 
gleichenden Literaturgeschichte, zur vergleichende Volkskunde. Bonn und 
Leipzig, 1920. 

The Tale of the Faithful Wife Rohinl 

Translated by Dr. Prem Suman Jain 


Many short didactic stories were written in Prakrit From time to time they 
were collected into anthologies that were known as Kathdko&as, Treasure 
Houses of Stories.” The story of Rohinl occurs in the Prakrit verse commentary 
by AmradevasOri to the AkhyanakamanikoSa, which Was compiled around the 
twelfth century. There are many stories in Indian literature about virtuous 
women who preserve their chastity from all who would sully it Such stones 
were particularly appreciated among the Jains, who told them both in the canon 
and in later texts. In the Jmtddharmakatha we read of how Malh talked ax 
princes out of iheir lust for her by showing them the hue nature of the body, 
using an image of herself that gave off a terrible smell to prove her point hi the 
story of Rajamati and Rathanemi in the Uttaradhyayanasutra, 22, Rajamatt uses 
the famous example of eating vomit as a comparison for resuming a life of 
pleasures after one has become a monk. Such inventive stones about the 
necessity to preserve womanly virtue continued to be told throughout die history 
of Jain story literature, with the story of Rohinl being especially popular. I have 
studied this story in my Rohinikathdnafc, published in Udaipur m 1986.1 take 
this opportunity to thank Dr. LJ». Mathur and Dr. Phyllis Granoff for reading 

my translation. 

The Faithful Wife Rohinl 

1 There lived in Pataliputra a king named Nanda, who was radiant like the 
sun and a bee-like youth for the lotus-like hearts of beautiful damsels. 

2. A merchant named Dhanavaha, much honoured by the king and filled with 
good conduct as the moon is with nectar, also lived there. 




3. Rohirn was the wife of that merchant, as the star Rohinl is the consort of 
the moon, which bears the mark of a deer on its surface; she was full of 
sparkling radiance, had a noble heart and restless eyes. 

4. And a pair, a male cat and a mynah bird, that they had raised from infancy 
and were extremely dear to their hearts, lived in the residence of the 

5. At one time anxiety arose in the mind of the merchant Dhanavaha, and he 
“'ought that just as it is not proper (for anybody) to enjoy the wife of his 
father, similarly is it not proper for him to enjoy his father’s wealth. 

6. He thought, “Only those persons are the real ornaments of the world, with 
self-respecting virtues, passing their lives in a noble way, who bestow in 
chanty to orphans the money that they have earned themselves. 

7. Unlike itching that gets more and more with constant scratching, money 

spent never increases. Therefore, noble persons should strive hard to earn 

8. Thinking like this, the merchant, who had a resolute mind bent on earning 

wealth, after collecting several saleable articles of trade, said this to his 

9. O! Moon-faced Lady! I will have to go to other countries to earn my 
wealth. (Therefore) this residence should be carefully guarded by you. 

10. And, O! Lady with a beautiful body! Take good care of this pair, the male 
cat and mynah bird, and talk to them nicely, three times every day. 

11. And carefully preserve your womanly chastity, which is pure like the full 
moon and a natural ornament.” 

12. Then he put the residence and his wife specially under (the care of) the 

mynah bird and taking the male cat in his lap (he) caressed it with his 

13. The merchant, having honoured all of them, under auspicious stars, boarded 
the ship that was laden with saleable articles. 

14. (That merchant,) by crossing the ocean, the master of the rivers and full of 
roaring waves, gradually reached the island of Sihgala, while here (in 
Patahputra) the king Nanda, 

15. Mounted on an elephant named Jaya, fanned by two white whisks, obstruct¬ 
ing the heat of the host of rays of the sun by his white canopy, 

16. Ornamented with a necklace of thick pearls on his broad chest, more 
beautiful by the decorations on all parts of his body, the destroyer of the 
arrogance of his enemies, 

17. Cutting jokes with his nearest friend named Ratikeli, who was sharp-witted 
when it came to narrating several tales from the treatise on Love, 

18. Surrounded by a group of elephants full of black bees, greedy for the the 
scent of the fluid that flowed from the elephants' temples, and making 


20 . 
21 . 

22 . 










I 33. 



rhythmic sounds; surrounded too by a group of horses wearing bridals 
made of gold that made rhythmic sounds, 

Followed by a group of kings, (King Nanda) moved out of the palace 
garden, si tting on a chariot with a group of small golden bells (ghunghru) 
that made rhythmic sounds. 

And (the king) reached the area of the wall of the private residence of the 
merchant Dhanavaha. In the balcony of that building was a damsel. 

More beautiful in the full blossoming of youth, with her fair body like 
heated gold, similar to the bride of Kamadeva (God of Love) but without 

Moon-faced Rohinl was seen by the king Nanda. Instantly that king was 
shot by the cluster of arrows of the angry Kamadeva. 

After looking with a concentrated mind at her lotus-like face, that king 
began to act wildly, like an intoxicated elephant, right there on the spot. 
Stopping before that Rohinl and craning his neck, time and time again king 
Nanda casts his eyes on her face. 

T hat great lady, the truly chaste Rohinl, after seeing the king, with his not 
inconsiderable desire, viewing her with passionate eyes. 

Went elsewhere with slow steps, descending from the balcony of the house. 
Not seeing her. 

Burning with the flames of separation, the king with a sorrowful heart 
returned to his palace, giving out that he was suddenly unwell. 

A pang of separation from her was kindled in the body of (the king) like a 
fire of dried cow dung. Due to pangs of suffering he (the king) does not 
enjoy anything, even for a moment 

Suffering from great passionate love-sickness, as if possessed by a mighty 
demon, that king (some times) like a mad man laughs, sings, weeps and 
circles here and there without any purpose. 

Then the group of the citizens, ministers, divisional officers, feudal lords, 
and others felt great anxiety at seeing the king in such a condition. 

Then the physicians, healers and astrologers were called by that group of 
citizens. And then the physician says, “The king is suffering from extreme 

Therefore, take the king to an unairy place in the middle of a cell. Try to 
cover him after closing the doors. 

Then O King! You drink the water of raw medicines and keep a fast in 
such a way that you may be free from this acute disease and become 
healthy in body again.” 

Then the different healers say,“The king has been eclipsed by evil stars, 
therefore he weeps, laughs and sees with a fierce vision. 



THE clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

wrinen a dT ° f space ’ tavtag 

witt. flowers of n wS ' ^ > **"‘ :h “““J® «A spirit,, worship * 

36. Having arranged betel not, betel leaves rice irinm- , 

flames 8 and fagra ° Ce of ™ oke of the 


wffl r^S- flKK “ 00 d0 “ b, ttot ^ “*W 

39 ' i 

40 TT ° n “* ^ amiv ®^ »f a «lahontg^” S “ aUSPiCi0U! “* 
this tune Ratikeli, dearest friend of the kins nie«e a u- 

ST a ‘ aK to8 ' s ^ «-* - «2SJSit2Tg'r 

41 ” whTn'^ T* ^ t0 remove «** 

that Ratikeh g ’ heD 016 *“« d <*s not say anything, then 

“ £iri£riru:esa« ,, "*w.»— 

: AitswS-s:-, 

- it— 

close to my heart like you because wn ^ told t0 a Pereon 

47 - 

48. The fact j. u ld from 30 affectionate friend. 

whether her J£2 ^2 5 ***" ^ — 

towards you? 15 kao * m ' h she infatuated or indifferent 

49 ' ma^^^ T — *-*-.* 

50 r ^ f body ^ —«<35 5 s **« ■» 

■ £2* “ vel j° smK —« - 

Slow smile. OTVed from sexual “ge she looks with a 



51. A lady suffering from the arrow of Kamadeva presses her heavy breasts, 
loosens the knot of the doth around her navel and kisses the faces of 

52. She repeatedly utters the name of the person with whom she is in love and 
honours his friends; if she acts in this way, then that lady can be call ed 
passionately in love. 


53. Where there is no waking in the night, no jealousy and no pain, no pride 
and no easy flattery, there is no love. 

54. Young ladies having no passioo breathe without yawning, pretend to be 
asleep, have headaches, and voices thick with exhaustion.’ ” 

55. Then the king said, “I have not observed passionate desire in her (Ro- 
, hinl).” Then it was said by Ratikeli, “Ladies do not exhibit their passions 
„due to shyness. 

56. And when this beautiful jewel (Rohim) has been bom in your country 
^(kingdom), it is yours. Therefore you bring this jewel of a lady into your 
female apartments.” 

57. Then the lord of the earth (king) says, “I could do just that, but I feel 
ashamed before the citizens. Therefore think of another way.” 

58. Then Ratikeli says,“0 lord! Become the guest of the lady, whose husband 

has gone to a far off country, and stay there in the night and enjoy 
pleasures with her.” s 

59. “O friend! you have thought of a good way.” In this manner, having 
praised Ratikeli, the king passed the rest of the day with difficulty by 
exchanging tales- with his friend. 

60. After that when there was thick darkness, wearing a long dark cloak so that 
lie could not be seen, the king with Ratikeli, 

61. Went out speedily, leaving his body guards and relatives behind, with a 
sword in hand which could destroy the enemy arid which was ornamented 
with reddish colour like blood. 

62. Then the king reached the door of the residence of Rohinl. He entered it 
(without Ratikeli) slowly, slowly, like a thief full of fear. 

63. On seeing the king entering (the door), the male cat thought that he was a 
thief and began to cry in a loud voice. 

64. When the mynah bird, becoming nervous on hearing the voice of the male 
cat, saw him, it realized that he was King Nanda and not a thief. 

65. “There is something not proper in the king’s coming here, for the king is 
nervous. He can't possibly be here to steal; therefore definitely he must be 
in search of love. 

66. It is not proper for anyone to come alone at night to the house of a lonely 
woman, and surely it is even odder for the king to come like this. Then 
what has he come for? There is something not quite right here. 



67. Should I make noise now too? or shall I wait and see what the king will 
do? If he tries to outrage the modesty of my mother (RohinI) then I shall 
save her.” 

68. Then thi nkin g like this, the mynah bird became still. After this, on seeing 
the king, RohinI began to think like this. 

69. “This King Nanda has definitely come to outrage my modesty. In what way 

now can I preserve my chastity?” ^ 

70. The king nervously sat on one portion of Rohinrs cot, just as she was 
thinking these things. 

71. Then immediately RohinI rose (from her cot) and sat on the floor. Then 
the king said these things to her in sweet words, 

72. “O! Fawn-eyed lady! I, whose heart has been stolen by you, am always lost 
in thought of you. Or have you now come to rescue me from these burning 
fires of love? 

73. But, cruel one! you have risen (from the cot) and sat on the floor. Such 

behaviour would be unseemly, even when some unimportant guest had 

74. Is it not proper to honour the king, when he has come on his own, with 
affection m his heart, by offering him a seat and talking with him, at least? 

75. Therefore, O beautiful one! Please sit on this cot and soothe me, with the 
cool water of your contact, for I am burning with the intense heat of Love.” 

76. After hearing this talk RohinI says, “O king! For persons like you, who 
have been bom in noble families, this type of behaviour is not proper. 

77. O lord! you always give advice to other persons engaged in vices. But who 
is there to give advice to you when you (yourself) are indulging in vice? 

78. If a gentleman king, who is expert in polity, forsakes (his) propriety of 
conduct, then who can blame common people for indulging in such 
actions? It has also been said, 

79. ‘Where a scholarly person leaves the path of noblemen and treads on the 
wrong path then it is useless to weep at the top of ihe voice, uttering ‘ha 
ha’ as if in a forest, with no one to hear.’ 

80. And another thing is that for all persons the king is like a father. Therefore 
never mind talking about this type of vicious action, it is not proper (for 
bim)even to t hink about it 

81. O king! For women who are full of pus, impurity, fat, flesh and blood, why 

do you perform this improper act which is like a blemish on your noble 

82. Even today the fame of Ravana is tarnished because of his kidnapping 
Slta; (similarly) you might have momentary pleasure, but your feme would 
be tarnished in all die three worlds and your wisdom would be diminished. 


83. And moreover, in youth, which is restlessly swift like the ripples of the 
water of a river, in the sweet love which is as fleeting ,as the water 
bubbles raised by a ship wrecked by the blows of the wind (and), 

84. O king! In this swift life which is like the flashing of lightning in a fresh 
group of clouds, it is in no way proper for gentlemen like you to perform 
such an act. 

85. O king! For the living beings severe results accrue for even small, improper 
acts performed under the control of passion. 

86. Even after this if some improper task is performed in any way by a noble 
person, then the heart of that gentleman continues to bum. Therefore it has 
been said. 

87. ‘Improper tasks, performed without thinking by a noble person due to the 
intoxication of youth continue to give pain to the heart when he ripens into 
old age.’ 

88. Therefore, O king! You should abandon the idea of committing such an 
improper act in this purposeless world where results appear for a moment 
and are destroyed instantly.” 

89. When the tomcat, suspecting a thief, screeches again and again in a loud 
voice, then the mynah bird says these words, 

90. “O tomcat! why do you scream? He is king Nanda and not a thief. Poison 
has been formed in nectar, the one who should have protected us now 
causes us .harm.” 

91. After hiring the noble words of RohinI and the verse of the mynah bird, 
the king with eyes full of tears of remorse thinks like this, 

92. “See! They, who do not know the essential .virtues, have virtues like this 
and I, who know the code of conduct (Sastras) have such a sinful character. 

93. It is regrettable that I, a person with improper conduct, a great sinner, came 
to perform an improper act at the house of this illustrious, pure and 
virtuous RohinI! 

94. This wretched RohinI is commendable, who knows about the proper and 
improper actions of living beings but I, a person without virtuous results, 
am not noble.” 

95. T hinkin g like this, that king, rising suddenly, becoming immensely 
emotional and touching his head to the floor, touches the lotus-like feet of 

96. Anri says, “O extremely virtuous one! I have been saved from rem ainin g in 
the well of darkness of intense spiritual ignorance (‘Moha’) by your noble 

97. Whatever evil words have been uttered by me in the madness of youth, 
kindly forgive by showing me kindness.” 





98. In this way, after asking for forgiveness and again touching her lotus-like 
feet with devotion, that king returned to his palace with his friend Ratikeli, 
(who had stayed outside RohinTs house and was waiting for him). 

99. Meditating in his heart on the sensible words of that RohinI and enjoying 
the pleasure of sleep, the king woke up in the morning. 

100. Then being extremely happy from the chastity and other virtues of RohinI, 

the king, in order to bring to light the virtuous qualities of Rohirn, along 
with Ratikeli 6 

101. Intrigues like this, “O, O, nobles, ministers! Some goddess appearing before 

me in die night said this, ° 

102. ‘O, O, king ! Hear, you will soon get rid of this disease by drinking the 
water over which a spell has been recited by the virtuous RohinI. 

103. They then spoke this way, “O lord! We know that Rohirn, she" is famous 
in the community, decorated with the ornament of chastity, the wife of the 
merchant Dhanavaha.” 

104. Then they all said, “You should send this old woman named Sundari to 
fetch Rohirn here. Why should there be opposition to a work of welfare?” 
After this was said, 

105. Sundari along with her retinue was sent to the residence of RohinI, and 
she, reaching the house of RohinI, brought her with courtesy and affection. 

106. That RohinI, behind a veil of silken cloth, her lotus-like face slightly 
visible, looked like the glorious beauty of the heavens with the riigk of the 
moon shimmering behind die redness of dusk. 

107. The king rose to greet her, surprising somewhat his royal court full of 
ministers, nobles and warriors, 

108. Seating her on a throne studded with diamonds, sapphires, emeralds, pearls 
and rubies, he praised her in front of the cirirens 

109. O! Crown of all the noble ladies! Residence of exquisite noble religion, 
deeds and pleasure! Best garden for the growing of the creeper of chastity’ 
bright as a garland of pearls. 

110. On account of the influence of the virtue of ladies like yourself, the sun 
rises for the day and the clouds rain down pure currents of water, like 
strings of dazzling pearls. 

111. Your name has been recommended by the deity for curing my disease. 
Therefore O very chaste lady, give me water from your hand to drink.” 

112-113. Then it was done in that manner by RohinI. Getting rid of the disease, the 
king became healthy in body. Then honoured and followed by the king, 
while eulogies to her were recited by the bards, her praises sung by the 
women of the city, and being worshipped by the old women of the city, 
that RohinI reached her house. 





Kin g Nanda and the citizens all returned after making obeisence to her. 
And on the other hand, the husband of that RohinI returned after crossing 
the fierce ocean, which is the lord of the rivers, with much wealth that he 
had earned. Then after hearing about the character of his wife he was filled 
with joy. 

Then that merchant, in whose heart affection arose, enjoys fascinating 
pleasures with his wife. In the course of time a son was bom to that 
RohinI. He was named Dhanasara. 

Then after that, one day, struck by a strong desire for the religious life, that 
RohinI begins to observe penance, having renounced the world under a 

Then, dying, she was bom in the form of a ‘deity’ in a world of the gods. 
After being displaced from there, RohinI, who was like a deity, in time 
will enjoy the pleasure of liberation, ‘MuktL’ 


The Mulasuddhiprakarana : Three Stories 

Translated by Phyllis Granoff 


beS Wifolw iS h “' 10 ““ tradia ° n 0f dWac,ic KUing flu 

beguis with the Avakyaka commentaries. It has much in common with th 

,ai “ 1133 deSClibed ta 1,15 tarioduction to the stor 

fa to Htti^n WaS Wrinen by monk Ptadyumna Sui 

cemuly . and the stones . “ a medieval vernacular and including somt 

taHmwo Ton? “ 3 C< ”f’ entaly ^ «* tat»* Devacandra Sari Irittet 
m 1089-1090 AJ> I have tianslaied to* stories on dana, “giving,» which an: 

pamcularly nch m folk motifs and also have strong links to to toiiton 3 to 

to 3? r0m ““ m medieval Indian literature. An excellent general introduction 

PV “ 8 m 1116 i” ta Nab ta Balbirs Damisukahm, 

Pans, 1982. For comments on how I translated the stories to reader is refereed 
to my appendix to Pan E, chapier 2.1 take tos opportunity Sc D “ S 

SSif “ S helP “ °™ of t3o^„” 

The Story of Devadhara, fiom the MUlaSuddhtprakarana, pp.160-169 

the r Sri,on°3T'i VeIy ° Wn COnti °“ t ° f JambudvI P a . ta to land of Bharata, in 
the r™is ° ph? 82, a aly nanled Kancanapara, which suipasses the city of 

to Gods m its loveliness and all of its other wonderful qualilfes. There retoS 
King Bhamapdala, who with his great valour had conquered all of his enemies 
* ™,^ l0Ved byaiIandhe surpassed even Into, to King 3to G 3S' 
KifaJ? h “ dS0meness mi °taat fine qualifies. And his chief queen w® 
a ^3 WaS 33 e “ ” 1,13 every 33 is the shadow ton follows 

Now in this same city dwelt the merchant Sundari, chief amongst all of its 
wealthy inhabitants. His wife was Sundari. Now all of the children that were 
bom to her died. Though she did everything that she could, not a single one 
lived. Greatly saddened, she then thought, 

“Oh what good is my life, when I have not a single living child? My life is 
full of suffering; surely I must have accumulated not an ounce of merit, for not 
a single one of my children survives. 

Surely I must have stolen great jewels from someone in a past life, and so my 
children die now, seemingly without cause. 

Evil deeds that people so happily commit turn out to bear fruits like this, so 
terrible to endure.” 

And while she was pained by such sad thoughts, her beloved friend Piyamal, 
the wife of the feudatory prince Surapala, who was now away in his home 
territory, came to see her. She said, “My goodness! Why do you seem so 
dejected?” Sundari said, 

‘“The secret that cannot be told even to a father, mother, sister or brother, not 
even to a husband or a son, can always be told to a friend. ’ 

And so, my sister, I tell you. The cause of my distress is the death of my 
children.” Piyamal Said, 

“‘You must have done some harm to some living creature in a past life. That 
is why, no doubt, my beloved friend, you must suffer like this in this life.’ 

But do not grieve. My dear husband has gone to his home territory, leaving 
me behind. I am pregnant. When my child is bom I promise that I shall give it 
to you.” 

Sundari said, “In that case then come and stay in my house. I too am 
pregnant. And if by some lucky quirk we should both deliver at the same time, 
then that would be ideal. But we must not tell this to anyone.” And her friend 
agreed to it all and stayed there with her in her house. And the deeds that they 
had each done in their past lives determined things in such a way that they both 
gave birth at the same time. They exchanged the dead baby for the live one. 
Now a few days later Piyamal died of childbed fever. And at the appropriate 
time' Sundari, summoning all the merchants and other people, named the baby 
Devadhara. He grew up and soon turned eight years old. 

Now when he had mastered all the seventy-two arts, because of some bad 
deed he had committed in a previous life both his mother and his father died. 
His entire family line was wiped out and all of their considerable wealth was 
lost He suddenly found himself alone, in the grip of dire poverty. With no other 
way open to him to support himself, he began to work as a servant in the home 
of the merchant Dhanasetthi. He was given his meals there as well. Because he 
was well brought up and because he was a pious Jain, he went to worship in the 
Jain temples every day. He worshipped the Jain images and he went to the 
monasteries and nunneries to bow down to the monks and nuns. And so time 




went on until one day on some occasion or another, Sampaya, the wife of the 
merchant, gave him particularly fine food to eat. Now at that very moment, 

A pair of the most excellent Jain monks arrived there. They had abandoned 
attachments; they had mortified their bodies with many strict ascetic 
practices; they had studied all the eleven Jain texts; they had conquered that 
most difficult of enemies, the God of Love; 

They were protected by the three protectors, watchful of mind, speech and 
^ ^ raCt ^ Ce< ^ ^ ve acts attentiveness in eveiything that they did, in 
w g, m speaking, in eating, in receiving, in excreting, so as to avoid any 
arm to any living creature; they were possessed of moral courage, and they 
regarded everyone as equal, fiiend and enemy alike. 

And when he saw them, Devadhara, his body rippling with joy, thought, “Oh' 

loday I have acquired the means to do good, something that is not easily 
acquired. J 

The recipient is pure, the gift is pure, and the mind of the giver is pure. All 
three are propitious, because of some good act that I have done in the past I 
shall make my life fruitful by giving this food to these monks.” 

With this thought, he went and bowed his lotus-like head at the feet of the 
monks and proclaimed, “Blessed Ones! Show favour to me by accepting this 

And the monks realized the strong faith that motivated him and said “You 
give us too little, layman!” And they held back their begging bowls. 

And as the monks kept saying, “More, more,” he became agitated and put all 
that he had into their bowls. 

Thinking, “Today I have fulfilled all my desires,” he sat down right there, 
placmg his plate in front of him. 

At that moment the merchant, who had gone inside to worship before he took 
fusmeais, sa w Devad h a ra there. He said to his wife Sampaya, “Give something 
o evadhara. She said, “I gave him all sorts of wonderful things, but he has 
given aU he had to some monks.” The merchant said, “He is lucky to have done 
something like that. Give him some more.” She said, “I don't know what you 
316 a ^ out - The merchant said, “Do not grumble and complain where 

you ought to rejoice and encourage a good deed. For by rejoicing in a pious 
deed a person can share in the merit it brings. For it is said, 

‘Both the person who himself does what is good and the one who rejoices in 
the good deeds that others do obtain a good result. Consider the stoiy you know 
so well of the deer who rejoiced in the gift made by the carpenter to the monk 
naladeva, and who died right then and there with the monk and the carpenter 
and achieved the same great result as they did, a long life in heaven.’ 

Let us both share in the fruit of his good deed by rejoicing in what he has 
done. Give him something else to eat right away.” And with these words he 



went in to worship the Gods. Sampaya got busy and had not yet had the chance 
to serve Devadhara, when he finally got mad and began to think, 

“How painful is poverty, which causes good men who should command 
respect and pull great weight, as a mountain stands mighty and firm, to be 
treated in this world as if they were of no more substance than the lightest blade 
of grass or cotton fluff. 

What use is the life of those men who are pained by the burning fires of 
poverty and who must ever endure contempt and scorn from others who are 
scarcely their equal? 

It is wealth alone of all the ends of man that in this world is paramount. For 
with it even men who are fall of faults become greatly honored in this world. 

Fortunate indeed are those who have put a lasting end to all humiliation ; 
those men are honored in the triple world, heaven, earth and the world below, 
who have become monks and are freed from all sin. 

But I am truly wretched. I cannot become a monk and I must therefore endure 
this terrible pain of being humiliated.” 

While he was thinking in this way the merchant came out And he saw him 
sitting there, still with an empty plate. The merchant said to him, “Get up, my 
child! Come and eat with me.” And so Devadhara got up and he ate the very 
best of foods with the merchant And the time passed for Devadhara, who would 
acquire the wealth of a great kingdom in this very life through the power of the 
gift that he had given to those monks; who was devoted to honoring the Jinas 
and the Jain monks and nuns, and who had yet to live out the fruit of the actions 
that he had done in a past life and which necessitated that he yet suffer some 
unhappiness in this life. 

Now there also lived in that city a merchant named Rayanasara. His wife was 
Mahalaccbl. And as they enjoyed together the delights of love Mahalacchl 
became pregnant. Now when the child was just six months in the womb the 
merchant passed away. And when her time came, Mahalacchl gave birth to a 
daughter who surpassed even the women of the Gods in beauty and was 
endowed with every auspicious mark. But the king took away all of her 
husband's wealth, leaving only a meager amount for the support of the daughter, 
on the grounds that the merchant had no male offspring. When the time came 
Mahalacchl named the girl Rayasiri. As she grew up, her mother used the 
money that the king had released for her use to have her educated in all of the 

In time, greatly pained by the death of her husband and the loss of her wealth 
and much troubled, Mahalacchl died. Rayasiri was taken by her maternal aunt 
whose name was Lacchl. Lacchl went out to work in the homes of the wealthy 
so that she might support Rayasiri. Now Rayasiri was a pious Jain and she 
worshipped the Jina images every day and honored the Jain nuns and monks. 


She also constantly upbraided herself because she was unable to practice such 
pious acts as giving to others. 

“Alas, alas! What use is this life of mine which is totally worthless and which 
leads to no good result either in this world or in the next! It is no better than the 
useless breast that hangs from the neck of a goat. 

In this life so bereft of merit am I that I am eating alive my very own aunt, 
who is like a mother to me, making her slave for me and do such harsh tasks. 

And the next world also holds no fruit for me, since I am incapable of 
practicing the act of giving. Surely I have come into this world with great sins 
committed in another birth. 

I cannot bear to eat without being able to give some food to some worthy 
person; my food eaten alone lacks all savour, but I have no wealth or goods that 
allow me to give.” 

And then one day her aunt received four choice sweetmeats as a gift for the 
work that she had done in the home of a wealthy merchant 

She said to Rayasiri, “Sit down, my daughter, and eat. Today I brought you 
some fine cakes.” 

Now the young girl sat down and as she took the sweets, she glanced at the 
door. She was t h i nki ng, “Oh, if only someone would come, how fine that would 

If I could only give these delicious things which my aunt has brought me 
today to some worthy person, I could fulfill all of my deepest desires and make 
my life one worth living.” 

And at that very moment fate decreed that some Jain nuns came there in 
search of alms. They were endowed with every virtue and had taken upon 
themselves that most difficult vow of chastity. Their bodies were thin from the 
ravages of their strict ascetic practices. 

They cared die same for grass or pearls or jewels and their eyes and thoughts 
were concentrated only on the small space of ground before them. 

And that young girl, her body rippling with joy at being given the chance to 
fulfill her deepest desire, her steps made unsure by her eagerness and haste. 

Served those nuns with a gift of pure food in which the mind of the giver, the 
thing given, and the recipients were all pure and good. And as she did so, tears 
of joy flowed from her lotus-like eyes. 

And by that gift in which the recipients were so pure and the mind of the 
giver so pure, she earned merit which ensured that she would have many 
enjoyments right in this very life. And that good deed was even further 
increased by the delight that she took in it, as she said to herself again and 
again. Lucky am I! Lucky am I, for I have done such a righteous act.” And her 
aunt too praised her, saying, “Lucky indeed is she, for though but a child she 
has done such a righteous act” 



Now time passed and Lacchl found that she could no longer support the girl 
and so she gave her to the Jain nun Suwaya, with these words, “Blessed One! 

I can no longer support this child. If it pleases you, then accept her for the 
Faith.” The nun agreed. And so LacchT left the child behind and went back 
home. When it came time to eat the nun said to the girl, “Daughter! Eat” She 
answered, “Blessed One! How can I, still a householder, eat this food that the 
nuns have brought with so much pain. For it is winter and they must be bitterly 
stung by the harsh cold winds as they go on their begging rounds.” The nun 
said, ‘Daughter! When the right time comes I shall ordain you as a nun. Now 
you must eat.” And so Rayasiri ate. And when the nun saw how devoted 
Rayasiri was to serving them, she asked the demi-goddess Kannapisaiya, whom 
she commanded by means of a magic spell, “Is this girl worthy to be a nun or 
not?” The demi-goddess said, “Do not ordain her yet.” 

The nun, thinking that she would ask the demi-goddess again some time later, 
remained silent until the hot season had come upon them. Then one day 
Rayasiri saw the nuns coming bade from their begging rounds. They were 
roasted by the fierce rays of the sun; sweat was dripping from all over their 
bodies; they were suffering from hunger and thirst and they were burdened with 
their bowls of food and drink. And when she saw them Rayasiri began to say, 
“Blessed One! I fear that I do our Faith great dishonour if I, still a householder, 
were to partake of the food and drink that these noble nuns have brought with 
such great pain. Please ordain me at once.” The nun then said, “Be patient. For 
your propitious moment will come as soon as the rainy season starts, on the 
eleventh day of the bright fortnight of the month Phalguna.” And only after she 
pro mis ed this did she then ask the demi-goddess. The demi-goddess told her, 
“She still has many fruits of her deeds to enjoy, which all entail that she should 
experience great pleasures.” 

The nun, thinkin g, “She will show great devotion to the images of the Jinas 
and the Jain mo nks and nuns,” remained silent until the rainy season was upon 
them. The rains began to fall. Knowing that Rayasiri had not had any change of 
heart, she then asked the demi-goddess once more, “What is the extent of her 
good deeds in the past that now entail that she must enjoy sensual pleasures?” 
The demi-goddess said, “She will be the chief queen of five hundred and five 
queens. And she will enjoy great sensual pleasures for five hundred years.” 
T hinkin g “One day the demi-goddess will give me permission to ordain her,” 
the nun then did nothing. 

Now one day Rayasiri was seen by Devadhara who had come to the nunnery 
to pay his respects to the nuns. And he asked the nun, “Why have you not yet 
ordained this girl?” The nun answered, “She is not fit to be ordained.” “In that 
case, then why do you feed and support someone who is a lay person?” She 
replied, “Because she will bring great honour to our Faith and do much to 
further its cause.” He asked, “In what way?” She said, “I cannot tell you 
anymore.” And so Devadhara made the vow to give up eating and die by 



starvation if the nun would not tell him all that she knew. And so the nun did 
tell him. And Devadhara thought to himself, “Oh! What wondrous thin gs can 
happen from a person's own actions! This girl, bom in a family of merchants, is 
to become such a magnificent, rich queen and have such royal splendour! 
Having enjoyed that royal splendour, I have no doubt that she will then suffer 
some terrible rebirth. I shall many her so that she will neither obtain royal 
splendour nor be forced to suffer a bad rebirth.” And with this in mind he said 
to the nun, “Blessed One! Why don't I marry her?” And she put her hands over 
both her ears, ‘Devotee! Why do you ask such a thing, as if you knew no 
better? We must not even speak of such things.” Devadhara said, “Forgive me, 
I forgot myself. I meant no harm.” 

But then he went to see Lacchl. Very politely, he said, “Mother, give 
Rayasiri to me.” She said, “Son! I have already given her to the nuns.” He told 
her, “But they will not ordain her as a nun.” She asked, “And how do you know 
that?” He said, “They told me themselves.” Lacchl said, “In that case, thpn i 
shall ask them myself.” He said, “Go ahead, but you must not then give her to 
anyone else.” And so Lacchl asked the nun, “Is it true that you are not going to 
ordain Rayasiri?” The nun said, “It is true.” And then Lacchl thought, 
“Although he comes from a poor family Devadhara is a good young man. He is 
a believer in the Jain Faith and the son of a pious man. No wealthy man is 
going to take this girl from me, a simple servant who earns her keep by working 
in the homes of other people. And he does seem to want her very much.” And 
with this in mind she gave Rayasiri to Devadhara. And the deeds that they had 
done in the past determined that the day for their wedding was fixed as the 
eleventh day of the bright half of the month of Phalguna. But as the wedding 
preparations began Rayasiri had her own thoughts. 

“If I had not done some bad deed in the past which now obstructed my way, 
if I were not so without merit, then, today my relatives and other devoted Jains 
would be getting ready all my clothes so that, with my resolve firm, I might 
begin to undertake a life of difficult restraints.” So she thought and was anxious 
and impatient as they began to ready her wardrobe. 

And on the very day of the wedding, as they bathed her and anointed her 
body with fragrant substances, she thought, “Today they would be celebrating in 
honour of my going forth from the life of a householder to become a nun. 

Surrounded by all of my relatives, adorned with beautiful ornaments, I would 
be standing now in the temple of the Jin as, as drums resound, marking the 
auspicious occasion.” 

And sitting in the temple devoted to the goddess, she thought, “Having 
circumambulated the images of the Jinas, I would then bow down to the Jinas 
with my teacher. 

And in the presence of all the Jain community, my teachers would give my 
robes to me, and my dust-brush, and all the other things that a nun must carry.” 


And as they painted her hands with auspicious designs, she thought, “Ah, my 
soul! This is the moment when you, following the words of their teachers, 
should be taking your holy vows.” 

As she walked around the wedding pavilion she reflected, “And this would be 
the moment when I would circle round Ifae entire gathering in reverence, while 
the community of the faithful sprinkled powder on me. 

And then, having been honored by all present, I would listen in respect, 
deeply moved, to the religious instructions delivered by my teachers. 

Aias my soul, unfortunate soul! Why is that strong desire of yours to grasp 
firmly the treasure of restraining the senses thwarted by some obstructing past 
deed, now showing its might, as if by some terrible invisible goblin? 

And as she thought these things she was joined to Devadhara ^mamage wiffi 
all the proper ceremony. And Devadhara then told the merchant. Fattier. Please 
give us some place to live.” And so the merchant gave him a small grass hut 
within the boundaries of his compound. Devadhara then took RSyasin there. 
And she was totally devoted to her husband and deeply in love with him. 

Now while Devadhara was enjoying the pleasures of love there with her, the 
merchant thought to himself, “This Devadhara is like a son to me; he is a noble 
man- a faithful Jain; he is courageous and high-minded and has so many fine 
qualities. I should allow him to carry out some trade. I shall see how deverhe 
is If he proves himself worthy, well then, I shall do what I see fit And with 
tins in mfrid he said to Devadhara, “Son! Take some goods from me and cany 
on some trade with vegetables and plants.” And Devadhara did exactly as 
was told He earned his keep, at least until the rainy season came upon them. 

And then he said to his wife, “Get me some bricks from somewhere so I can 
cover over this veranda which is about to collapse. I dont want the roof to fal 
down on the children.” And she did exactly as she was told And as he was 
fixing the roof and removing some of the old crumbling bncfc he discovered 
five hundred gold coins. Without showing them to his wife he hid them in a pot. 
And when he was done with his task he went alone to the marketed o 
of the coins he bought her some clothes and jewelry. She said. My beloved 
How could you have afforded this?” He said, “I borrowed one hundred coins 
from some good man.” She said, “In that case, then, I dont need any 
He said, “Do not be afraid. My friend is a wealthy man and very kuxL It was 
trifling sum for him.” And so she accepted the gifts. And he continued to carry 
on his business and in no time at all became lord of a thousand gold pieces. 

Now one day Rayasiri said to him, “Jains are not allowed ro dig dirt in.the 
rainy season. Bring me some kind of a shovel so that I can gather some eartfr 
But he brought a heavy spade from the merchant’s house. She said, 1 cant dig 
with this.” He told her, “When no one is around, just at dawn I shall do the 
digging myself. You bring a sack and a basket so that I can fifi the sack with 
earth I too am embarrassed to be seen carrying dirt” And she did exactly as she 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

was toid As soon as he struck the earth with the spade and broke ground he 
beheid ai treasure of jewels worth hundreds of thousands of dollars He said 

w " this place.” And when "d “S 

hy he sard, My love, this will be the end of us!” She said “This is not the 
end for us. This is not the God of Death. It is the Goddess of Fo^ heredf 
come to us on account of the many wonderful great deeds that you have done 
e past. He said, “But should the king come to know of it we will get into 

—» Wong, ,o to ting.’ No^rCw 
ought , Clearly he does not trust me,” and so she said, “No one will hear of 
t from me. Go now, take what your own good fortune has brought you Hurry 

T breaIdng 0peD * e ^ade the seal of 2 
2? Re Jewels lay, he quickly stuffed the jewels and riches into his 

it Thftwn fl sack mside the basket and then carefully placed dirt on top of 

££ ITbu tVl Wem ^ ^ Wd * e - a comer of 

^stonef " yaSm t0M h6r h “ band * j ewek « no better 

Oh my best beloved! Wealth that is not used for making images of the Jinas 

feLvat* 02 tem ? S ’ f ° r wors bipping the images, bathing them L carrying oui 
festivals, is no better than worthless stones. t-anymg out 

rrZfOlJ** 1 * DOt ^ ven t0 Jam monks and ™ns for food, begging bowls 
& •*" basic *• » I— fan 

f ® el0 7- d! Wealth 18 not used t0 gi ye food, betel, seats and clothes to our 
fellow Jains, to me, is no better than clumps of earth. 

w ^ rd! Wealth ** “ not used for its owner’s personal delight nor to help 
bends, nor ard .hose who are poor and in need, why rhar is * Zer 2 

And so I ask you, why do we wrongly hang on to this wealth?” He said 
at else can we do under the circumstances?” She said, “Marry the 
merchants daughter, Kamalasin. And then everything will be as’we wish He 
as y interjected, “But I don't need anyone but you.” She said, “My Lord' You 
m^ consfoer what will lead to good results and what will lead fo bad res^ 
and then do what will lead to a good end.” He said, “Well in that case if von 
= ihon reh me, how shall I win her over?" 

toow her. Now you must win her over with gifts of fruits and such. I shall do 
the same by giving her jeweliy. For it is said, 

‘One should win the heart of a child with food and drink, of a young maiden 

abject senlfoude. 2 ^ °° a * S * attendance ’ ® old lady with 

Now she is both somewhat of a child and somewhat of a young maiden And 

*i s ft way '"«- 

y ght, he said, and from that day on he began to give Kamalasin 



fruits and things every day. And she began to follow Devadhara around and 
followed him right back into his home. Rayasin then gave her some jewelry to 
wear every day. Now when she got back to her own home her mother asked her, 
“Who gave you these fruits? Who gave you this jewelry to wear?” She said, 
“Devadhara gave me the fruits and Rayasin put the jewelry on me.” At this her 
mother asked her once more, “Who is Devadhara? Who is that woman?” She 
said, “Devadhara is the man who comes to our house everyday and the woman 
is his wife.” 

Now one day the mother saw her daughter following Devadhara all around 
and laughed at her. “My child! See how you stick to him, like glue! What, are 
you going to get yourself hitched to him for life?” Kamalasin said, “But did 
you doubt that? If you give me to anyone else then I will kill myself.” The 
mother quickly retorted, “Foolish girl! He already has a wife.” Kamalasin said, 
“She is like my elder sister. I don't want any other husband, not even the richest 
man in the world.” Seeing that her daughter was madly in love with Devadhara, 
Sampaya told the merchant exactly what had happened. He said, 

“My beloved! If our child is so insistent then let her marry him. For 
Devadhara is both handsome and virtuous. And I can help him to get rid of his 
poverty. But first I must win over his wife.” And for her part Sampaya simply 
agreed with what her husband had said. And so the merchant instructed 
Devadhara, “My son! Let me see your wife.” And Devadhara, humbly assenting, 
summoned Rayasin. She came out and fell at the feet of the merchant. The 
merchant took her on his lap, blessing her with the words, “May you never be 
a widow.” And when he saw her beauty and her loveliness, which far surpassed 
the beauty and the loveliness of any other woman, the merchant Dhanna thought, 

“Why would this man who shares the embrace of a woman of such beauty, a 
woman who is so devoted to him and so in love with him, want my daughter? 

How could this Devadhara, who can always make love to this woman, who 
is like a flowing river of the divine nectar of womanly beauty, take pleasure in 
my daughter, pretty though she is? 

And if this woman should turn against her, how could my daughter ever be 
happy? Ah, my daughter is foolish to desire this man for her husband. 

But what can I do? I must first try to see what they really feel. Then I will do 
what I think is necessary.” And with this in mind he said to Rayasin, “My 
child! My daughter Kamalasin is deeply in love with your husband. If you have 
no objection then I shall give her to him,” Rayasin said, “Father! I am 
delighted. Dear father, fulfill my little sister's wishes.” The merchant said, “My 
daughter! In that case then I give Kamalasin into your care. From now on you 
must look after hen” Rayasin quickly said, “Father! I am honored.” And then 
he turned to Devadhara, “My son! Take in marriage Kamalasin, who loves you 
deeply.” Devadhara humbly assented, “Father! As you command me so shall I 
do.” And so the merchant made a wedding with all due pomp and splendour. He 
gave to Rayasin and Kamalasin exactly the same jewelry. He set his son-in-law 



up in business and Devadhara earned much money. He used the wealth he had 
found earlier to build Jain temples and to perform other pious acts. 

Now KamalasirT had a friend named Paumasin, who was the daughter of the 
king's minister Maisagara. She had come to the wedding and when she saw 
Devadhara she immediately vowed before all her own girl friends, 

“If that Devadhara by some act of fate can be brought to marry me, then and 
then alone will I enjoy worldly pleasures. Otherwise I renounce the world right 
here and now, in this very birth.” 

And when her friends heard that vow of hers they told her mother Piyariga- 
sundan at once. And she told the minister Maisagara. He in turn summoned the 
merchant and respectfully gave Paumasin to Devadhara. Devadhara married her 
with great ceremony. And the minister gave to all three women exactly the same 

From then on the minister often brought Devadhara to the king to pay his 
respects. The king showed him great honour and offered him the finest seats to 
sit upon. And one day, while the king was himself being charmed by Deva- 
dhara’s good looks and his many virtues, the queen Kittimai, realizing that 
Devadhara was a good match for their own daughter Devasin, dressed Devasin 
up in all her finery and her jewels and sent her to bow down to the feet of her 
father. The king lifted her onto his lap. And as he looked her over it suddenly 
came to him that she had reached the age for marriage. And no sooner had he 
turned his thoughts to finding a suitable husband for her, than he noticed how 
Devasin was looking again and again at Devadhara out of the comer of her 
eyes, with a glance that revealed that she had fallen in love with him, her bright 
pupils darting back and forth. At this the king thought, “Oh! She seems indeed 
to be smitten with this fellow. And he is both handsome and virtuous. Let her 
enjoy the pleasures of wedded bliss with him.” He then said to Maisagara, “I 
give our very own Devasin to your son-in-law. As the ocean is filled with 
jewels, so is she filled with virtues.” The minister replied, “I am honored.” And 
so the king made a splendid wedding, sparing no expense. He gave to all four 
women exactly the same jewelry. And he gave to Devadhara the large territory 
that bordered the domains of his vassal Narakesari, and which was the most 
important of all the territories. And Devadhara lived indeed like a God, enjoying 
the pleasures of love with Rayasirf and his other four wives, ensconced in a 
seven-storied palace that was filled with all sorts of costly things that the king 
had given him. 

Now King Narakesari came to hear that the territory bordering his own had 
been given by the king to his own son-in-law, a mere merchant And so, b urnin g 
with such rage that the very flames of anger seemed to leap from his mouth as 
he spoke, he told his own servants, “See with what contempt the king Bhama- 
ndala treats us! He has given the task of protecting our flanks to a veritable 
barbarian. Let us raid his territory and teach the king a lesson so that he will 
never do anything like that again.” And as soon as he spoke they raided 



Devadhara's territory and sent word to King Bhamandala that they had done so. 
And no sooner did he get the news, than furious with this insult delivered him, 
the king caused the drums to beat to announce the departure of his own army. 
And so the king’s army set out, 

Swift as the wind, swift as the mind, gold ornaments flashing like bursts of 
lightning, rut dripping like rain from their temples, the elephants went forward 
like new-formed rain clouds. 

Filling the world with their neighing, kicking up heaps of dust as their sharp 
hooves dug into the earth, making terrifying noises from their mouths, gums 
drawn back, the horses went forward. 

Having proved their prowess many a time by slaying their proud and wicked 
enemies, sauntering, shouting, the foot soldiers went forward. 

The very heavens seemed rent asunder with the trumpeting of the elephants, 
the clanking of the chariots, the neighing of the horses, the shouts of the 
warriors and the beats of all the war drums. 

And when he heard this terrible noise, like the roar of the turbulent mighty 
ocean, Devadhara asked his chamberlain, 

“Are the very heavens being rent asunder? Has the earth split open? Are the 
mountains tumbling down? Or is this the very end of the world? Tell me sir, 
what is this noise?” 

And the chamberlain, who knew exactly what was going on, told him in great 
detail about everything that had happened. At once Devadhara spoke up. And as 
he spoke his lips quivered in anger at the insult he had been dealt; his forehead 
was marked by three fierce lines of a frown, and his hand reached again and 
again for his sword. “Hurry, make ready my elephant so that I may follow my 
father-in-law into battle.” And his men did exactly as he commanded. Devadhara 
mounted his war elephant and rode to the king. He was freshly bathed and bis 
body had been anointed with fragrant substances; he was adorned with garlands 
of white flowers and wearing his most costly clothes; his crown was surrounded 
by lotuses with fine long stalks; and he carried with him his sharp sword that 
was like the tongue of the God of Death. When the king saw him coming he 
thought to himself, “Lucky am I to have such a fine son-in-law. Or perhaps it is 
the good fortune of Devasin that she has found such a fine husband.” And as 
he was thinking this, Devadhara threw himself at his feet and proclaimed, 
“King! Lions do not attack jackals, forgetting about maddened elephants that are 
their more worthy foes. And so I beg you, command me so that I may pacify 
this disobedient vassal Narakesari. Besides, it was because be thought of me as 
a mere merchant that he dared to attack- my territory. And so, O King, it seems 
only fitt in g that it is I who should go there.” The king, his body rippling with 
joy, said to him, “My son! Do not ask that of me. Truly I shall not feel satisfied 
if I do not go out against Narakesari myself.” And Devadhara, re aliz i n g how the 
king felt, was silent. But a few moments later Ik asked again for permission to 



H?Sd Command me! The king replied, “Ask for what you wish.” 

Se Sno j J T t0 prOCCed ” ** van S uar d against Narakesari.” 

of Lto tu y S ° D ’ ° DOt ^ What y0U ^ 1 cannot bear t^e thought 
of being withou you even for a short time and we are yet hundreds of mEes 

f°“ Narakesan ” Devad hara told him, “Each day I shall come back by 

md b ° W d0WD t0 ** ^ feet ” ^ w hen he realized 

Detadhlr^T T 35 n0t 56 dissuaded the king gave him permission to go. 
e adhara left at once and soon reached the border of Narakesari's territory 8 

ms enemy, having learnt form spies that he had arrived, bellowed, “Seize that 

7w° l k * m h ° W P0Werfbl 1 31111 ‘ <And 38 soon “ he hTd 
ttered these words his army stood aimed and ready. And it was a mighty aimy 

indeed that went forth from Narakesari's domains. And when they saw ft coming 

Etevadharas soldiers armed themselves at once. And there erLed a te2 

Here men's heads lay cut off by sharp swords; there the headless corpses of 
warriors, jerking violently, put on a dancing show; T 0t 

faUen the temples of elephants that had been tom open 

^ Jf ere , he3pS ° f Chari0ts ** had been smashed to smithereens 
with strong maces lay clanking against each other; 

Here she-goblins danced, drunk on blood; there jackals howled like ghouls 
feeding on human entrails and flesh; ^ ’ 

* ky T T 6 "* 1 !trcams 0f shaI P m ™ s *™n taut bow- 
strings, there sparks shot out as weapons clashed and clanged together; 

ri^ re t h h0rS ?’ eIephantS> md chariots roam ed aimlessly, no longer carrying 
nders, there hosts of gods showered flowers, pleased by the warriors bravTI^ 

gl l 0StS !f Ughed 30(1 hooted > each more te mble in form than the next’ 
there terrifying demons brandished sharp cutting tools in their busy hands- 

And as this terrible battle raged Devadhara, the prince, mounted on his 
elephant, shouted, ‘Lead my elephant towards Narakesari’s elephant” 

And taking up the command, the skillful elephant driver led Devadhara's 

mo *— •«*>-* 

« z - 

Take hold of your weapon now! You will see what prowess even a merchant's 

ve^h^nn V h ^ ? e *Tf’ ±mkmg 11131 such a lowly foe was beneath him, 
yet had no choice and took hold of his magnificent sword. 

0 /f? 3Ch bl °w that the impatient king levelled Devadhara skillfully warded 
off. And he seized the long and he was filled with pride at his own act 

And Devadhara's ministers sent word with a swift messenger to king 
Bhamandala to inform him that Devadhara had met the enemy JLy And be 



quickly rode out with his best soldiers. The prince Devadhara handed Narakesari 
over to him. Filled with joy the king embraced the prince and then released 
Narakesari from his bonds. He honored him as was his due and then told him, 
“You should continue to rule your own lands as a servant of this prince.” And 
Narakesari, giving to the prince his own daughter Mittasiri, too full of pride to 
serve under the prince, abandoned his kingdom and became a monk under the 
guidance of a good teacher. The king and the prince Devadhara crowned 
Narakesari's son as king and then went back to their own city. 

The king, realizing that the moment had come, then said to all his sons, “My 
sons! If you agree then I will crown your brother-in-law as king.” They all said, 
“Do so. Whatever you wish is also our desire.” And so he informed all his 
ministers and chief councilors and on an auspicious moment the prince 
Devadhara was made king of both kingdoms, his own and the kingdom of 
Bhamandala. And King Bhamandala became a Jain monk and looked after the 
matter of his own spiritual welfare. 

Now Narakesari's loyal retainers gave to King Devadhara their own daughters, 
two hundred and fifty of them, and many precious gifts. And his other vassal 
kin gs did the same. And so he came to have five hundred and five queens and 
he made Rayasiri the chief queen amongst them all. She enjoyed great wealth 
and splendour. And Devadhara the king became a great king, lord over a vast 
territory, his commands honored by all. 

And one day, recalling their previous poverty, the king and the queen began 
to carry out pious acts to further the Jain Faith. They had Jain temples built; 
they had Jain images consecrated; they had the images bathed, anointed and 
properly worshipped; they sponsored great religious festivals; they proclaimed 
that no one in their kingdom should ever take the life of any creature; they had 
the chariots belonging to the temples led around the city with the sacred images 
in them; they gave to the poor and miserable, gifts of compassion; ‘they did 
honour to fellow Jains; they gave great gifts to the Jain nuns and monks, gifts 
of food and other necessities; they had books copied and properly worshipped; 
they listened to the words of the Jinas; they themselves observed the required 
daily duties of pious Jains; they fasted on the fast days; what more need I say? 
They spent their time doing just about everything conceivable that would further 
the cause of the Jain Faith. 

Now one day there came the Blessed Jasabhaddasuri, who was so wise he was 
almost omniscient. The king and his queen went to pay their respects to the 
monk. They bowed down to him, full of true devotion. They sat down on the 
ground, making sure that there were no living creatures there that they would 
crush. The Blessed one began his discourse: 

“Wealth is by nature fickle; this miserable body is ever subject to the ravages 
of old age and sickness. Love is like a dream. And so I say put your efforts into 
the practice of religion. 



beS, h °f ) teaclli “^‘ lK Ji °* have Itaed to difference between 
the life of a householder and the life of a monk to the difference between » 
mountain of gold and a mustard seed. 

haP 2 neS i that monks know » havin S renounced all pleasures of the senses 
and being free from pain caused by others, cannot be experienced even by the 
emperor of the entire world. y me 

This religious practice which so many monks follow is like a thunder bolt to 
deave to toot tot in to accumulated effect of aff of a petsoZS 
evil, heavy, accumulated over many a lifetime. ’ 

Someone who has been a monk even for just one day is honored by kings and 
queens alike. Behold the power of the religious life, O king! 

A soul having been a monk even for a day, intently devoted to the monastic 
n0t get abSOlUte release ’ il 18 true > bu£ for sure he becomes a god in 

Practicing austerities brings even greater merit than building the most 
templeS ’ ° f 311 * gold, g silver and 

c ^ nd so ’ 0 abandon the householder's life, which is the abode of all 
o& ^ C0UISe ^ ^ f0U0W ’ ^ ^ d -troyste cyct 

And when he heard these words the king Devadhara indeed felt a desire to 

renounce the world He said, “Blessed One! As soon as I crown RlyaSs son 

Gunahara as king I shall accept the course that you describe. But I have one 

me ’ Why m 1 m(i my queeD ^ t0 Suff er the loss of our 

R e i7 e ^ o' 1 Cha f! D? ^ were we °PPressed by such terrible 
p rty. The Blessed One said. Listen, great kin g 

Just one birth ago you were bom to a good family in the village of Nandivad- 
apa. Your name was Kulavaddbana. And your queen was then also your wife- 
her name was Sanumai. By nature both of you had few faults, were little given 

t I™ 1 ~ ^ W6re deV ° ted t0 ***« t0 otheis - Now one 

tous7'Sell m C , 0UISe ° f ** WaDdenn g s chanced » c °me to your 
ouse. Seeing them you said to your wife, ‘Beloved! Just look at these monks 

They never give anything to anyone and have abandoned their duties to take 
care of their immediate family, their friends and their other relatives What use 
are any of the religious austerities they do anyway, since they ignore their own 
people? Sanumai said, ‘My lord! What you say is absolutely truT Them ^ 
no doubt that what you say is just so.’ That is the deed Jt you bl did ^ 
led later to your own loss of your relatives.” 

WaS K alS0 “ vma g e a rich Jain temple. A certain wealthy Jain 

teZl ' 6Va b J Dame ’ was m char S e of looking after the properties of the 
temple. Now one day you lost a quarrel with Jinadeva, which prompted the 

angry Sanumai to say, “Lord! That temple servant is blinded witl/all that 


wealth that belongs to the temple as sure as if he was drunk with wine. And so 
he disregards everyone and everything. As far as I am concerned, we'd all be 
better off if all the wealth belonging to the temple just disappeared. “And you 
said, “Beloved! That would suit me just fine.” And with those bad thoughts you 
both insured that you would suffer poverty. And you died without repenting 
your bad deeds and were reborn as you now are.” 

When they heard this account they both remembered their former births. And 
they said, “Your account is absolutely true. We remember everything now with 
the power to recollect our past lives. But what deed did we do then that enabled 
us to acquire this kingdom?” The Blessed One said, “That you gave food with 
reverence to Jain monks and nuns in this birth of yours resulted in your enjoying 
the kingdom, right in this very same life. As the sacred texts say, 

‘Some deeds done in this birth give their fruit in this very same birth; some 
deeds done in this birth give their fruit in a future rebirth. Some deeds done in 
a different birth give their fruit in this birth; some deeds done in a different birth 
give their fruit in a different birth’ 

And so you must always endeavour to do good deeds.” The king and his wife, 
agreeing, went back to their palace. Installing the prince on the throne, with 
great splendour the king and the queen renounced this world. They fu l fi l led the 
rest of their ordained days by living a pure life, and fasting to death they 
attained rebirth as gods. When they fall from heaven they will be reborn in the 
land of Mahavideha where they will achieve final liberation. 

The Story of Devadinna, from the Mula&uddhiprakarana, pp. 169*179. 

There is on our very own continent of Jambudvlpa, in the land of Bharata, a 
city named Tihuyanapura, “The City of the Triple World,” which was indeed an 
ornament to the Triple World of Heaven, Earth and the Nether World. There 
reigned King Tihuyanasehara, “The Best in the Triple World,” who was a 
veritable sun to chase away the deep darkness of his stalwart enemies. And 
foremost amongst the women in his harem was Tihuyana, his queen. And from 
her womb came forth the prince Tihunahadatta, “Gift to the Triple World.” 

Now in this very city there also lived a merchant named Sumal, “The 
Clever,” who was the leader of all the eighteen minor and major guilds of 
merchants, who had fathomed the meaning of that best of all religious doctrines, 
the Jain doctrine, which teaches such things as the distinction between living 
beings and insentient matter. And this merchant was greatly honored by the 
king . And he had a wife named Candappaha, “Moonlight,” who by her beauty 
surpassed all of the heavenly damsels. And she and the queen Tihuyana were 
devoted friends. One day the prince Tihuyanadatta, along with his retinue, went 
to see Candappaha, whom he called “auntie.” She bathed him tenderly, 
massaged him with fragrant ointments, adorned him with jewels and then sat 



him on her lap. She placed her lips to his head and breathed in gently, and as 
she did this she thought, 

“How fortunate is my friend and what good deeds she must have once done! 
Her life is fulfilled, she has accomplished her goal in having such a wonderful 

Many are the women who have fulfilled themselves in this world, bantering 
softly to their handsome children, the fruit of their very own wombs. And sitting 
there on their laps, the children coo back to them, showering them with playful 
words of love. 

But I am the most miserable of women, for I do not have even one child.” 

And as this thought ran through her mind she let out a deep sigh and sent the 
prince back to his own home. 

Now when the prince got home the queen asked, “Who put all these jewels on 
the prince?” His servants told her, “Your friend. But you must quickly sprinkle 
the prince with salt and say the right prayers so that no harm will come to him, 
for she let out a deep sigh right over the prince.” The queen said, “Don't talk 
such nonsense. Her sigh will be like a blessing for the prince.” At this the 
servants fell silent And the queen thought, “Now why did she let out a sigh 
when she saw the prince? Oh, I know. She has no child, poor thing. Now what 
kind of friend would I be if I did not give her my own child and fulfill her 
deepest wish?” And as she was pouring over this thought the king entered. He 
asked, “Queen, how is it that you seem to be disturbed by something?” And so 
she told him everything that had happened. He said, “If that is the case, then do 
not be distressed. I shall find some means by which your friend will get a 
child.” The queen said, “My Lord, your favour is great” 

The next day the king told the merchant, “You have no soa You must 
propitiate my clan deity, the Goddess Tihuyanadevi, in order to gain a child. She 
has great powers and when worshipped grants whatever she is asked.” The 
merchant then said, “King! What good is it if my son is then taken away as a 
result of some bad deed that I have committed in a previous life?” The king 
replied, “Never mind, even if that is so you must do as I insist.” Considering in 
his mind that this was tantamount to an order from the king, the merchant went 
back home. He told Candappaha what had happened. She said, “My lord! If you 
do that you will insult the true faith, for we are Jains.” Sum a! said, “Beloved! 
If I do it as an order of the king, then there can be no insult to my faith.” And 
so the very next day the merchant, taking with him all the things that he needed 
to worship the goddess, went to the temple of Tihuyanadevi along with his wife. 
There they had the image of the Goddess bathed, anointed and worshipped, and 
when that was done the merchant addressed the Goddess, “O Blessed One! The 
king said that I should ask you for a son. So, give me a son.” At this the 
Goddess thought, “He surely does not seem very enthusiastic about all this! But 
for the sake of my own reputation I cannot afford not to show myself to him.” 
With this the Goddess said, “Sir! You will have a son.” He said, “How do I 

, And inking “I shall cause that unenthusiastic fellow a bit of trouble,” 

temple falling .” The merchant, thinking, Some harm is abo 

«£=r. r ■£■£ 

she gave birth to a son who was handsome, his every limb j pe _ 
m^tauT riven tins great news by her maidservant named Snbanto The 
Bringer of Joy." He gave the maid-servant a handsome gift and ma gte 
naity in honour of his son’s birth. And there, 

^The drums beat with a great thundering sound..Courraans 
was distributed to all, with no one left out, and the leadrng ahrens came 

^^mam^oflrites'and rituals were carried out to perfection and the relatives 
wetfaft feted and honored. Prisoners were freed from dreir drains and the most 
excellent Jain monks were offered the proper alms. 

And so the htlu^d 

Sf^tTove^ ^e^riTmanTahs. And he ,d grasp 

^NoworTday when he did not have any lessons, he sal down 
J ZounJg on religion. And a, that very moment the subject of the 

discourse was the duty of giving. Here is what was said. 

“By a gift you can bring people under your control. With a gift even hos ty 
can^be bmuehtto nougfc Ivi an enemy becomes a ftiend with a gift A gift 




By giving a man becomes an emperor. By giving a man becomes king of the 
gods. By giving a man attains great glory. In time giving leads a person to great 

And when he heard these words he thought, “Ibis person says lhat the act of 
giving alone is capable of warding off all harm in this world and granting peace 
and happiness. I should put all my efforts there.” And so he gave food and other 
necessities to the hungry. And as he got older he began to take things from the 
storehouse and give them to beggars and supplicants. He worshipped the Jina 
images, and with great faith in his heart he gave food, clothing and begging 
bowls to the Jain monks and nuns. He did honour to his fellow Jains. Now one 
day the keeper of the storehouse, Tanhabhibhuya, “Overcome by Greed,” seeing 
that so much wealth was disappearing from the stores, told the merchant, 
“Master! Devadinna is overcome by the vice of excessive giving and is 
destroying a vast amount of wealth.” The merchant said, “Do not stop him. Let 
him give what he wants. Just be sure to replace what he takes out.” The other 
one replied, “How shall I know how much he takes?” The merchant said, “First 
do your measuring, then get ready what he needs and let him give it.” And he 
did just this. As for Devadinna, he gave away everything and anything that came 
into his mind. And so time passed. 

Now it happened that Tanhabhibhuya had an exceptionally pretty daughter 
named Bala, “Child,” from his wife Muddha, “Charming.” Because she was so 
clever people called her B5lapandiya, “Child-genius.” One day while she was 
roaming Devadinna happened to see her. And as soon as he saw her he thought, 

“Surely this maiden was made by God with a beauty that is not to be touched. 
For I have never known such loveliness in any woman that I have embraced. 

I think that the creator must have taken all the loveliness from every woman 
to make her body. In no other way is her beauty to be explained! 

Wherever this young maiden goes, herself unmoved, the young men are all 
astir with passion. 

What else can I say? Maybe she, radiant with a fiery beauty, was even made 
by the God of Love himself out of his own power, like a magic herb to conquer 
all men. 

He alone is fortunate, he alone is happy, he alone fulfills his life who kisses 
her beautiful face, as a bee drinks the nectar of a lotus. 

What good is the life of a man who does not toss to and fro amongst her 
broad breasts, like a snake struck by a stick, wriggling and writhing all the 

What else can I say? Lucky is the man who like a swan nestles in her, for she 
is like a divine river whose waters are the honeyed pleasures of love.” 

And being thus struck with desire for her he thought, “How can I get her to 
be mine? I know. I shall win her father over with gifts and things, For it is said. 





‘Whomever you wish to seize, seize first with a lure. And then greedy for 
more, he will do whatever you wish, good deed or bad.’ 

If I do not get her then I will leave this place. I must be clever and somehow 

make this known to her and to her father.” 

And so the next day he gave Tanhabhibhuya a fine necklace. He sard, 
“Master' What is fee meaning of giving me this necklace? The young man 
answered with a riddle that involved a play on the word for necklace. In o 
smsT he merely said, “I am giving it to you; you are my servant and must 
accept it Now take it and do with it what you wish.” But Devadinna realiy had 
Sr meaning in mind; for as he gave it to Tanhabhibhhya he announced fes 
intention to give himself up to the girl as a thief might do to a guard and he 
pr“ald L his fate was in her hands. But " “ tve 

stand that meaning. Still he did a? he was told ami tookdhe 
it rn Balanandiva. She asked, “Father, where did you get this necklace/ ne 
STgave i. to me.” Now she too had been in fc throes ».great 

passion ever since she had seen fee young «iam Sh e 
intentions and so to find out exactly what lay behind all of this she asked, 
Sr^Tfed he say anything at all to you?” He repeated exactly w^ 
Devadinna had said. At once she understood its true meaning and so she recite 
this verse, playing upon a like set of double meanings: 

■The thief is not sent away horn the palace for his aa of thievery andI the 
necklace does not go far from the treasury, occasioning a loss of wealth. Indeed 
ttTLklrL on my breasts and so shall he res, tore too, ever so 

“treasury” here can also mean “the surrounding walls of fee castle.” 
TlT^nSa^means the “young man.” “Not taken far" means “no, ca* 
Sde, not sent away in eidle," because he has stolen the wealth 
bear the “necklace,” or the “young man,” in her heart, and he can live there 
happily. This was what she really meant to imply as an answer to to words_ 
The father who did not understand any of this, said nothing. She thought, 
“My goal can be accomplished if I am clever enough,” and so 
to her mother “Mother! Give me to Devadinna.” Her mother said, My d, 
yon^ dw^s so sman. Why do you say something so foolish. • 
not know a t4ig? Your father is his servant. How can you many tam? Choose 

someone of your own station.” She said “Mother! At ka * p. 

1 shall take to my bed.” And she did just so. Now Muddha saw how 
deeply to love she was and so she told Candappaha what had happeued Aod she 
told her husband. He said, “It is one tha, to-fatheris our common 
servant But I too have heard from our son's friends feat he is also deeply ^ 
love wife her Let me see what our son feels and then I shall do what is right 
And so the merchant just happened to recite this verse within earshot of to son, 
“A person should never abandon his father and friends. He should never trust to 



wife nor take her money and he should never lust after one of his servant 

Immediately realizing his father's intentions, the young man spoke up, 
“Father! If a weak wall is about to fall, is it better if it falls inward or towards 
the outside?” The merchant said, “If it fells towards the inside then none of the 
bricks will be destroyed. And so I suppose that is to be preferred.” The young 
man said, “If that is the case, then why did you say what you did?” The 
merchant, having understood his son's feelings, made him a wedding with all 
due pomp and splendour. And while the happy couple were shamelessly 
enjoying the delights of sex and falling deeper and deeper in love with each 
other, one day it so happened that Balapandiya went out for something. And a 
woman, seeing her, remarked to her own companion, 

“My friend! Surely this woman is the foremost of lucky women who have 
accumulated merit through many past lives, for she has been taken as a bride 
into a house that is so rich and wealthy.” 

The other one said, 

“Oh, my friend! Don't speak so fast. To me that woman is blessed who, 
marrying a man whose wealth is gone, brings him great wealth and fortune.” 

Now when she heard these words Balapandiya thought, “Truly she has spoken 
words which require some thought. And when you think about them they do 
indeed seem to be true. I must send my own husband somewhere to earn money, 
while I remain at home devoted to pious acts, so that he many increase his great 
wealth.” And with this thought she went home. There she saw her husband, sunk 
as it were, in an ocean of worry. 

And when she saw him like that she asked, “My Lord! Why do you seem to 
be so distressed? “He said, “Beloved! I have good reason to be distressed. 
Today, dressed up in all my finery, surrounded by all my friends, I was seen by 
two mea One of them said, 

‘Here is one who always seems to enjoy great wealth. And he is forever 
giving away things, as an elephant drips juice from its temples when in rut.’ - 

At that the second one said, 

‘Sir! Why do you praise him? All he does is enjoy what his father acquired, 
like a son enjoying his own mother! 

He who can do all that this ore does with wealth that he has acquired through 
the strength of his own arms is the one I would consider to be valiant Anyone 
else is a coward.’ 

And so, beloved, as long as I do not go abroad and acquire wealth with the 
strength of my own two arms, I shall find no peace of mind.” 

At this she was filled with joy and she said, “My Lord! What a fine idea! For, 

‘He alone is fortunate, he alone is wise, he alone is learned, who wins fame 
through the wealth that he has acquired by the strength of his own two arms.’ 










My Lord! May your every wish be fulfilled. Do as you desire. And he 
thought, “No wife would ever say such a thing when her husband expressed a 
desire to go abroad. For, 

‘All the joys of life are gone for a woman when her husband is abroad; 
women enjoy the pleasures of life when their beloveds are at their beck and 

But she says all of this with a straight face. For sure she must have a lover. 
What do I care, for at least she has not tried to stop me.” Determined to go, he 
went to his father and informed him, 

“Father! Grant me leave to go. I wish to journey abroad in order to acquire 
wealth. I shall do many brave and valiant deeds.” 

His father said, 

“My child! We already have so much wealth in our family that is at your 
disposal for whatever you wish, for giving away, for enjoying and even for 
frittering away if that is what you choose. 

Use that wealth and stay here, free from care, for I could not bear to endure 
being separated from you.” 

Devadinna said, 

“What decent man would not shudder at the thought of living off the money 
that his ancestors had earned? 

And so I beg of you, out of your love for me, to grant me leave so that I may 
justly earn my fame with the wealth that I have acquired through the strength of 
my own two arms.” 

When they realized that his decision to go was so firm, his mother and father 
both gave him their blessings and dismissed him from their presence. When all 
the prepar ati ons were finally underway for his departure, his parents feared that 
th eir daughter-in-law might prevent her husband from going, and so they said to 
her, “Your husband seems eager to make a journey abroad.” She said, “Father! 
And what can be unusual in my noble husband's resolve? For he has been bom 
to parents like you two and is merely following in the footsteps of his honored 
ancestors who have gone before him. For it is said, 

‘These creatures leave their place of birth: lions, noble men, and elephants. 
And these creatures die where they were bom: crows, cowardly men and deer.’” 

When they heard these words they had die same reaction as had their son and 
so they remained silent. Now when the young man was ready, the merchant 
assigned eighty-four traders to accompany him, giving them each goods for 
trade. On an auspicious day, then, the young man appeared, mounted on an 
elephant He distributed great wealth to those assembled and stood ready in a 
special pavilion erected to bless his departure. And Balapandiya, too, was 
mounted on a magnificent elephant She was dressed in her most splendid finery 
and her lotus-like face was aglow with happiness. She went forward to bow 
down to her husband. An instant later she announced, “My Lord! Command me 




as you wish!" And the young man, in keeping with established custom, offered 
her a flavored betel leaf with some flowers. As she put the betel into her mouth 
she proclaimed, “My master! May I enjoy many a betel leaf that you yourself 
place between my lips!” And with these words she bound her hair into a tight 
braid, and her heart overflowing with joy, she returned to her own rooms. And 
as they observed her behaviour, all the townspeople were struck with doubt as 
they returned to the city. 

And the young man, too, had his thoughts. “Strange indeed are the ways of 
women! No one can ever know what they are really thinking.” Turning this over 
in his mind, he proceeded on his journey. In time he reached the harbour named 
Gambhiraya, “Deep,” as is its description here with its many embedded and 
hidden me anin gs, puns and word plays. For there he saw the ocean and the 
ocean was like a magnificent elephant, like a grand palace, like a great jewel, 
like an excellent ascetic and like a lord of men. And what was their similarity? 
It was that they could all be described by just one adjective, if you are careful 
enough to turn the adjective this way and that. And when you do you see that 
the adjective means many things: the ocean was teeming with large sea 
creatures, while the elephant drips with ichor when in rut, the palace is abustle 
with pleasures, the jewel is ever desired, the ascetic is without passion and the 
king is forever proud. Again, it was like a cremation ground and like the 
Samkhya school of philosophy, for they each can be described by the same 
adjective, read anew each time. The sea was filled with many types of shells; 
the cremation ground holds great terrors; and the Samhkya school is made up of 
many great men who adhere to its tenets. In the same way it was like an 
excellent chariot, the sea having birds with the word “wheel” in their name, and 
the chariot having real wheels. It was like a temple which has a platform on 
which the image stands, in having a firm floor which is called by the same 
name. It was like an army marked by forbearance, in having many fish named 
by the same word that can indeed mean “forbearance.” It seemed to rise up to 
greet him with its great waves that reached upward; it seemed to want to 
embrace him with its arms made up of garlands of waves. The ocean seemed to 
call out to him with the thunderous roar that the creatures in its depths made as 
they were churned hither and thither. And it seemed to smile and laugh with the 
white froth of its waves which were like the dazzling teeth in a person's mouth 
when he smiles and laughs. It even seemed to chatter away at him with the 
clatter made by the birds there. He prayed to the ocean and then began to 
examine the boats that were there. And from them he chose to rent one 
particular boat that was like the teachings of the Jinas. It was unblemished and 
possessed of all the best qualities. It was covered with fine cloths that could be 
called by the same term used to designate the robes of the Jain monks. It had an 
excellent sail of white cloth, while the Jain doctrine has excellent monks who 
wear white garments. It was to be the cause of great success for him, as the Jain 
doctrine leads to the highest goal for men. Like the Jain doctrine, too, it 



his teachers and the Gods. He ga y &- chore- all the things 

followed. he got onto the boat The «£ 

zz&szz see -^ 

few days they traveled over thousands of miles of ocean. 

* <■» —• JS'jy 'SfZZZSS'* observing 


praying and dedicating herself to the fittfcMy md 6UKr . ta . 

saw her, and the nuns, her mo “ “ your body is so delicate. Do not 
law, in short everyone said to her, Uuia. rour uuu? 

oerform such strenuous asceticism.” She said, 

^“Elders' Do not be troubled. I shall carry out these penances for only ax 
JSflteta. I Shan fast to dead, if my husband has no. com. hade, aU ins 
S?fcSed. I swear to this today, right beta, ah of you. 

They said, “Danghmr! Your L." She said, 

■B« Dolt say another word abom it.^And because 

they realized that she was him in her resolve, they all kept sden 

One night, when me cold f ason S^ed 



^ , t God I am your most humble servant from this y 

^“soVe yourself to m You will not rind one like me so 
M cilv aeain nor will you always have such a body. 

tr l u .s 

together. There is no such thing as morality, no such tnrng as 

and no such thing as spiritual liberation.” 

And when she did no. answer him - Xn" 2bteak 

wicked one began to try to enjoy y religious practices, then 

down her resistance, for she ha greatthought “I shall kill the husband 
his mood changed and he became angry. He thougnt, snau 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

" Sel K SS WOman t0 Wh0m she is 80 fai,hful > so that she will die of grief at 
death, burnt up by the raging fires of her pain.” Now he knew thro^h hi. 

Ste^nddT-' 2 ? g H !hat Devadinna was in the middle of the ocean Jid he 
6hghted> onto Ws boat Taking on a terrifying fom he 

ght here in the middle of the ocean.” Devadinna said, “What have I done 
wrong that you should act this way?” The God replied “TW f 

“S 0rely wha. I “aft 

again spoke up, •« she hasten false 7 ,„ L 25 ten 

;sss sa 

mlr 16 T her 11,36 faitk ** 80 he ^ come here Tanged t 

oroKen snip and they reached various islands 

aith he was earned safely ashore. And in accordance with what his past deed. 

s *; ™ --5=S 

fellow Jam and dehghted said to him, “Sir! I am the ocean I Jfrieased bv the 

r no *-• - 

■ , De J adin ° a re P lie< L “As you command.” And with these words he set out And 


*£? “ l T 3,1,1 “ S * *» *■ been™«“ te 

ocean. And when he rephed, “That is sote demi-god said, “In that caL go 


at once to the city Rayanapura, not far from here. The king there is named 
Sakka, just like the King of the Gods. Whatever you desire in your heart he will 
give to you four-fold.” 

And so he went and he saw that absolutely everyone there was absorbed in 
enjoying all the pleasures of all of the senses; no one did a stitch of work, not 
trade, not farming, not clerical work, not soldiering. They all seemed to be doing 
nothing but playing. And looking at so many things that amazed him he reached 
the royal palace itself. There he saw the king, like Indra, the King of the Gods, 
enjoying himself with every imaginable pleasure, and giving to people four 
times what they had wanted. He asked one man, 

“No one in this city does anything to make money, not trade nor any of the 
other usual occupations, and yet where do they get all the money they clearly 
enjoy without the least little effort?” 

He said to him, “Have you come up from the nether world or fallen from the 
heavens? Or have you come from across the ocean that you ask such a 

Devadinna said, “Do not be angry, for it is true that I have come from across 
the ocean and have been shipwrecked here. Please tell me exactly what goes on 
in this place.” 

The man told him, “In that case, listen. This king of ours goes every day to 
the nearby jungle and there by his great courage he pleases the powerful demi¬ 
god Manoraha. The demi-god, satisfied, grants him a very great boon. Through 
the power of that boon the king gives to every person four times what he 

When he heard this Devadinna thought, “In that case why should I bother 
humbling myself before the king? I shall win over the demi-god himself. But I 
must see what the king does to please the demi-god.” He then went to the 
temple of the demi-god and concealing himself behind a tree, he hid there until 
after the first watch of the night, when the king appeared all alone, with only his 
own sword to guard him. The king worshipped the demi-god and proclaimed, 

“O, O, great demi-god! You who are possessed of such great power and 
unthinkable magnanimity ! You who rescue all living creatures who display their 
faith in you through acts of courage! Appear now in person to me!” 

And with these words King Sakka threw himself into a fire pit from which 
terrifying flames leapt. 

The demi-god lifted him up with his lance and sprinkled him with water from 
his water pot The king was as good as new. The demi-god said, “Great Being! 
Choose a boon.” He said, “In that case may I be able to give every man four 
times what he wishes through your powers.” “So be it.” When the demi-god had 
rephed, the king bowed down to him and then went back to his palace. 

On the very next day it was Devadinna who spoke in this way to the demi¬ 
god and who jumped into the burning fire pit. In the very same way the demi- 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

god came to grant him a boon. Devadinna said “Keen it in t. „ 
with that he jumped into the fire pit yet a second time^he ^ *** 

front! Xf ^ta ^, DeVadiW2 ^ ^ “ “ s K “P fc . conwaled 

have alrcady given toe boon/to “ d> " I 

to his palace, grcafly doubled in tod. S on 

the enthe nigh, tossing and taming in *S5 S tog **“* 

sand, like a snake strut* bv a stick lit-Tu. . Sh thro ' vn »P onto hot 
came Devadinna went to » ?" gb ‘ “ a to^. When morning 

overcome SJ? “ lhe tmg ' He saw «»• evetyone in the palace was 

seems ,„ beLmcome^^'TwS ••Sir'^ eVHy0,K ta “* 
has declared that today he immolate^ hZlf San/T '“ iM1 ting 
palace is overcome wiS, grief,• 

c3£S £^=^=sSS 
sHSSSS5w5“ s ~ 

All this time I have been able to’ fulfill ™ ddlc,etl “ g,v “>8 away my wealth, 
a demi-god Bn, today I an^witbouthis fervomamll 
Anyway, wha, use is my life without dm favour of taZiSf^T wta 
I am so upset and have decided to kill myself” He said -Tfri«» • n V* 
through my magic power which will lastTloL SV?£ “ " ^ *“• 

give away great wealth v™, h , 33 long 35 1 ^ ve y° u can continue to 

fa- % n ; ?£ “ “- god “» 

Devadinna suggested. ’ eageiiy agreed to do as 

Devadinna then went back to the iunvle Them u 
ba ^ g . «i todle-aged 

O noble one! Where have you come from and what are you 
said, “I have come from across the ocean. The presiding JTJ iTfet tL 
was pleased with me and sent me to the demi-god iLora^” M 
woman was jus. dclighmd. She said, "In rha. case, come sir to to 



so that I can tell you a secret” He did just as she said. She too then sat there 
and began to tell him her tale. 

“There is a wonderful mountain named Veyaddha, with so many high peaks 
that reach up to touch the top of heaven’s vault. It is home to all of the 
Vijjaharas, who have supernatural powers, and is adorned with many Jain 
temples made entirely of precious stones. There is a city on that mountain called 
Gayanavallaha. It is protected by King Candasehara, who is the crest-jewel of all 
the kings of the Vijjaharas. He has five chief queens, all foremost in his harem, 
and their names are Sirikanta, Kanagamala, Vijjumala, Mehamala, and Sutara. 
And they each have a daughter who is skilled in all the aits and who surpasses 
in beauty the women of the Gods. Their names are Kanagappaha, Tarappaha, 
Candappaha, Surappaha, and Telukkadevl. Their father Candasehara consulted 
an astrologer about them. “Who will be their husband?” The astrologer said, 

“Your younger brother Surasehara on his death became the demi-god 
Manoraha. He still bears you great affection. If your daughters stay with him 
they will surely get the right husband for themselves.” And so their father gave 
the girls to Manoraha to take care of. Manoraha hid them all in an underground 
structure near his temple and he gave them all such a fiery complexion that no 
ordinary man could look at them. Each girl he made more blindingly bright than 
her sister, with Telukkadevl the brightest. If you want you could ask for the 
girls I am their former nursemaid named Vegaval, and won over by your good 
qualities and handsome looks I have told you all of this.” 

Devadinna then said, “I shall do as you command.” With that he went back 
to see the demi-god. He told him, “Blessed One! For my third boon that I left 
in trust with you give me those maidens who are here in their underground 
chambers.” The demi-god at once thought, “Now surely those girls have been 
struck with desire for this man and have shown themselves to him. How else 
could he even know that they exist?” He said to Devadinna, “There are girls 
here, but they are so fiery bright that no one can look at them.” He said, “That 
doesn’t matter Just give them to me.” At that the demi-god showed him four of 
the girls, all except Telukkadevl. And as soon as they got near Devadinna the 
fiery brilliance that the demi-god had given them disappeared. Then be asked, 
“Why did you not show me the fifth girl?” The demi-god said, “She is three 
times brighter than even these gills and you would never be able to look at her.” 
Devadinna said, “Never mind. Just show her to me.” With that there appeared 
a girl who was as hard to look upon as the orb of the sun. But she too at once 
assumed her normal appearance when she got dose to Devadinna. All of them 
as soon as they saw him fell deeply in love with him. The demi-god was 
amazed at this and thought to himself, “Surely they belong to him.” He said, 
“Children! Do you want this man for your husband?” They said, “Father, it 
would be a great honour for us.” Manohaia told them, “He already has a wife 
who is the abode of so many good qualities. And even as your husband he will 
still always be devoted to her.” They all said, “And what could be wrong with 



Ws being devoted to his senior wife?” At that the demi-god gave him the girls. 
He summoned King Candasehara and with much pomp and splendour they 
celebrated their wedding. The demi-god gave great wealth to all the girls. Then 
Telukkadevi said, “Father! Will you not also give something for our elder co¬ 
wife who is like our sister?” At this the demi-god gave her a jewelled signet 
nng. She said, “What kind of a gift is this?” He said, “My daughter! This is a 
magic jewel that grants all wishes.” Delighted, she accepted the ring. 
Candasehara took his leave of the demi-god and went home. And the giris 
through their magic powers made a magic castle for them all to live in. 
Devadinna stayed there with them enjoying pleasure after pleasure. 

Then one day, wondering what her elder co-wife was doing, Telukkadevi 
used her supernatural knowledge and saw that Balapandiya was intent on 
beginning her fast to death. For the six months period had lapsed and her 
husband had not yet returned. Clothed in the stained robes of a nun, she was 
sitting deep in meditation. Realizing, “Surely this noble lady will fast to death 
tomorrow morning if her husband has not returned,” Telukkadevi went to the 
demi-god. She told him exactly what was happening. He too believed that what 
she said was gomg to happen and he said, “My child! Go quickly, for the night 
is almost up. And he sent with her his servant, the demi-god named Dharani- 
dhara. And that one made a magic chariot which he filled with jewels, precious 
stones, pearls, coral, gold and other valuables. They put Dev adinna in the 
chariot, fast asleep. Then the girls and their servants got in. Dharanidhara held 
the chariot on the tip of his finger and hurtled it upwards. It sped onward with 
great speed and Devadinna was suddenly awakened by the jingling 0 f the bells 

that hung along its sides. He asked Telukkadevi, “What is going on?” And she 
told him every thin g 

As they watched the earth speed by them with its cities, towns and v illa s, 
m the twinkling of an instant they arrived at their destination. They saw 
alapandiya in meditation at the nunnery. And when she saw her, Telukkadevi 
threw a garment of fine silk over her. Distracted, Balapandiya quickly uttered a 
few words of praise to the Jinas and came out of her meditation. She looked up 
to see what was happening. When she saw the chariot she was frightened and 
went inside. She asked the other nuns, “What is happening?” They told her, “It 
must be that some God has come here, drawn by the power of your austerities.” 
And no sooner had they said this than the chariot came down from the sky and 
stopped right there in front of them. 

The sun came up. They all got out of the chariot, and having uttered the 
traditional words renouncing mundane concerns, they entered the holy precincts. 
They bowed down to the nuns. Balapandiya, seeing her husband, in a flurry rose 
to greet him. She fell at his feet When they beard that Dev adinna was back the 
king and all the townspeople, his father and all his relatives, came to see him. 
He sent Dharanidhara back, and taking all the valuables from the chariot, with 









great pomp and splendour Devadinna returned home. A huge celebration was 
held in his honour. 

Now his friends began to ask Devadinna what had happened to the other 
merchants who had gone with him. When she saw that Devadinna did not 
answer, Telukkadevi, with her magic powers realized what was on his mind and 
she thought, “Nothing should spoil a happy moment like this.” That was why 
she said, “My noble lord has come swiftly on this magic chariot. The others all 
tarried a bit, doing various services for the local ruler and receiving in turn 
much honour. They will surely arrive soon.” Devadinna was delighted and 
thought, “How clever my beloved is with words.” 

But when people began to ask about the other merchants every day, then 
Devadinna remembered the demi-god. And through the power of the magic 
wish-granting jewel that the demi-god had given for Balapandiya, at that very 
instant the demi-god came to him. He asked, “For what reason have you 
summoned me?” Devadinna said, “Because I cannot make what your daughter 
said come true.” The demi-god said, “If that is all then I shall do everything that 
is necessary. I’ll be right back.” Devadinna said, “Please.” And the demi-god did 
do all that he had promised. Devadinna then spent many happy years like this, 
all of his wishes fulfilled by the power of the magic wishing jewel that he had 
gotten as a result of his acts of giving away wealth, acts that bore their fruit 
right here in this world. He was devoted to worshipping the Jinas and the Jain 
monks; he gave away wealth to the poor and the unfortunate; he fulfilled every 
wish that he had ever had, and he enjoyed to the fullest every conceivable 
pleasure of the five senses. He had many sons who were worthy of him. 

Now one day in the course of his monastic tour the Jain monk SHasagara 
came there. Devadinna and his wives went out to greet the monk and they 
bowed down to him with their hearts filled with faith. Receiving his blessings, 
they all sat down on a clean spot of ground from which all living creatures had 
been gently removed. The monk began to give a discourse on the Jain faith. He 
began, “When a man has been fortunate to have been bom as a human being 
and in a country where the true religion is taught, then he should spend his 
efforts in religious pursuits. Listen, 

All you noble souls! It is not such an easy thing to have been bom as a 
human being and in the right country. Most good people know this. 

Now you have all attained such a birth on account of the good deeds that you 
must have done in a past fife. Now you should put your mind to that religion 
which has been taught by the Omniscient One. 

And that religion is said to be two-fold in practice, for the monks and for the 
lay believers. You should put all your effort into religion, for it has been said by 
the wise: 





There win always be unending misfortunes; there will always be the cycle of 
passion and other bad feelings; there will always be the origin of karma and 
there will always be the cycle of births; 

There will always be miseries and there will always be false and vain hopes- 
there will always be men pitifully complaining to other men; ’ 

There will always be poverty, there win always be disease, there wril always 
be this terrible ocean of transmigratoiy existence with its many sufferings, 

Just as long as this true religion spoken by the Jinas is not encountered by 
people. But as soon as people, even by chance, encounter this teaching, then 

Shaking off aU sm they win reach the highest place which is fflled with 
unending happiness and is devoid of aU suffering.” 

At this there arose in Devadinna a desire to practice religion and he said, “I 
shaU make arrangements for my family and then I shall obey your command by 
becoming a monk.” 

The teacher said, “Do not wait.” “I shaU be back.” With these words he 
returned home. He appointed his eldest son Dhanaval, “The Rich,” as head of 
the family. And as festivities were celebrated in the Jain temples, as hosts of 
monks and nuns were given pure alms, as feUow Jains were honored and feted 
as wealth was distributed to the poor and the needy, what more can I say, as’ 
everything that was supposed to happen was carried out to perfection, Devadinna 
and his wives were ordained by the teacher. He gave them this instruction: ' 
“Hem- this! There are people who drink the drink of immortality, the nectar of 
the Gods. They are the people who have become monks and nuns and are filled 
with a happiness that nothing can sully. 

And now you all have taken this Blessed Ordination. You have obtained what 
there is to be obtained in this ocean of births. 

But I warn you that as long as you five you must be careful and exert 
yourselves, for it is said, 

... T k° se wlthout g°°d fortune, those lowest of men, do not master the religious 
hie. But those who do are the best among men.’” 

And when Devadinna said, “We desire further instruction,” the teacher handed 
the women over to the nun Silamani. They all took upon themselves two sets of 
vows. They lived a perfect life as ascetics for many years. At the end of their 
appointed life span they all fasted to death and became gods in the twelfth 
heaven. When they fall from there they will be reborn in Mahavideha where 
they will achieve their ultimate liberation. 

And so I say, 

The fact that although he had fallen into distress, the lord of the ocean 
Sutthia was pleased with him, and the fact that he was able to return to his 
parents, all of this is the result of his giving away wealth. 



The fact that he obtained those women to enjoy sensual pleasures with, 
women who had conquered the women of the Gods with their charm and their 
beauty, all of this is the result of his giving away wealth. 

The fact that he got so many gorgeous silk clothes, fine, beautiful, of every 
different colour, all of this is the result of his giving away wealth. 

The fact that he got so many glowing jewels, wishing jewels, cats-eyes, 
diamonds and more, all of this is the result of his giving away wealth. 

The fact that he got heap upon heap of valuables, jewels, pearls, coral, gold 
and other such things, all of this is the result of his giving away wealth. 

The fact that he enjoyed so many pleasures that delighted his ears, his sense 
of smell, his taste, touch and eyes; the fact that he got unparalleled glory, all of 
this is the result of his giving away wealth. 

Considering all of these fruits that come about in this very life from the act 
of giving away wealth, give all you can with all your might!” 

The Story of the Merchant Abhinava, from the MulaSuddhiprakarana, 

There is on our very own continent of Jambudvlpa, in the very center of the 
area known as Southern Bharata, an ancient city named Vesall, which was 
exceedingly famous. There once reigned King Cedaa, who like some mythical 
beast that slays the proud lion of the jungle, had slain his proud and mighty 
enemies. He was lord over eighteen vassal kings. And there dwelt in that city 
two merchants. One was named JunnasetthI, “The Old Merchant,” and the other 
was called AhinavasetthI, “The Young Merchant.” The first was as poor as poor 
can be, while the other was as rich as rich can be. 

Now one day the lord of the triple world, the lord of heaven, earth and the 
nether world, the Jina Mahavlra came into that city in the course of his 
monastic wanderings. This was in the time before he had reached his state of 
perfect enlightenment. And one night the rains began. Mahavlra took refuge in 
some shelter there and assumed a posture of meditation that he would keep for 
the four months of the rainy season. 

The old merchant saw him there and his heart was filled with feelings of awe 
and reverence. Waves of joy flowed over his whole body and he proclaimed, 
“Today truly my whole life's purpose is fulfilled. Today my life indeed seems 
worth living. For today I can bow down to the feet of the Blessed One, which 
are like pure water to cleanse the dirt of sin.” And with feelings like this every 
day he went to bow down to the feet of the Blessed One. He would stay a few 
moments each day, with his hands joined together and held over his head in a 
gesture of reverence, and worship the Blessed One. And he thought, “Now I 
come here every day and it seems that the Blessed One never moves from this 
place. He is ever engaged in meditating, his body unmoving, as he observes the 
fast for four months of the rainy season. If only th$ Blessed One would break 



his fast at my house when the time comes, then truly I would consider myself 
to be the most fortunate man in the world.” 

And while he occupied himself with pious thoughts like these, in no time at 
all the four months of the rainy season passed and there came the day for the 
Blessed One to break his fast. Bowing down to the Blessed One the old 
merchant said, “Friend to all the world! Lord of Ascetics! Blessed One, bless me 
today by breaking your fast at my house.” And with these words he returned 
home. There he made everything ready and he waited expectantly looking at the 
door. He kept thinking to himself all the while, “The Blessed One is coming, the 
Blessed One is coming, and I shall fulfill my every desire by giving him food 
to break his fast If the Lord of the Jinas comes to my house, then I shall have 
crossed this ocean of rebirths, whose waves are our sufferings, and in whose 
depths lurk countless misfortunes like so many sharks.” 

And as his desire for the highest bliss grew and grew and waves of joy 
coursed through his body while he waited there, the Jina passed him by and 
went into the house of the young merchant. And the young merchant, recalling 
the teaching that a gift given to the proper recipient leads to fruits right in that 
very same lifetime, fed the Blessed One. And at the very moment that he did so 
the five marvelous signs appeared on account of the power of that gift that was 
given to such a worthy person as Mahavlra. A rain of jewels fell from the sky, 
while the Gods waved the ends of their robes in congratulations. The Gods beat 
their heavenly drums and a fragrant perfumed rain fell from the sky. Heavenly 
voices could be heard, praising the gift 

Now when the old merchant heard the sound of the heavenly drums beating 
he wondered what had happened. Someone then told him, “The Blessed One has 
been given food to break his fast” His earlier religious resolve was thus broken. 
In the meantime the Blessed One continued on his wanderings, leaving that city. 

Now it chanced that the Jina Pargvanatha came there. All of the townspeople 
reverently rushed out to greet the Jina. And that Blessed One discoursed on the 
Jain religion, which is like a boat for fortunate souls, ferrying them across the 
ocean of rebirths. 

“Listen, all of you fortunate souls who are destined to achieve final release! 
The Jain faith alone is your refuge in this cycle of rebirths. All of the rest is 
mere delusion. 

All material prosperity, every worldly joy comes from this religion if it is well 
practiced. Indeed it leads even to heaven and final release. 

And its duties are said by the Jinas to be four-fold, giving to others, observing 
a moral life, practicing austerities, and engaging in right meditation. And so you 
should practice these things, particularly giving, so that you may obtain the bliss 
of true peace.” 



Now at that time, all the townspeople, who had been amazed by the great 
merit that the young merchant obviously had, seeing their chance, humbly asked 
the Blessed One: 

“Blessed One! Right now, here in this city, who is the person who has the most 
merit?” And at that the Blessed One pronounced the old merchant to have the 
greatest merit. 

The people all quickly replied, “Blessed One! But he was not the one to give 
the Jina food to break his fast. The other one did, and the five divine signs 
appeared in his house.” 

But the Blessed One told them, “If the old merchant had not heard that the 
Jina had already been given food to break his fast, for sure he would have 
obtained omniscience just one second later. Now it is true that the young 
merchant experienced the divine signs in his house, and it is true that he 
achieved merit that will give rise to its fruit right here in this very lifetime, but 
he did not acquire any merit that will carry over into a future rebirth, for he 
lacked the proper mental attitude for that when he gave his gift.” 

And when they heard that answer all the townspeople felt great respect for the 
old merchant. Having bowed down to the Blessed One they all went back to 
their own homes. 


The Story of King Yasodhara 

Translated by Friedhelm Hardy 

Introduction 1 

The tribulations of King Yasodhara, spread out over seven rebirths, make 
fascinating and at the same time terrifying reading. A seemingly minor offense 
against Jaina ethics is punished on a scale that appears totally out of proportion. 
Yet more than mere punishment is involved, for parallel to the gruesome 
external tortures endured by the king and his mother runs a process of innpr 
purification. The overt intention of the story is to demonstrate the consequences 
of himsa, a sacrificial killing of living beings for the sake of some personal 
benefit. The price that will have to be paid for this turns the culprit into a victim 
of similar acts of himsa. Into the rich texture of this story are woven other 
themes. We can recognize an attack on the Hindu veneration of goddesses, for 
they are predominantly associated with blood sacrifice. But behind this can also 
be detected another intention: to reveal the intrinsic connection of himsa with 
Mma, of violence with sexual passion. Thus it is not an accident that Yaso dhar a 
is motivated to commit his act of himsa after a traumatic erotic experience; that 
time and again in his subsequent lives sex and violence go hand in hanH : and 
that (as versions other than the present one make clear) 2 his final purification is 
brought about by the desire for sexual prowess of another king. It is a tale 
painted in lurid colours and not meant for the squeamish, but at the same time 
we can see in it clues to the existence of a highly sophisticated Jaina psychologi¬ 
cal theory. Ya^odhara's story can be regarded as one of the great cultural 
constructs of Jainism. It is uniquely Jaina. Traces of it may have entered into the 
Arabian Nights, 3 but in India it was Jaina authors alone who wrote about it. 
Versions are found in practically all die languages that were used by the Jains: 
Prakrit, Sanskrit, ApabhramSa, Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Hindi. 4 We know of 



more than two dozen authors who wrote about Yaiodhara, 5 sp annin g a period of 
a thousand years. It was in the Yaiastilaka that the story found its most 
sophisticated expression. Since the message is conveyed by the story as a whole, 
I have chosen to translate a much briefer version of the tale which dispenses 
with all ornamentations and elaborations. It is found as number 73 in Harisena's 
collection of tales (written in Sanskrit) known as the Brhatkathakofa. 6 

Harisena wrote his work in Kathiawar in 931 A.D. and that makes him tire 
earliest known and extant author of the story of YaSodhara in die form which 
became standard for later writers. The rationale of Harisena's collection is not 
brought out in the text itself, but can be unravelled from another work, the 
Kahakosu' which Sricandra composed during the second half of the 11th 
century A.D. in ApabhramSa and which can be regarded almost as a free 
translation of the Brhatkathakofa. Now Jsricandra makes it clear that die stories 
are meant to spell out in concrete detail maders alluded to in the Mularahana 
(or more popularly, Bhagavati Aradhana ), a Prakrit text on ethics. 8 Unlike 
Harisena, he actually quotes a number of verses from this work. Rather 
predictably, the heading under which the story of Yasodhara is presented is 
himsa. 9 

What follows is a complete and fairly literal translation of Harisena’s 
version. 10 To my knowledge only one other version has ever Jbeen rendered into 
English. 11 

Translation 12 

There was in the great country of AvantI the city of Ujjayinl. Its king was 
Kirtyogha, and Candramatl was his lovely wife. YaSodhara was bom to them, 
after they had been longing for a son (for quite a while). He was handsome, 
well-mannered, and no-one surpassed him (in any of his fine qualities). 
Ahirtamatl became his chief queen: like the petals of the blue lotus were her 
eyes, beauty radiated from all her limbs, and she was* dear to his heart. A son, 
prince Ya^omati, was bom to them; he was brave, polite, well-mannered, and a 
delight to both their families.(l-4) 

One day Kirtyogha looked into a clear mirror and saw his first grey hair. 
This made him (think of death and) further rebirths, and terrified thereby he 
relinquished the pleasures of this world. To his son YaSodhara he handed over 
the splendours of kingship, and took from Abhinandana initiation into the 
Digambara order.(5f) 

YaSodhara ruled gloriously over Ujjayinl. All his vassals paid heed to his 
command, bowing their heads before him in submission. His days were filled 
with great happiness; he enjoyed to the full the pleasures of making love to his 
chief queen Amrtamatl.(7f) 

But then one day Yasodhara caught sight of his beloved queen having sex 
with a hunchback 13 in the middle of the night. All matters of sexuality ceased to 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

interest him (He reflected:) “As an excuse that can explain my (now) becoming 
a monk, while remaining m my palace, I will have to tell my mother somethin? 
about a made-up dieam.-^ (So he told her) “Listen, mother! Last night, ctof 
die final watch, I had the following clear dream: I was falling at gLat speed 
from my seven-storeyed palace, and then crashed on to the ground wMch was 
covered with broken bits of stone. Yet soon I got up and men who were 
standing on the palace and had to do with magic and deLt applauded me with 
alse eulogies. I became filled with a strong aversion to the affairs of the senses 
charge of * eMngdom ’ - took » 

When Candramatr heard this, she replied: “The dream you have had, my son 

off ltr OUS ‘ ! 1Tm ,“ mmd y0U must now P^ 0 ™ those rites which ward 

you havTSrj ° f th M 6 “ 0ffering t0 0Ur Wy with animals 

you have killed with your own hands. Then, my son, when you have done 

everytinng requ^d for this ritual of pacification, you will soon forget about 
becoming initiated into the order!” 15 (15ff) ° 

Yasodhara followed the advice of his mother and did as she had suggested in 

flour^t M f 61 W f: bemg : (but only t0 th e extent that) he killed a Sck made 
flour at the feet of the goddess, m the company of his mother Candramatr At 

SLm T* 1 CMef qUCen (AmrtamatT > murdered both (her husband 

IdTwS g v! Z^ (h6r mother_in ' law ) by putting poison into a sweet 
dish. Such was the (karmic) consequences of performing that evil act (of 
sacrificing the cock).(18ff) ( 

There was a lofty mountain in the southern part of the Himalayas A great 

^ b», i, was dangerous wrrh L ii HZ 

gere. There Yasodhara was reborn as a peacock, out of a pea-hen's womb His 
mother was killed in a snare by some man; he was then taken from that man by 
yet another man who raised him. This man wished to make a presem to W 

hTfJT £ ° ffered *** Since the king felt delight atlh? 

sigh of the bird, he accepted the gift. Thus he came to stay (once again) in (Ms 
own) royal palace, roaming about freely.(2l-24) > 

She who had been cahed Candramaa in her previous life and had been YaSo- 

“ bom to c<) "-ny Of Karahata as a fine-looting (mrte) 
og. He was then taken away from there to the town of UiiayinT by someone 
who wanted «, make a gifr to King YaSomafi. When the laTTw teTgZ 

af'nTT 4 “*• b!mdtog « •» * — 

Ms master. In this way, as a result of the strong bond that had united 
m id their previous life, the two animals, peacock and dog, became favourite 
pets of the king (here) on earth.(25-28) 

a iSlw ^ ^ PCaC0 ? WaS PerChed ° n *•* roof of Palace, and he spotted 
wmdow As soon as he gazed, mesmerized, at its centre that was illuminated 

by a jewel- la mp, he suddenly remembered his former life. When the bird then 
looked through Ore window into fee harem, he discover 



former wife Amitamati) sitting on the lap of the hunchback mentioned above, 
and the couple were engaged in making love. When the peacock saw tMs, in a 
rage he flew at them and tried to tear their hearts out with Ms claws. They Mt 
back at him with their jewellery and ornaments, but as they were exhausted from 
their love-making, he managed to get out of the palace in a parnc. Since the brid 
had been wounded badly by their strokes, he could merely crawl and he got to 
King YaSomati at a moment when he was engrossed in a game of dice. When 
the dog saw the peacock approaching, whose whole body was trembling, he 
went for him and killed him on the spot. (TMs disturbance annoyed) the king 
who Mt the dog over the head with Ms dice board. The dog collapsed on the 
ground, did not stir, and was dead. When the king realized that both Ms pets had 
died, he uttered from his troubled heart a lament that would have touched even 
an ascetic. He mourned over them for a long time, and then had them cremated, 
using for the purpose pieces of sandal wood. Their ashes were taken to the 
Ganges and scattered over her water, and then the king freely handed out gifts 
of gold, coins, jewels, cows, clothes and so on, so that their rebirth should take 
place in heaven and be a happy one. (29-39) 

There was a mountain Suvela in the southern region of the country, 
impenetrable with jungles that were infested by lions and many other kinds of 
wild beasts. He who had been a peacock in his previous life was reborn (there) 
as a mighty mongoose, 18 (the offspring) of a blind female and a lame male 
animal. He was left lying in a ditch after his birth, and because he could not get 
even a little bit of milk from his mother whose teats had completely dried up, 
he became crazed with hunger, as a consequence of Ms bad karma. But by 
eating snakes he managed to survive. (And it happened that) she, who had been 
the cruel queen Candramatr and had found her second death as a dog, was 
reborn in that same hole in the ground as a cobra. Just when this snake was 
about to devour some frogs, her tail was firmly caught by the mongoose. But the 
cobra managed to attack the mongoose from behind, furiously biting him with 
her fangs. While both were thus busy trying to devour each other with great 
fury, a hyena pounced on the mongoose and killed it. Then it tore the cobra to 
shreds with its teeth and killed it 19 (40-48) 

He who had been the mongoose that was killed by the hyena was reborn as 
a rohita fish in a pool of the river Sipra (wMch runs through UjjayinI). The 
cobra too was reborn in the same place, as a terrifying crocodile that (grew) so 
large that it looked like the noose of the god of death.(49f) 

One day the fish was gliding through the dear water of the pool, when 
suddenly that horrific crocodile caught him by his tail. But by then the kin g's 
troupe of entertainers, hunchbacks, dwarfs, and so on, had arrived there to enjoy 
a swim and had got into the clear water. A fine old midget woman, frolicking 
about in the water in their company, (slipped and just at that moment happened 
to) fall on that fish. The crocodile let go of the fish, but in a rage it attacked the 
dwarf woman and sunk its teeth into her leg. The moment this happened to her. 




she screamed out loudly — which put a sudden end to the games of the troupe 
of women who fled. Their bodies shaking with fear, they reported the whole 
incident to the king. “Your majesty! Just now your favourite midget woman has 
been caught by a terrible crocodile in a pool of the Sipra river!” When the king 
heard this, his eyes became red with fury. He ordered all the fishermen — his 
voice reverberating in the sky: “Hey fishermen! Immediately catch in your nets 
all the fish!” No sooner had he stopped speaking than all the fishermen took 
their nets and merrily ran to the river pool. The fish, which had been released by 
the crocodile, escaped from the pool in panic — for destiny meant him to live 
happily (for a while at least). Biting their lips with anger, all the fishermen cast 
out their strong nets (once again) into the pool. They caught the crocodile and 
pleased with their catch took it straight to king Ya^omati, before whom they 
released it. Seeing it lying before him, he said: “Take this vicious, murderous 
beast to the place of slaughter. Tie it up with strong fetters and torture it to 
death. But make sure you keep it alive as long as possible, to prolong its 
agony!” They followed his instructions, and thus the crocodile died an 
excruciating death.(51-66) 

Some time later, the fishermen returned to the pool and cast their nets. (As 
they were pulling them in,) the rohita fish was caught and dragged on to the 
shore. Still alive, he was taken by the fishermen to the king as a present. When 
YaSomati saw him, he was pleased and sent the fish to his mother, the former 
chief queen Amrtamatl (with the following instruction:) “Please give the meat 
of this fish, along with a curry sauce, immediately to the Brahmin priests as a 
meal in honour of my father and so on!” When the fish heard these instructions, 
instantly he remembered his former fives. As he helplessly stared at the queen, 
his tail portion was cut off by her order and taken into the kitchen — for the 
benefit of (the soul of) the king’s father (himself)! Then YaSomati added: 
Choose another portion, mother! which will be a treat for you and me at dinner 
tonight.” She heated some ghee in a frying pan, put the remaining part of the 
fish into it, and he died instantly — the result of his karma. (67-74) After its 
execution, the crocodile was reborn as a she-goat in a hamlet of untouchables. 
The soul of the rohita fish entered into her womb and, once bom, turned into a 
hefty billy-goat. When he had reached maturity, he mounted his own mother. 
Just when he was shedding his seed into her, he was killed by another billy- 
goat: the latter’s horns gored him, tore him open, and he died, his mind clouded, 
having succeeded in impregnating his mother with his own soul. (75ff) 

One day king Yaiomati went out (hunting) and by the power of karma he saw 
the pregnant she-goat standing in front of him 20 and shot at her with an arrow. 
The poor female was struck and fell lifeless on the ground. Then by the order 
of the king untouchables 21 cut open her abdomen and made a fine kid fall out of 
her belly to the ground. When the king saw the young animal, a thrill of delight 
shot through his limbs and he handed him over to his goatherd. In due course 











the kid reached maturity and spent his days copulating with his ‘cousin’ she- 
goats and so on. (78-82) 

One day king Ya^omati had a particular wish, due to the power of his evil 
karma 22 and be promised twenty buffaloes to his family goddess, should she 
fulfil it. By sheer coincidence 23 the wish of him, whose mind was cruel due to 
his abundant evil karma and who was now piling up more of it, came true. 
Overjoyed at seeing his wish fulfilled, the king sacrificed to his family goddess 
Katyayanl tiiose buffaloes, his heart filled with devotion. Their meat was taken 
into the kitchen where it was left (for some time), heaped up in large piles, 
covered with flies and looking like flowers of the silk-cotton tree. After a little 
while, the cook spoke to the king: “Your majesty! The crows and dogs have 
eaten most of the meat, but some of it is still left Were a billy-goat to sniff at 
it, it would cease to be polluted (and you could still eat from it But naturally,) 
it is up to you alone on earth, great king! to decide what must be done.” This 
suggestion of the cook aroused the king's appetite and pleased with it, he 
replied: “Good man! In your desire to do me a favour you have spoken well. 
Right now I shall act upon your words which are respected among gods and 
brahmins.” Thus at the cook's suggestion, the king had the billy-goat quickly 
fetched. Standing there in the kitchen among the meat, the goat remembered his 
previous fives. Then (the king's mother) Amrtamatl spoke to the cook: “Today 
I don’t feel at all like having buffalo meat. Bring me now a piece of meat from 
some animal instead, which will please my heart” When Yaiomati, who loved 
his mother and was devoted to her, heard this, he ordered the cook: “Now 
prepare a piece of meat of that billy-goat and bring it here, so that my mother 
will be happy.” At these words of the king the wicked cook quickly sliced off 
a chunk of flesh from the back of the billy-goat. He prepared it in great haste 
and together with various side-dishes he rushed with it to the queen mother. 
Then he was ordered by the king: “Take the (remaining meat) to the brahmins, 
(prepared) in the way they like it, for the benefit of my father's soul and that of 
my grand-mother!” (The billy-goat reflected:) “Even that (meat of the fish) 
which by the king's orders (had been given) previously to the brahmins — not 
even a bit of it has till now come to me, although I am standing right next to 
him. 24 Here I am (instead), my back-side cut off, suffering from hunger and 
thirst, tortured from unbearable pain, and my whole body trembling with fear!” 

1 She who had (first) been CandramatS and (eventually had become) the she- 

goat shot dead by the king, was reborn as a (male) buffalo of mighty bulk in the 
country called Kalinga. From there he came, carrying cauldrons in the company 
of other hefty buffaloes, to holy UjjayinI which was splendid with its row of 
t banners. When his load had been taken off, he bathed his body, that the sun's 

heat had burnt, in the water of the Sipra river to recover from his exhaustion. 
Just then the favourite horse of the king (had entered the river) and was gored 
by the buffalo with his horns and killed. The king received the news about this 




incident from his servants. He was caught by rage and had the buffalo 
immediately brought to his palace. He had the animal bound, so that he could 
not stir, with iron fetters on his four feet. The he had a blazing fire lit all around 
him. In front of him was placed a cauldron filled with hot water into which had 
been thrown Asa Foetida, salt, cloves, areca-nuts, nutmeg and many other spices. 
(When, desperately thirsty, he had drunk) that hot water, his innaids began to 
bum and soon he passed all his dung through his ‘hind door’. 25 Also the 
previously mentioned billy-goat, whose hind part had been cut off, was placed 
next to the buffalo. 26 While both animals were thus rapidly roasting over the 
fire,) once again their souls left them (but,) as if scared, only very slowly. (101- 

In the outskirts of holy UjjayinT stood a hamlet of (untouchable) mdtahgas. 
It was ‘decorated’ with bones, manure, dogs and other kinds of filth. There the 
two of them, mother and son, were reborn inside a hen as a pair of chi ckens 
with bodies generated by their evil karma. (An outcaste called) Candakarma saw 
the two birds, took them and carried them to king Yaiomati as a gift. Seeing the 
pair of chickens, the king was very pleased — for which son would not be 
pleased seeing his father! Then the king handed the birds back to Candakarma, 
H5) WaS ODe ^ watc ^ imen and who took them to his hut. (111- 

One day Ya^omati, full of high spirits, went out with the women of his harem 
into the park, to frolic in its groves. Candakarma followed them to a fine grove, 
with the two chickens which he was keeping inside an iron cage. There he saw 
a lofty,^charming palace that was radiant with many colours and looked like a 
turban. In a colourful tent that stood near the eastern gate of that palace, that 
was radiant with jewels and resembled an autumn cloud, he let the fine pair of 
chickens, — who were gentle and attached to each other in mutual affection 
one looking as pretty as the other, and who were making soft noises — out of 
their cage. 27 (116-120) 

Then Candakarma saw an ascetic standing by the side of a tree: his arms were 
hanging down, his gaze was fixed on to the tip of his nose; he was full of 
compassion and a treasure-house of asceticism; he had his abode at the foot of 
the tree that is freedom from grief, resembled an embodied form of the god of 
righteousness and was in full control of the wild gang of the senses. Spotting 
that yogi, Candakarma of impure mind and cruel thoughts paid him mock 
respect He reflected: “How could that sage violate — like a cruel snake that 
puts terror into people — the king's palace?” While the wicked man was thus 
reflecting, the yoga of the wise sage reached its culmination. When Candakarma 
of brutal mind saw this, he spoke to the perfectly controlled sage who had 
destroyed all links with the passions. ‘Tell me, sage, why you - a king famous 

among people and honoured by your subjects — choose to undertake medita¬ 
tion?” (121-127) 



“Listen carefully,” replied the sage, T shall tell you about it. When I was 
passing through the cycle of transmigration that lacks any inner substance, when 
I was taking on and then discarding innumerable bodies, I began to reflect on 
the grand, faultless question: how can I put an end to all the suffering which has 
been befalling me, being conceived (time and again) in so many different 
wombs?” (128ff) 

When Candakarma heard this, he asked: “O sage! How can it be that the body 
is one thing and the soul another?” The sage, who knew the content of all the 
sacred scriptures, 29 had destroyed all reasons for scepticism, and saw with eyes 
that were his avadhi knowledge 20 , uttered this truth: “You, you, beloved of the 
gods! Surely this is not an issue about which you could have any doubts. You 
must realize that the body and the soul are different things.” But Candakarma 
replied: “No, a body and a soul do not exist separately (from each other). 
Instead, all the beings that live in the forest of earthly existence that has wombs 
for trees, have a soul and a body that are the same. And here is the proof. 
(Some time ago) I cast a robber into a big cauldron and covered it with lac to 
make it completely air-tight. Naturally he died because of this, but: I did not 
notice any soul escaping. Thereby I learnt, my lord! the true state of things: on 
earth the soul comes into being (and thus it is not eternal) just as the body.” 

When the yogi heard this argument, he replied: “Were one to throw a man 
together with a conch into a vessel of the kind you mentioned, the man could 
merrily blow the conch inside and people would hear its sound; yet it could not 
be detected how it comes out And just as the exit of the conch's sound from the 
cauldron cannot be seen, the escape of the soul from the body cannot be seen, 
however many people may be watching. For this reason you must accept my 
words that the soul is different from the body.” (139-142) 

But Candakarma replied to the sage's argument: “Your words do not hold 
true, as the following illustration will show. Once I weighed a thief on a 
balance, and quite clearly his weight remained the same, when he was alive and 
when I had killed him. For this reason you must accept my proposition that a 
(living) body is the same as a corpse plus life.” (143ff) 

“Then listen,” replied the sage, “to this charming allegory of mine. A cowherd 
fills a leather bag with air and weighs it, but the balance fails to register a 
difference (from the weight of the empty bag). He empties it again, but whether 
empty or filled (with air), the balance keeps on showing the same weight. In the 
same manner a man will show the same weight, whether he is alive or dead 
(viz. with or without a soul). For this reason accept my words that body and 
soul are different” (146-150) 

“I cut up,” answered the watchman, “a certain robber's body. I cut it into 
smaller and smaller pieces, but whether looking inside or outside, I failed to 
detea anywhere in his body a soul. As no soul-chunk could be deteaed in any 
of the pieces of his body, soul and body must be the same.” (151ff) 



But the sage replied to Candakarma: “Listen to this clear illustration which I 

glVe / 0U - ShouM a man 011 U P a fire-stick into finer and finer bits of word 

cmelTTif “ ° Ver ^ ° Ver ag3in ’ Stm Would discover the fire, you 

iZt Z n° W T hS may make *** P ieces “d how carefully he may 
look he will not detect the fire inside the fire-stick. Now just as a mi on tlS 

earth, however wide he may open his eyes, cannot see the fire which he knows 
to be present inside the fire-stick, people cannot see the soul particl^tec^t 
characteristics by which it could) manifest itself to the eyes 

wSa ie r h S i nt “ ^ f* ° f * e ^ FOT *“* reason have in my’ 
words that the body is one thing and the soul is another.” 31 (154-159) Now 

Capdakarma had to reply: “I am at a loss for an answer. What can I do' Have 
miDd ° f ’** Sage melted from impassion and he said to him: 

ZfJ^ rma l y ° U ^ ^ wbich 18 ** fiend of all embodied beings!” 
Hien Candakarma requested him: “Please tell me now clearly, my lord' about 
the consequences of dharma and its opposite.” (160ff) 

“A married life full of pleasures, piles of money, a long life, an untainted 

^ U ot hi n ha P n ° d Wer health “ 111686 601116 3150111 due t0 dharma. Adharma on 
*e other hand gives nse to poverty, ugliness, a miserable married life lack of 

md a®** ^ devotion, Candakam^ asked 

turner, after this brief summary of the results of dharma and adharma • “Brieflv 

=*• 1 sh — a househo1 ^ 0 *»— 

- ““ y °“ have t ** 1 ** *« “fc the 

theTmalW ( °^? kanna re( l uested the sage:) “Lord, tell me briefly about 
the smaller vows which are the cause of rebirth in heaven and of final Iteration 

*T haPPineSS riCheS '” five smaBer vows the 

secondary and practice vows, avoidance of honey and of the five types of fies 

Venerati ° n ' obeSce L £ 

teacher -mall these the ascetic instructed Candakarma. (163-170) 

Then the latter replied to the sage: “I accept all this, true faith and those 
vows, but I cannot accept this one vow, viz. not to harm any living being The 

dharma appropriate for me, because of the tradition of my family is to kill 
living creatures.” (17If) r y ’ 10 

nJSJn* 11 ! 88 ? heard ±&St WOlds which hold trae on the face of this earth, he 

7btf n n°th 1 * man ’ Wh ° m deVOti ° n had made exdted: “ If you do not 

abandon the dharma customary in your caste, consisting in killing living beings 

12 T wt ° P T ^ karma - (Look! ™* 2 ™hat happened to) thm 

pan: of chickens who did not discard the dharma of their family tradition They 

had to endure a senes of deaths which were all accompanied by very great pain 

ons y n my ri f nd ’ wm h have to sufer a s6ri6s - d srs 

pain, if you adhere to the dharma of your caste.” At these words the 

WOnder; “seriy he once ageta addressed Ure ascetic: 
o did these two birds come to suffer a series of deaths for not abandoning 
in a previous life, their family dharmaT’ (173-178) g ’ 



“Concentrate and listen, replied the sage, to what I am going to tell you! This 
cock here is the (reborn) king Ya^odhara who in a previous life was the father 
of our king YaSomati. And this hen was in a previous existence CandramatT, the 
crude mother of the same king YaSodhara. Not being prepared to relinquish 
(totally) their customary dharma, they slaughtered a cock made of flour as 
sacrifice to the goddess to whom they were devoted. Due to the maturation of 
that evil deed they have become this pair of chickens whose minds are now at 
peace, being intent on listening to my discourse on the true religion. (Earlier) 
they had been a peacock and a dog, then a serpent and a mongoose, a fish and 
a crocodile, male and female goats, buffalo and goat, (before they became these 
two chickens.)” (179-184). 

When Candakarma had heard all this, his body began to tremble with fear and 
he was struck by panic. He said to the ascetic: “In thought, word and deed I am 
now renouncing my family dharma, O sage! I accept now the excellent religion 
of the Jinas. Through them I have become a lay follower and have taken upon 
myself the smaller vows along with true faith, etc. with devotion.” (185£f) 

The two chickens had listened to the entire exposition of the true religion 
which had wafted from the sage's mouth-lotus. The narration of their own 
previous existences filled them with boundless grief. They accepted the religion 
of the Jinas and, overcome by devotion to them, they joyfully uttered a gentle 
crow. (At that moment) king YaSomati, who was inside the tent, heard the 
crowing 33 and he spoke to his queen Kusumavall: “Look, look, my beloved one! 
my slender one! how skilled I am in the art of archery! Right now (without even 
seeing them) I shall shoot that pair of chickens with my arrows!” With these 
words the king pulled an arrow out of his quiver, placed it on the string of his 
bow, pulled it right up to his ear and succeeded in killin g both birds with one 
powerful shot. (188-193) 

After their death they were conceived as twins in the womb of that same 
queen Kusumavall. 34 (This rebirth once again as human beings was) due to their 
meditation 35 and to their enthusiastic devotion to the Jinas. They emerged from 
Kusumavall's womb as a prince and a princess who, in the course of time, 
became experts in all the fine arts. (194) 

One day an ascetic called Sudatta had during his wanderings arrived in the 
park outside UjjayinI, surrounded by many followers. Meanwhile the king, 
impelled by the great mass of his evil karma, had set out with his retinue from 
UjjayinI (to go hunting). When he saw the ascetic Sudatta seated under a tree, 
(he got furious at this bad omen for the hunt and) let his hounds loose to kill 
him. But every single one of those five hundred hounds circumambulated the 
monk three times and merrily returned to his master. When the king saw all his 
hounds act in this manner, his eyes became red with rage and, waving his sword 
in his hand, he rushed towards the sage. But a merchant called Kalyanamitra 
who belonged to the true faith led the king towards the sage. As he looked at 
him, his mind became delighted and he reflected: “How could I, wicked that I 



am, think of committing the murder of a sage! I must make amends for this. 
Yes, I shall cut off my own head and hand it over to that pure one, to do 

Pe r?/° r , my .T 1 Wlth idea in his (now) purified mind, 

without further ado the king went before the ascetic, along with his friend. But 
the sage restrained the king: “No, king! it would not be right to commit such an 
act! Yeoman got embarrassed and felt ashamed that the sage, who had 
achreved[enlightenment, should be able to read his thoughts. He prostrated 
himself before him and paid him his respect. His mind was struck by a loss of 
mterest in worldly matters and he spoke to the sage: “I am a wretch — please 
forgive this evil act of mine (viz. trying to kill you).’’ At that the ascetic replied 
Get up, get up, O king! beloved of the gods, illustrious one! We who desire 
final liberation must bear with all people, so why waste any further words'? 
Particularly you (the king) need not do so.” Then the king asked him: “Bhaga- 
vam TeU me now clearly what I had thought!” The sage who saw with the eyes 
of h isavadh, knowledge 30 replied: “Concentrate and listen to what I shall tell 
you. This must surely be on earth the ritual act of expiating my (wanting to) 
loll a sage: cutting off my head I shall offer it before his feet. “Thus you 
thought, and extremely inappropriate it was! For the learned regard suicide as 
the cause of (painful) rebirths.” (196-213) 

Then the pure-minded Kalyanamitra spoke to the king whose heart was filled 
with both grief and joy: “Brave king! Illustrious one! Why should you be 
surprised that this sage should have known one thought of yours? Actually he 
knows the past, future and present. If you have any doubt at all, ask him 
anyUnng you like.” The king (once again) showed his respect to the ascetic and 
with devotion addressed him: “My grand-parents, my mother and my father - 
where did they all go after their deaths? How have they been reborn, and what 

onZr^t^T ^ *** eXperieDdng? Now teU ** bliefi y. pity 

The master-ascetic narrated this to the curious king: “Your Majesty! When 
your grand-father Klrtyogha saw the first grey hair on his head, he took 
initiation into the order of the Digambaias. He performed the five-night 
mortification and died through samddhi. 35 Now he abides in the realm beyond 
Bmhma and enjoys divine happiness. Your mother AmrtamatT, my son! who 
was the chief queen, killed her husband (viz. your father, and your grand- 
mother) wrth poison and went down (after her death as a leper) 36 into the sixth 
hell. There she is now abiding, having to endure gruesome tortures and 
unbearable pain, and the cruel woman is cursing herself for staying alive there 
Furthermore, your father, king YaSodhara, and his mother, your grand-mother 
Candramati, together killed in front of the goddess KatyayanI a cock made of 
flour. That evil deed brought about their mutual destruction, for they were 
reborn time and again in various animal bodies. They were reborn as two 
chickens, who kept the smaller vows and were meticulous about the five 
obeisances, but you killed them once again. They were conceived in Kusuma- 


vall's womb and were bom as these two here, the prince and princess, whose 
bodies are adorned by their (skill in the arts) and who are living in your palace: 
your son Abhayarud and your daughter Abhayamati.” Listening to this series of 
rebirths, King YaSomati became utterly amazed and developed complete loss of 
interest in all worldly matters. After listening to a sermon on the truth, he along 
with his friend (the merchant) and the ladies of his harem, took the vows of an 
ascetic in front of that sage. (220-232) 

At the same time, when the prince and the princess heard of their previous 
existences, their minds too were struck by a total indifference to the affairs of 
the world and they themselves remembered their past fives. The thought of 
taking initiation put their minds at rest and devoutly they approached the sage 
Sudatta. Three times they walked around him in dockwise fashion and, devoutly 
prostrating themselves before him, requested him: “Please give us the Jaina 
initiation, O sage!” The latter was impressed by their courage, but replied: “Both 
of your minds are still immature and your bodies are not yet fully developed, so 
that you are not ready to endure the hardships that will follow after taking the 
Jaina vow. But it would be appropriate if you accepted the rales laid down for 
novices. Then I shall grant you in due course the full Digambara dharma." So 
at the advice of the sage, Abhayarud who was immersed in devotion to the 
Jinas, accepted devoutly the dharma of novices, and Abhayamati did likewise in 
the presence of the nun KsSntika who knew all the scriptures. 29 (233-240) 

Now there was the fine town of Rajapura in the Yaudheya country. Maridatta 
was its king and he was an ardent devotee of its goddess. This horrific family 
deity of his abided in the southern part of the town: her mind was cruel and she 
was known by the name of Candamari. The dtizens led by Maridatta, then- 
minds filled with devotion, used to perform all the rites of her worship by 
killing living beings with their own hands. Were they not to perform these 
sacrifices for her, this family goddess would have killed them all instantly. (241- 

(On one such occasion,) Maridatta went to die temple of the goddess; he was 
accompanied by a variety of people and by his entire harem. At the same time, 
the master-sage Sudatta along with his congregation arrived in the cremation 
ground near the park of the town. People were taking pairs of living beings of 
many varieties, like peacocks, chickens and so on, to the feet of the goddess. 
Then the courtiers addressed the king: “Protector of the earth! It would be best, 
if a fine pair of human beings, who are endowed with all positive characteristics, 
were to be sacrificed.” Heeding their advice, the king ordered his henchmen: 
“Quickly fetch a fine pair of human beings!” They obeyed his command, 
respecting it like the gift of a god, 38 and merrily rushed out to their task. (245- 

By that time the two novices (Abhayaruci and Abhayamati) had respectfully 
taken leave of the sage and were on their way into the town to beg for alms. 
The king's henchmen spotted them, as they came slowly walking towards them. 




They said to each other: “Men! These two are worthy (victims) for the goddess, 
to be slain by the king.” When the two novices heard these appalling words, 
they gave each other courage and stopped there waiting, all fear cast off. The 
henchmen caught hold of the two perfectly built novices and took them before 
the king Maridatta. The novices saw him standing by the side of the goddess, 
with a terrific sword in his hand. While still at a distance, they both called out 
these greetings while looking at his awe-inspiring appearance: “Victory! Like the 
elephants of the quarters (you support the earth)! King of golden glory, free 
from stains, radiant with your fame that resembles the white jasmine! Victory to 
you for a long time, for all eternity!” When the king heard these thunder-like 
shouts of victory, (it took him a moment to) see that they belonged to a male 
and female person (and not a doud). When he then saw the pair of novices in 
front of him, he asked: “Which is (your) mighty lineage that is adorned by 
(your) exceedingly handsome forms? Why did you take to asceticism which is 
so difficult to endure? All this you must tell me, splendid ones!” (251-261) 

At these words of Maridatta, which were spoken lovingly, Abhayarud 
narrated in detail, in the middle of the large gathering in which people, children, 
old folks and babies were crowding together, the whole sequence of events 
involving YaSodhara and so on which was connected with himself and which 
caused people's amazement 39 He told it in such a manner that (all the people,) 
all the king’s men and Candamari herself gave up the killing of living beings 
and gained tranquility in their minds. So when the goddess had listened to the 
whole story, she discarded her own terrific appearance and changed into a 
pleasant shape. Then she circumambulated the novice devoutly three times and 
poured from the golden pitcher she was holding in her hand a libation over his 
feet while clutching them. Looking most charming and filled with affection for 
him, her mind overflowing with love, she spoke in front of all the people to the 
novice: “My master! Show your benevolence and your great mercy to me: just 
now initiate me into the asceticism which puts an end to the ocean of transmi¬ 
gration!” But Abhayaruci replied to the goddess who devoutly was holding her 
hands folded against her forehead: “Rise, rise, dear lady! Initiation has been 
restricted to human beings. Gods, animals and denizens of the hells are excluded 
from it.” Once again the goddess prostrated herself and requested: “In that case 
instruct me in the meritorious acts that I, a miserable being, can do.” (262-271) 
“True faith and worship of the Jinas are meritorious acts suitable for gods; 
Beautiful lady! Worship of the Jinas is not included in the dharma appropriate 
for the denizens of the hells. But true faith, the culmination of the threefold 
world, is found among them, and it is also found among the animals, for the 
wise declare that animals happily imitate the dharma of human beings.” (272ff) 
When Candamari heard this, she accepted with devotion the true faith and the 
worship of the Jinas, and she leamt how to perform it properly. Then she 
addressed the king and the crowd of the citizens; “From now onwards, O king! 
let there never occur another animal sacrifice for my sake. Let all the citizens 



become peaceful (towards other beings). Otherwise, if in spite of this prohibition 
someone should kdl a living being, I will kill all the people of the town!” Then 
the goddess bowed to Maridatta, his citizens and the novice and freely went 
away. When the heavenly sages heard of this miracle, they beat their drums in 
honor of Abhayaruci, and they resounded gently. The delighted gods shouted: 
“Well done!” and in great commotion, full of joy, showered garlands of flowers 
down upon him. (275-281) 

King Maridatta had listened to the sermon on the religion propagated by the 
Jinas, which is the gospel for all beings and wholesome and which the novice 
had expounded; he had heard about the gruesome sufferings which arose form 
killing the cock (made of flour); he witnessed the conversion of the goddess. So 
he spoke to Abhayaruci: “Novice! My lord! Initiate me into the asceticism that 
destroys' rebirth and that will allow me, by your grace, to achieve my own 
salvation.” But he replied: “Rise up, my king! I am not entitled to give you 
initiation. But there is my wise and pure teacher — his fame pervades all the 
quarters — who is entitled to do so.’ (282-286) 

Mari datta, pure of heart, became very enthusiastic when he heard this. He 
pondered: “All the people, along with my vassals, come to my feet in submis¬ 
sion. Thus all-powerful, I have nevertheless resorted to the feet of the goddess. 
She in turn has taken refuge at the feet of a novice. Yet even he who is such (a 
powerful person) has his superior teacher. Oh! The greatness of these ascetics 
and of their mortifications, by which they become worthy of worship even _ b 7 
the gods and demons!" Thus he stood there, facing the novice, his mind punfied 
through the contact with the Jaina religion. (287-291) 

Meanwhile Sudatta had found out about the great miracle worked by the 
brave couple of novices by means of his divine knowledge, and also about how 
the goddess had been restrained and how she had been converted, and about 
wise Maridatta's determination to become an ascetic. So the steadfast sage, who 
was filled with affection for dharma and who was like an embodiment of 
dharma itself, went there. Maridatta along with all his relations and subjects 
prostrated himself respectfully before the master-ascetic and requested initiation 
into the order, while mighty gods applauded him. (When this wish of bis had 
been fulfilled,) he handed over the kingship to his son and in turn handed over 
his son to all his subjects. Along with his court priest, chief minister, vassals and 
ladies of the harem he became an ascetic. The two novices who had become 
completely detached from all worldly pleasures were allowed to terminate their 
preliminary status and were given the full initiation by their teacher. They 
performed, for as long as they stayed alive, the fourfold pddopagamana 
ceremony (of ritual suicide) 40 : they refrained from all food and remained 
engrossed in the dharma and meditation. In no time they died through samadhi 
and were reborn as gods in the Svayamprabha heaven. Of those who witnessed 
this extraordinary event, some became sages, others lay followers, and yet others 
acquired a station between these two (viz. as novices). The master-sage Sudatta 




reached the highest abode of the gods, after venerating according to the rules the 
whole of the fourfold aradhana . 41 Maridatta too and all the others whom pure 
faith had purified reached stations appropriate to their destiny, after venerating 
the aradhana. (292-304) 

For he who carelessly effects the killing of one living being will wander 
aimlessly on earth through many a rebirth.(305) 

Thus (ends) the story of YaSodhara and Candramati, which includes their 
progress over seven subsequent rebirths, (after they) slaughtered a cock made of 
flour for the goddess Katyayanl. 


1. I am in the process of putting together an anthology of about fifty Jaina stories (all 
taken from sources in Apabhramsa and including extracts from Puspadanta) which deal 
with the theme of sexual passion and the typically Jaina philosophical and psychological 
reflections on it. Some of this material is discussed or alluded to in my forthcoming 
Power, Love and Wisdom — themes in the religious culture of India, London (Unwin 
Hyman), 1990. 

2. The vidyadharas symbolize in the Indian imagination irresistible sexual attraction and 
prowess. Esoteric religious rites are believed to allow human beings access to these 
superhuman powers; the sacrifice of human beings to the goddess Candamari is one such 
ritual. Thus we read in Somadeva's Yasastilaka (part I, p. 44): “The king (viz. Maridatta) 
had formerly heard from his family priest called Vlrabhairava that he could gain by 
means of a sacrifice of all (species of) living beings, in front of the goddess Candamari 
in his own royal palace, and by means of personally killin g a pair of human beings 
endowed with all auspicious marks, the attainment of the sword called ‘vanquishing the 
world of the vidyadharas ,’ and since his mind was eager to look into the eyes of 
vidyadhara girls, ... he ordered his soldiers...” Similarly Puspandanta in his Jasahara- 
cariii (I, 7, brings out the connection between the human sacrifice and the 
hope to obtain vidyadhara powers by means of a pun. On the one hand the king desires 
to be able to ‘fly through the sky’ {kheyarattd), but on the other hand this puns with ‘to 
become a vidyadhara.' Indeed in line 12 we hear that this power will make the 
vidyadharas serve him. The entire episode is still absent in the Samaraiccakahcr, in 
Manikyasun (Hertel p. 82) the purpose of the human sacrifice is the protection of the 
kingdom, and in Vadirajasuri (Hertel p. 91) the motivation is very similar to the one 
found in the present version by Harisena: unless worshipped, the goddess would cause 

Who would expound such teaching about human sacrifice as the means of gaining the 
powers of the vidyadharas'] I translated above as ‘family priest’ kulacarya (parallel to 
kula-devata , ‘family goddess’). The commentator is certainly wrong when he identifies 
the priest with ‘a disciple of the loathsome Carvaka.’ (On actual ‘materialistic’ teaching 
see vs. 131-160 of the following translation, with note 31). At least in two versions, the 
identification of the source of this gruesome teaching is quite clear. In Manikyasuri 
(Hertel p. 82) we hear of ‘verworfene Kaulas’ whom Hertel (p. 81 note 2) identifies with 

the Saktas. Puspadanta (Jasaharacariu l 6, 2) describes a weird mendicant Bhairava- 
nanda who had appeared in Maridatta’s town and gave ‘initiation into the Kaula relipon 
(Kula-maeea-dikkha). This points us towards the nebulous realm of ‘Tantrism, the 
eroticism and sexual practices of which are well known. For bibliographic references see 

notes 4 and 11. _ 

3 I am thinking here of the introduction to the work which tells about the two kings' 
traumatic discoveries of their wives’ unfaithfulness with black slaves. (See e.g. vol 1 pp. 
20-23, of E. Littmann’s Die Erzahlungen aus den tausendundem Ndchten, Insel Verlag, 

Wiesbaden, 1953.) 

4. By far the oldest version is found in Prakrit in Haribhadra’s Samaraiccakahd (edited 
by H Jacobi, vol. I: text and introduction, Calcutta, 1926, pp. 237,17 — 285,16 - 
Bibliotheca Indica , Work No. 169) which was written during the middle of the 8th 
century A.D. From 931 A.D. we have Harisena’s Sanskrit version which is translated 
here. Then come, also in Sanskrit, Somadeva's Yasastilaka of 959 A.D. (edited originally, 
in two parts by Kedaranatha Sarma and Vasudeva Sarnia Pansikar, with the commentary 
Candrikd by Srutadevasuri, Bombay 1901-1903, = Kavyamdla 70; new edition by 
Sivadatta Pandit 1916), and still from the 10th century A.D. Vadirajasuris YaSodhara - 
carita (edited CTanjore, 1912). Puspadanta composed in Apabhramsa his Jasaharanacaru 
c. 975 A.D. (edited P.L. Vaidya, Jasaharacariu of Puspadanta, Karanja, 1931 (Ambadas 
Chaware Digambara Jain Granthamala, or Karanja Jain Series, voL I) Of c. 975-1050 
AD is the anonymous Tamil version Yacotarakdviyam (edited by T. Venkatarama 
Iyengar, Madras 1908; see also e.g. K.V. Zvelebil, Tamil literature, Wiesbaden, 1974, p. 


Apparently not yet printed are versions in further languages: in Kannada Janna wrote 
one c 1209 A D (and there are hints that an earlier version existed); in Gujarati a variety 
of works span a period between 1463 and 1619 A.D.; and in Hindi we have by 
Lakhmidas a version of. 1724 A.D. (For further details see P. L. Vaidya, op. cit., pp. 
27f.—Ibid., pp. 24£f, manuscripts of later Sanskrit versions are mentioned.) 

I have discovered a South Indian manuscript with a collection of Jama stones in 
Tamil, which appears to include a (prose) version of the story of YaSodhara. I hope to 
publish this material in the near future. 

5. A list of 29 authors is provided by P.L. Vaidya (op. cit, pp. 24-8). The worics of the 
majority of these are only found in manuscripts. 

6. Harisena’s BrhatkathakoSa, edited A.N. Upadhye, Bombay, 1943 (Bharatiya Vidya 
Bhavan, Singh! Jaina Granthamala, vol. 17). Our story is numbered 73, consists of 305 
Slokas, and can be found on pp. 169-178 of the Sanskrit text. 

7. Kahakosu by Muni Sricandra, Apabhramsa text edited by H.L. Jam, Ahmedabad, 1969 
(Prakrit Text Society Series no. 13). It was written in Saurastra. 

8. Generally aradhana refers to the cultivation by the monk of mental attitudes like 
detachment and indifference, particularly at the time of dying. A host of worics dealing 
with the relevant material was produced, and most of these carry ‘ aradhana ’ in their title 
(see Upadhye’s introduction, pp. 47-50). The oldest of these (perhaps of the 4th or 5th 
century AD ) is the Bhagavati Aradhana attributed to Sivarya or SivakoU. It was used 
in ascetic circles to prepare a dying monk for his death (vs. 303f of the translation may 
well be referring to this custom), by reading out certain portions of it. A commentanal 
literature developed, but the Sanskrit authors (like Asadhara) did not narrate the stones 




Aal were alluded to in the text. Instead, separate kathdkoias were produced which 
seated in idling those stories. and Hansen* wo* is one of thm. Bin AsadLa 
hunself refers to Prakrit commentaries on the Aradhana where such stories were told, and 

£2l‘«E^£5 ^ ™ ~ ° f “• ^ 

^ 30 <P- 306 > ^ - <l»°«o» of Bhagava,,-Aradhana verse 

marcdi egam avi jo jfvam so bahusu jamma-kodisu / 
ovoso mdrijjanto maradi vidhanehi bahuehi // 

, n ; H / Wh ° ^ * Single Uvil, g bein S’ will in many millions of rebirths die by being 
killed in many different ways, unable to defend himself.’ * 8 

With MS ** concl uding verse, 305, in Harisena.) Then follows a brief 
Sanskrit commentary on the verse, which concludes: 

atrarthe Yaiodharakhyanam kathyate / 

suprasiddhatvan na likhitam / 

‘For the sake of (illustrating this) the story of Yasodhara is told here. (But) since it is 
refc^.ot^'sX“ T° (i " ^ -nr likely 

has ^ 5101168 ^ **^ 
tcLTr V * flrSt St0ly aCtuall y told “ ^hi 30 (kadavakas 1-7) has the same 
? ? 6 ' 11118 S ! Cb °” 18 suir °nnded by stories about ‘the true faith’ (samyaktva) in sandhis 

(fr L°Z^kX t T< ( d D i d) p and ab K° Ut ^ ° f teUiD8 tn,th “ sandhi * 30 

g'f* rf ! ”"' y ° f —■ » f *■ ■ 

^ rt ”f ?ena ' S ;^ e 18 ^ 0th tedious and ^ult. He has a tendency to overload the latter 

ascetic is called pure-minded has this been translated. Every direct speech is 
with a stereotyped ‘having heard these words of ...’ and I hleS^^tS 
ans of translating such basically oral features. The difficulties lie i/the fact that 
Hansepa is often extremely brief and elliptic, assuming an independent knowledge of Ae 
tory. Thus a generous scattering of square brackets was unavoidable. My ‘he’ or ‘she’ 
Wrilh , pmcrilar soirosl „ sl„a y s eonespond ^ 

assist in maintaining an awareness of the fact that, according to Jaina heliefs th 
Z'dimm "'r OTy : 1 '" de ““ r,d " e “ d ™» PikiiLl religion (see «. 99f 

’ _ 1 W0UM ‘° G >™ fomfunl, ay,*,” 

U. H. M (op.*, pp. IX-1XV) provides . summmy of die sioiy ,s „ U fa 
n““ 3 “ Bloomfield (The life and „arias efthTdaina savior 

the 77:777 T < ’ h ” HopK “ S Pre “' 1919 - PP- ISM) briefly snmmnrizes 
fcLSly) (street p. 196. line 2 

c _. , ’ ‘ ^ ns work 1S ltsel f a summary in Sanskrit of Haribhadra’s 

marmccakahd - J. Hertel (. Jinakfrti's “Geschichte von Pdh und Gopala ” Leipzig 

GesenlSder Wi ~ hT^ T* ^ Veihandlun g e » ** Konigl. Sachsi^hen 
OeseUschaft der WIssenschaften zu Leipzig, Philologisch-historische Klasse 69 Band 

• ft) summarizes two Sanskrit versions, both called Yasodharacarita , by Vadirajasuri 



(pp. 91-8) and Manikyasuri (pp. 81-91). — Somadeva's Ya&astilaka has been discussed 
in detail by K. K. Handiqui, Yasastilaka-campu and Indian culture, Sholapur, 1949 
(JIvaraja Jaina Granthamala). A very brief summary is found in A.B. Keith, A History 
of Sanskrit literature, London, 1928 (and many reprints), pp. 333-6. — P.L. Vaidya 
(Jasaharacariu of Puspadanta, pp. 28-31) summarizes Puspandata's version. — Finally, 
the anonymous Tamil verse version, Yacotarakdviyam, is summarized by M.S. 
Pumalingam Pillai in his Tamil literature, 1929, pp. 145£f. The edition of Vadiraja's 
version edited by Dr K. Krishnamoorthy, Dharwar, 1963, also contains an English 

12. The text edited by Upadhye has remained imperfect, in spite of the great efforts made 
by the editor, in his footnotes, notes, glossary (pp. 102-110) and Corrigenda (p.400), to 
improve on the state of the manuscripts. I have indicated the more important changes I 
have made to Upadhye's text in the footnotes. Here are some minor points: v. 1 -ogha 
(for -augha, in line with vs. 5 and 221); v. 22 yuna eke (for yunaikena)\ v. 67 jala (for 
jala)\ v. 174 Yusmat (for asmat, Upadhye p. 386); v. 175 yathedam (for -nr'-); v. 262 -am 
asesa- (for sesa-)\ v. Til jayatam (for jay a-). 

13. I read in v. 9: kubjakenainam bhuhjanam. — Other versions add further unpleasant 
or even disgusting characteristics. Thus the Samardiccakdha (pp. 24Qf) suggests a sadistic 
streak in the lover and later authors developed this theme extensively. Or Puspadanta 
(Jasaharacariu , II, 6, 10) mentions that his body looked as black as ‘a tree-trunk burnt 
in a forest fire,’ a feature which the Arabian Nights (see note 3 above) draws attention 

14. Harisena's account makes little sense, but unfortunately the other versions all go their 
own separate ways in dealing with the dream. Generally the point of what Yasodhara 
tells appears to be that he must become an ascetic, in order to avoid disaster to himself 
and the kingdom. In Puspandanta ( Jasaharacariu , H, 13, 13-22) we hear not only that he 
fell down from the palace, but also about the apparition of a terrifying warrior who 
threatens him with disaster, if he does not become a monk. Manikyasuri, according to 
Hertel (p. 84) tells us ‘he dreamt that he was sitting on his throne on the seventh floor 
of his palace, that his mother pushed him off it and made him roll down to the ground 
floor — herself rolling down after him — ...that he then got up again, as a shaven 
Svetambara monk, and climbed back to the seventh floor.’ Vadiraja (Hertel p. 93), on the 
other hand, has Yasodhara recite a punning verse about the light (viz. Amrtamatl) 
abandoning the moon (viz. himself) and uniting with the darkness (viz. the black 
hunchback), which his mother fails to understand. 

15. In v. 17 I read: svalpam diksanam, lit. ‘initiation will have no value to you.’ 

16. Tat-ksanat in v. 20 can be explained as follows. A modaka , ‘sweet sidh,’ is (certainly 
in Maharastra today, where it is ubiquitous during the Ganesa festival) a round ball of 
sweetmeat, made of flour, lots of sugar and spices. Thus it could have been the prasada 
from the rites performed for KatyayanT. However, other versions of the story let 
Arrutamatr mix the poison directly into the ingredients used for making the ‘flour cock.’ 
For all we know, the cock-shaped offering was actually a modaka (naturally to be eaten 
after the sacrifice). — The psychology behind the murder should become clear from v. 
298; were the king to become an ascetic, his queen would be expected to became a nun, 
something she obviously was not keen on. 



hhn foimHsTf C ° Ul f C ° nStrUCt: SVO ' Pateh grhftah ca samarpitah ‘he took 

e? r.xvwr- •“ - -»• - - ~ 

‘hed^h CritiCaJ ^ ( “ V ' 41 eta) is jShaka - conventional dictionary meaning is 
hedgehog, porcupme dee also Vadiraja, Hertel, p. 94, ‘Stachelschwe7 T^Tfm 

fO haspann pig, but the editor (p. xxxiv) renders it mullam panri viz Wan**? 

£££(SSlTSf ° f ^ C ° bra " ^ m ° n S°° Se - ***™ hear 2 

which Harisena, v. 41, h*, mi paima , CT 

^■>27vTPr *' b “ i! of “» Z- 

Z l h™th ^ °° p • I41) '***“ ' •»**” * «*. i Z HghTof 

this, I have chosen mongoose’ in the translation S 1 

iSSS?rl9=.~— '=ss- 

, cju we would obtain for enmity is relished between/bv ’ R„ f t 

whkh ^ ***>- * 

*■ ™ - 

21. TOs sorting ,o Upadhye (p. 106); »*W weald lifcndly b. W , „ ong 

22. I read in v. 82 (paparddhya varam (for -oddhi-varam) as in v 78 

ZS Kaka-Mrya-yc'gw in v. 84. This refers (see Monier-Williams) to two events 
happenmg at the same time, but without being connected causallv m „ J 

24. A very elliptic verse; the translation is tentative. It looks like an elaKr.r,t» „ . 

which lost its poignancy. For Manikyasuri fHertel n 871 i, u paraphrase, 

T“/ V Z °^ 108 ™ h * w "> «—I< PaspadaM, (tocterc 

stomach came out by the “hind doo^lT*, , r were inside his 

- <— “»■ ^zz\ riT^rSi*^ 

dd, o r allades ,o a dlffwea, 



animal gets internally flavoured. — Anyway, the locatives of nire etc. (in 108) should be 
changed into instrumentals. 

26. In this v. 109,1 cannot make sense of either dhrta-pascima-bhagakah (and translate 
instead, from v. 100, chinna-) or jvalabhasita-sarvaso is this meant as an adverbial 
clause, ‘while all the quarters were illuminated by the flames,’ or should we read -ahgo, 

all his limbs shining with the flames,’ or *bhasmita -, ‘all his hopes burned to ashes by 
the fire’? 

27. A weird expression, regardless of whether we read cira-patta-sama with the text or 
change it to cfna-; the attribute would be more appropriate for the tent (see next note). 

28. Hatisena is clearly confused about the precise location of the various characters. In 
v. 190 (where the main narrative continues) he locates king Yasomati inside the tent and 
the two chickens outside at a distance. This makes better sense, since the ascetic, whose 
discourse the birds hear, would not be standing close to the king who is dallying with his 

29. In v. 132 (also v. 240), ekadasahga-dhari, lit. ‘having memorized the eleven Arigas.’ 
The works called Angas constitute the second major group of Jaina canonical scriptures. 
Knowledge of the first, called Purvas, was apparently lost after 300 B.C. after some of 
their contents had been integrated into the twelfth Ariga ( Ditthivaya ). But even this 
twelfth Ahga became extinct. Thus ‘eleven Angas’ denotes the first and foremost 
available section of the Jaina canon. However, the Digambaras maintain that even the 
Angas had become extinct by the second century A.D. But since we do not know in 
which period Hatisena, who is a Digambara, envisaged the events narrated in our story 
to have taken place, we need not search for a contradiction here. (At least according to 
the interpretation of the editor of the Tamil Yacotarakaviyam (p. iii), Yasodhara’s father 
was the famous king Asoka of the 3rd century B.C. It is true that the Tamil text reads 
Acokan (H, 1.11 etc.), but this is merely a rendering of Sanskrit Yasas+ogha, correspond¬ 
ing to our KTrtyogha. For information on the Angas see Padmanabha S. Jaini, The Jaina 
Path of Purification , reprinted Delhi, 1979, pp. 47-55. 

30. In v. 132 avadhi-jhana , also in v. 211 avadhi-locana. This is the third among the five 
types of knowledge distinguished by Jaina authors. Innate to gods and denizens of the 
hells, it can be obtained by human beings through meditational practices. Knowledge 
here transcends the senses and can, which is essential in our story, grasp past events 
without having witnessed them. See Jaini, op. cit., pp. 121f. 

31. This long passage, v. 131-159, appears somewhat out of place in Harisena’s otherwise 
very concise narrative. Indeed it is absent in the earlier version found in the Samaraicca- 
kaha. However, an almost identical passage is found in the same text, but as part of the 
main narrative and not of the emboxed Yasodhara story, viz. pp. 164, 18 — 179, 19 

(with the three arguments about the nature of the soul found pp. 172, 13_174, 19). 

There it is a nahiyavadi , viz. nastika-vadin, ‘materialist,’ called Pihgakesa who claims 
that the soul does not possess autonomous, independent existence from the body. I cannot 
tell whether it was Harisena himself who chose to insert that discussion into the present 
story, or whether he found it like this in his source. But given the detail with which he 
writes about the discussion, one might be tempted to regard it as Harisena’s own 
innovative addition to the story of Yasodhara. — The passage as found in the 
Samaraiccakaha is itself much older, for we find another version in a canonical scripture, 
the second Upanga Rayapasenaijja. Moreover, it appears that also the Buddhists adopted 



the arguments found there, in their Dighanikaya 23 (Payasisuttantan). See on these 
passages E. Frauwallner, Geschichte der indischen Philosphie, vol. II, Salsburg, 1956, pp. 
297-300 (with note 381), and on the Lokayata system attributed to Carvaka, ibid. pp. 
302-309. By claiming that the soul and the body are not different, ideas arc alluded to 
which are associated with the Lokayata: consciousness (and life) are seen there merely 
as products of the body (as alcohol is the product of the fruits, sugar, etc.). 

Particularly vs. 135 and 145 are not clear In the former verse, there is first the 
problem that normally the Lokayata rejects the concept of transmigration. Secondly, my 
translation of dehindm sa jivas tac chairirakam as ‘body and soul that are the same’ is 
tentative. In v. 145b, the text is definitely corrupt (yathdham savajjfvo 'sti tadevacca 
iarirakam). Upadhye first emends Savajfvo 'sti tadevam ca, from which I have derived 
my translation, although the details of the construction remain obscure to me. Then he 
suggests (p. 386) yathd sa eva jivo 'sti tad eva ca (sarirakam) (from v. 153b), ‘how the 
soul is, so is the body.’ 

32. The three sets of vows are the anu-vratas (‘smaller vows’), guna-vratas and the 
Hksa-vratas. Details on these can easily be found in Jaini, op. cit., pp. 170-181; 
Frauwallner, op. cit., vol. I, pp. 256f; R. Wiliams, Jaina yoga : a survey of the medieval 
iravakdcaras, London, 1963. In Wiliams, op. cit., p. 53, the five types of udumbara 
(Harisena's text, v. 169, has a Prakritic pane' umbara), ‘figs,’ are listed with their Latin 
names. On the rationale behind this prohibition, and that against eating honey, see Jaini, 
op. cit., pp. 167ff. The fivefold veneration (panca-namaskdram , v. 170) salutes five types 
of holy beings, arhats, siddhas, etc. For the full Prakrit text, with translation, of this 
prayer see Jaini, op. cit., pp. 162f. ‘True faith’ translates here and elsewhere samyaktva 
or samyag-darsana, which includes that first flash of insight when the Jaina teaching 
begins to make sense (for details see Jaini, op. cit., pp. 141-151). 

33. See note 28 above. 

34. Vs. 194f show a remarkable Freudian slip, by reading puspavati, ‘menstruating'; v. 
229 reveals the secret: Puspavall, which is no more than a synonym of Kusumavall. 

35. V. 195 samadhanat, and similarly samadhina in vs. 222 and 301. Die state of mind 
in which a person finds himself at the time of dying is considered by Jaina authors as an 
important feature determining the kind of the next rebirth. The two expressions refer to 
dying while fully conscious and concentrating on the truths of the Jaina religion. (See 
Jaini, op. cit., pp. 227f and Upadhye, op. cit., p. 57.) Die alternative is referred to in our 
v. 77, tmdha-manas , ‘with clouded mind,’ where the goat (unlike his subsequent rebirth) 
had leamt nothing and thus does not move upwards on the scale of life. 

36. Although AmrtamatTs crime was infinitely greater than Yasodhara's, our story 
ignores her fate almost entirely. In Manikyasuri (Hertel p. 87) we hear that when 
Yasomati organizes a feast in honour of his dead father (corresponding to our v. 98) 
which is witnessed by the goat, all of Yasodhara's wives participate, except for his chief 
queen (our Amrtamatl). She has contracted leprosy from eating the piece of rohita fish 
(see our vs.73f),. a misfortune attributed by her co-wives to her murdering Yasodhara. 
The goat then sees her, ugly and deformed by her disease. — The same situation is found 
in Vadiraja (Hertel p. 95). Die goat hears from the servants in the kitchen that Amita- 
maffs body exudes a foul smell and is covered in boils. This is attributed by them partly 
to her eating meat, partly to her sleeping with the hunchback, and partly to her having 


murdered her husband. When he sees her, he concludes that she must have contracted 
leprosy from the hunchback (who also in other versions is said to have been a leper). 

37.1 have left out in v. 226 bhavatah patta-bandham ca which is out of place here. 

38. $esa in v. 250 literally refers to an offering made to a deity, which is taken back, 
after the deity has ‘left’ it, viz. hallowed it (compare note 16). 

39.1 change the text of v. 263a into atma-sambandham loka-vismaya-kdranam. 

40 The name (in v. 300) of this mode of committing religious suicide is a wrongly 
Sanskritized Prakrit paovagamana , which ought to be prayopagamana. It is one of the 
three modes mentioned in the Acardhga-sutra (I, 7, 8, translated by H. Jacobi, Sacr 
Books of the East, vol. 22, pp. 74-78.) However, it could be argued that it is used here 
in a non-technical sense, as a synonym for the less obscure sallekhana. For details see 
Jaini, op. cit., pp. 227-233, where (p. 229) four situations of it are mentioned. A less 
likely explanation of the ‘fourfold’ could be the classification found in the Uttaradhya- 
yana-sutra (30, 12f, translated H. Jacobi, Sacred books of the East, vol. 45, p. 176.) The 
Bhagavati Arddhana discusses paovagamana in vs. 2062-2077. 

41 This may well be a reference to the ceremony conducted at the time of dying, 
involving the concentrated listening to the Bhagavati Arddhana (see note 8). ‘Fourfold 
is explained (Upadhye p. 47) as involving ‘faith, knowledge, conduct and penance. 



Part II 

Of Peoples and Places: Stories from the Biography 
Collections and a Pilgrimage Text 


Jain Biographies: Selections from the 
Prabandhakosa, Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali> 
Vrddhacaryaprabandhavali, and the 

Translated by Phyllis Granoff 


Telling the deeds of famous monks and kings, wealthy lay patrons and 
exemplary devotees, was an important part of medieval Jain literature. Stories of 
people who were important to the tradition were told in Sanskrit and in the 
medieval vernaculars; in addition monks wrote elaborate poems and prose 
compositions telling of the deeds of the Jinas, both in their most recent life and 
m their many past lives. Some of the stories that were told of famous monks 
were preserved in the didactic story collections which owe so much to the 
AvaSyaka literature. Others seem to have circulated at pilgrimage centers and 
were told both in special biography collections and in texts that collect stories 
about pilgrimage sites. The special biography collections were compiled by 
monks often for the benefit of a wealthy and powerful lay patron. Most of them 
date from the 13th-14th century, and many of them even include stories about 
famous poets and kings who were not specifically connected with Jainism. Still 
other stories formed part of the sectarian histories that were written by particular 
groups of monks. These histories detail the transmission of the teachings from 
monastic leader to monastic leader and are called gurvdvalis. 

The various stories of monks and important patrons of the faith that these 
sources preserve are as varied as surely the people they honour must have been. 

I have translated a selection of stories from a number of different texts. The 
Prabandhakosa of RajaSekharasuri was written in 1349 A.D. The Sanskrit 


Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali was written in two parts and probably belongs 
to the early part of the 14th century. The Vrddhacaryaprabandhavali, in Prakrit, 
belongs to the same period and recounts the deeds of the same monks as the 
Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali, but as the translation of the accounts of 
Jine^varasuri shows, it preserves a different tradition. The AkhyanakamanikoSa, 
which is a didactic story collection and not properly speaking a collection of 
biographies, preserves its stories largely in its Prakrit commentary which dates 
to 1134 A.D. I have commented on how I did the translations in a brief note 
that can be found after Chapter 2. 

Bhadrabahu and Varaha, from the PrabandhakoSa, pp.2-4. 

In the South, in the city Pratisthana, lived two young Brahmin boys called 
Bhadrabahu and Varaha, both without a penny to their names and with no one 
to look after them, and both gifted with much native intelligence. Now the Jain 
monk YaSobhadra, who was one of those rare individuals to possess knowledge 
of the fourteen ancient scriptures, chanced to come to that city. Bhadrabahu and 
Varaha heard him preach. This is what he said, 

“Pleasures, in all their many forms, are treacherous and impermanent, and 
frond them arises this cycle of births. O see here now, all you people, why do 
you look for what is eternal and true in all of this? Your doings are in vain! 

Make your mind pure and calm, free from the snares of all your desires, and 
concentrate it in meditation on that highest abode of eternal bliss, if you trust in 
my words.” 

As soon as they heard these words, they were awakened to the truth, and 
when they got home they took counsel with each other, “Why do we lead our 
lives in vain? To begin with we have no money to get pleasures for ourselves; 
we should instead practice religion.” 

“Listen, O mind of mine, let him lust after the taste of worldly pleasures, 
before whom walk bards, singing praises; let him hanker after sensual delights, 
who walks in step with gifted poets from Southern lands, bantering with them 
in well-honed verses, and who hears behind him all the while the enticing 
jangling of the bracelets of the young women who wave ceremonial fans over 
him in honour. But if a man lacks all this, well then, O mind, he should direct 
you at once into the stillness of meditation on the Supreme Truth.” 

T hinkin g this both the brothers became monks. 

Bhadrabahu became a famous monk, a leader in the monastic community, 
conversant with the fourteen ancient scriptures and possessed of the thirty-six 
qualities of a holy man. He was celebrated as the author of commentaries to 
these ten texts, the DaSavaikalika, Uttaradhyayana, DaSaSrutaskandha, Kalpa, 
Vyavahdra, AvaSyaka, Suryaprajhapti, Sutrakrta, Acarahga, and the Rsibhasita. 
He also wrote a text which was entitled the Samhita of Bhadrabahu. Now at that 
time there also lived the Jain monk Arya Sambhutivijaya, who was also one of 



those rare individuals gifted with knowledge of the fourteen ancient scriptures. 
It came time for the Glorious monk YaSobhadra to sojourn in Heaven. 
Bhadrabahu and this Sambhutivijaya, cherishing great affection for each other 
wandered separately around the land of India. They were like two suns that 
make bloom the lotuses that are the fortunate souls who are ready to accept the 
true doctrine. 

Now Varaha was also a learned man. But he stood high atop the mountain of 
terrible pride and he kept asking his brother Bhadrabahu to install him as a 
leader of the group of monks. Bhadrabahu told him, “Brother, true it is that you 
are learned and that you carry out all your duties with care, but you are stained 
by pride. I cannot give someone who suffers from pride the office of a leading 
monk.” Though these words were true they did not appeal to Varaha, for it is 
said that the words of a teacher, even when they are crystal clear like pure 
spring water, sting the ears of a disciple who is not fit for receiving the true 
doctrine. And so it came to pass that Varaha abandoned his monastic vows. He 
returned to his earlier false beliefs and began to dress and behave as a Brahmin 
once more. 

He boasted that he had written a new text known as the Samhita of Varaha, 
which in fact was based on the knowledge that he had acquired during the time 
he had been a Jain monk. But he told everyone, “I have been studying the 
position of the planets and heavenly bodies ever since I was a child. And I have 
always been totally absorbed in this pursuit Once, just outside the city of 
Pratisthana I happened to draw an astrological calculation on a rode. When 
evening came I left my calculations there and went home to sleep. In my dreams 
I suddenly remembered that I had not erased my scribblings. And so I went 
back there to erase what I had written. There on the rock on which I had written 
my astrological calculations sat a lion. No matter, with one hand I stroked his 
belly and with the other I erased the notes I had made. At that the lion turned 
mto the Sun God right before my very eyes. He spoke to me, ‘Son, I am pleased 
with your firmness of determination and your devotion to the science of 
astrology. I am the Sun; ask of me some boon.’ I, for my part, then replied,‘O 
master! If you are pleased with me, then let me ride in your chariot awhile and 
show me all the heavenly bodies in their courses.’ And so it came to be that I 
was permitted to roam the heavens with the Sun in his very own chariot And 
partaking of the nectar of immortality that he magically transferred into my 
body, I felt no pang from hunger or thirst or any other unsatisfied bodily need. 
And when I had accomplished my task, I bade farewell to the Sun and I 
returned to this world to roam around and serve the earthly realm with my 
knowledge. That is why I am called ‘Varaha of the Sun,’ Varahamihira.” 

He did not hesitate to spread all sorts of tales like this. And because there was 
just the slightest grain of possibility in all of his stories he came to be greatly 
honored in the world. In the city of Pratisthanapura he won over the King 


Satrujit with his many talents. And the king made him his own court priest So 
it is that they say, 

“A man's fine qualities lead him to a position of respect, not any fiddle-faddle 
about his birth and family; we treasure a flower grown in the woods, but throw 
away in disgust the dirt that comes from our very own bodies.” 

Now he began to abuse the Svetambaras, saying, “What do those old crows 
know about anything? Like naughty school children confined to their rooms they 
mutter and mumble to themselves, buzzing like flies, wasting all their time. Oh 
well, let them do what they want. Why should I care anyway what they do?” 
The lay disciples who heard his taunts were pained by his words; why, their 
heads throbbed as they heard them. They gathered together and said, “What use 
is it to be alive if we must just stand by and hear our teachers being abused? 
What can we do? The king honors this Varahamihira, considering him to be a 
man of many talents, and people do say, ‘He who is honored by kings is 
honored by the world.’ There is nothing we can do about that. But we can 
summon Bhadrabahu, at least” And this is exactly what they did. The Glorious 
Bhadrabahu arrived there. The lay disciples welcomed him with a great 
celebration in his honour, and with such pomp and ceremony as to excite the 
envy of anyone watching. They lodged their teacher in comfortable quarters. The 
members of the king's court were daily treated to a feast of lectures delivered by 
Bhadrabahu. Varaha was not a little chagrined by Bhadrabahu's arrival; 
nonetheless there was nothing he could do against him. 

In the meantime a son was bom to Varahamihira. Delighted at the birth, he 
spent a vast sum of money entertaining his friends and making donations to the 
poor. And for all of this he was even more greatly honored in the community. 
He proclaimed before the king and all the courtiers in the royal assembly hall, 
“My son will five a hundred years.” And at his house he gave party after party 
in celebration of the birth. One day Varaha publicly declared, “Now see here. 
Even though he is my very own brother Bhadrabahu did not come to the party 
I gave in honour of the birth of my son. Henceforth he shall be an outcaste 
amongst us, never to be invited to any of our family festivities.” When they 
heard these words, the lay disciples told Bhadrabahu, “This is the kind of thing 
he is going around saying. You must go to his house one day. It is not right that 
the enmity between you should grow any more.” The Glorious Bhadrabahu 
instructed them, “Why do you make me undertake not just one but two difficult 
tasks? This child that has been bom to Varahamihira will be killed by a cat in 
the mirirtlp of the night when he is just seven days old. And when he dies I shall 
have to go anyway to express my condolences.” At this tire lay disciples said, 
“But that Brahmin proclaimed before the king himself that the child has a life 
span of one hundred years. And now you say otherwise. What are we to 
believe?” The Glorious Bhadrabahu told them, “Truth depends on corroboration. 
For that is something that cannot happen if what a man says is untrue.” The lay 
disciples were silent 




It was seven days after the birth. And on that very day, when the night was 
only two-watches deep, the wet-nurse sat down with the baby to let it nurse A 
heavy iron door bolt fell from-the top of the door lintel as someone opened the 
door tocome into the room. And it struck the baby on the head. The child was 
dead. There was much wailing and crying then in Varaha’s house. A crowd 
gathered. And Bhadrabahu told his lay disciples, “It is a monk's sacred duty to 
relieve people of their grief. I must go there at once.” The teacher then went 
there, accompanied by hundreds of his lay disciples. Varaha, though dazed and 
wounded by grief, was properly respectful to him and rose to greet him. And he 
said to him, “Teacher! Your prediction has come true. The only thing that was 
not exactly right was that you said a cat would kill him, but the door bolt has 
killed him instead.” Bhadrabahu said, “There is a line drawing of a cat on the 
tip of that iron door bolt. I did not speak untruthfully.” They brought the door 
bolt and examined it; it was exactly as Bhadrabahu had said. 

Varaha then said, “I am not as pained by the death of my son as I am by the 
fact that the prediction, which I made before the king, that my child would have 
a life-span of a hundred years has turned out to be false. I curse those books of 
mine winch I trusted so when I boasted of my great knowledge. They are all a 
bunch of bars. I’ll wash their filthy mouths with soap and water.” And with 
these words he had the servants fill cauldrons with water. As soon as he was 

ku !?u Cany ° Ut hiS wash *** books with water, Bhadrabahu 

gabbed him by the arms and stopped him. “Why should you be angry at the 

books when the fault was yours alone? It was your own failure to understand 
them that led you to make false conclusions. These books do in fact record what 
the Omniscient One said, only it is not so easy to find someone who understands 
them correctly. I can show you the very places where you went astray; it is you 

yourself whom you should be cursing. You know yourself what people often 
say, r 

‘The favour of the king, youth, riches, good-looks, high birth, valour in battle 
learning, all these things make a man drunk even though they are not wine.’ 

And how can a drunkard have the subtle understanding that is necessary to 
comprehend a difficult treatise? You must not destroy these books.” 

With these words Varaha was restrained from his rash act; non-plussed at the 
turn of events, he did nothing more. At that point a lay disciple, who had been 
qmle “Pf* by Varahas denunciation of the Jain doctrine, stepped forward and 
said. Wretched little worms you are, who glow in the deep darkness of ni ght 

Now the world is aglow with the brilliance of the mid-day sun Even the 
moon does not dare to show its light. Wretched little glow worm, look what's 
happened to you now!” 

And with these words he beat a hasty retreat Varaha was exceedingly pained. 
By this time the king himself had arrived on the scene. The king told him “Do 
not gneve. O wise man, this is the way of the world.” At that administer of the 
king, who was a Jain devotee, spoke up, “The new teacher is also here, the one 



who predicted that the boy would live only seven days. He is indeed great for 
his words have proved to be true.” Someone then pointed out Bhadrabahu to the 
king, saying, “This is the one.” With those words the Brahmin was made even 
more miserable; he alone could have described his own mental torment. The 
king departed; Bhadrabahu too departed, and finally the crowd dispersed. The 
king accepted the Jain doctrine and became a lay disciple. 

Varaha in his humiliation became a Vaisnava monk and endured all sorts of 
penances out of ignorance. On his death he became a demi-god who was hostile 
to the Jain faith. With all his hatred, though, he was not able to trouble any of 
the monks, for it is true what they say, “Austerities are like a suit of armour 
made of the hardest diamond; they permit a sage to repel the attacks of others 
just as armour repels swarms of arrows deftly shot at it.” And so Varahamihira 
began instead to torment the lay disciples. He caused disease to occur in every 
house. Distressed and suffering, the lay devotees approached Bhadrabahu, “O 
Blessed One! That even while you are here with us we are so tormented by 
diseases is proof of the saying, ‘Even when he is mounted on an elephant, a 
man may still be gnawed at by mice.” The teacher answered them, “Do not be 
afraid. You remember that Varahamihira. Now he seeks to harm you all because 
of the hatred he nourished for you when he was alive. I can protect you even 
from the hand of the Wielder of the Thunderbolt, Indra, the King of the Gods, 
should he wish to strike you down.” And then, takin g from the ancient scriptures 
such hymns as the hymn which begins with the words, “Lord Par^va who 
removes obstacles,” he wove a hymn of praise which contained five verses and 
he recited it before everyone. All of their troubles instantly ceased. Even today 
those who desire to be rescued from some difficulty recite this hymn. It is like 
a wonderful wishing jewel with unimaginable powers. It is said that after 
Bhadrabahu his student the Glorious Sthulabhadra also possessed knowledge of 
the fourteen ancient scriptures and defeated many rivals in debate. 

Aryanandila, from the Prabandhako&a, pp. 5-7. 

In the city Padminlkhanda was a king named Padmaprabha. His wife was 
named Padmavatl. In that very city also dwelt the merchant Padmadatta. His 
wife was named PadmayaSa. They had a son, who was named Padma. The 
travelling merchant Varadatta pledged his own daughter, who was named 
Vairotya, to this son of theirs in marriage. And he married her in due time. 

One day Varadatta, the father of Vairotya, was on his way to foreign lands 
with all of his family, when they all perished in a forest fire. Vairotya, though 
she served her mother-in-law faithfully and humbly, met with only contempt 
from the older woman who knew that she had lost her father. For what they say 
is true: 

“That women seem beautiful and possessed of hidden wealth, that women 
seem strong and spirited and enjoy their husband's favour, that women wield 



authority in their home, for sure all of this is nothing but the result of the status 
and power of their fathers, who are always there behind the scenes.” 

But though she was exceedingly pained by her mother-in-law's words, which 
burned like a raging fire as it consumes dry chaff, she cursed her own bad luck 
and never uttered a word against her mother-in-law. And she thought to herself. 
Everyone reaps the fruit of bis own past actions. Another person is just the 
incidental cause of our misery or happiness, which we alone bring about through 
our very own deeds.” 

One day Vairotya had a dream in which the Snake King announced her 
impending pregnancy to her and she conceived a child. She began to crave 
sweet milk pudding. It was then that the Jain monk Aryanandila happened to 
stop in a nearby public garden; like Aryaraksitasvamin before him, he possessed 
knowledge of thirteen of the fourteen ancient texts. Now that mother-in-law 
proclaimed, “This woman will give birth to a daughter; she will never produce 
a son. The chaste and faithful Vairotya, pained by the harsh words of her 
mother-in-law, which pierced her ears like a sharp sword, went to pay her 
respects to the Jain monk. She bowed down to the monk. She told him about her 
dreadful relationship with her mother-in-law. The monk said, “This is the fault 
of some previous deed that you have done in another life. Do not let your anger 
grow. Do not let it grow, because it is the cause of rebirth and continued 
suffering. O daughter! In this birth, anger gives rise to such things as bodily 
ham, constant fighting and even undying hatred; and in the next world, it results 
in the most terrible suffering that comes from rebirth in hell and similar terrible 
misfortunes. I promise you, you will give birth to a son. I know that, since you 
have become pregnant, you long to eat sweet milk pudding. I promise you that 
somehow your craving will be fulfilled.” 

Delighted by these words of the monk, she went back home. And she thought 
to herself, “What they say is true: 

‘No matter how long we wander this earth, which is girded by the four vast 
oceans, we will never meet a person of truly noble nature to whom we can tell 
the long-kept secrets of our many miseries or even joys, and thereby for a 
minute, or even for a half a minute, feel suddenly at rest and peace. ’ 

But I have met such a person today in meeting this monk.” 

One day, Padmayaia, for her part, on the full moon night of the first month 
of spring, performed a ritual fast and was about to break her fast with 
appropriate ceremony. On that day it was the custom to give to the monks an 
ample portion of sweet milk pudding and to show particular generosity to all the 
lay members of the Jain faith. She did all of that. But because she hated her 
daughter-in-law, she gave her only coarse fare of cheap grain Now the 
daughter-in-law secretly took some of the sweet milk pudding that was left over 
in a large cauldron and hastily poured it into a small pot, which she concealed 



under her clothes as she went out to the lake to fetch water. She set the pot 
down under a tree and went to wash her hands and feet. 

Now it so happened that at this very moment in time there was a snake 
named Alinjara, who lived in the underworld, and whose wife was also pregnant 
and longing to eat sweet milk pudding. She had come out from the nether 
regions and was now roaming the earth in search of some sweet milk pudding. 
That was how she came to see the pudding in the pot under that tree. And she 
ate it all. The snake lady then set out for her home by the very same path that 
she had taken to come up from the underworld. When Vairotya had finished 
w ashing up and got back to the tree, right away she saw that there was no sweet 
milk pudding left in the pot any more. But even so she did not get angry and 
she did not utter a single nasty word. Instead she spoke these words of blessing, 

“May you find fulfillment of your wishes, whoever you are, who ate this 

Now Alinjara’s wife, concealed from view by the tree, heard her words of 
blessing. She returned home and told her husband what had happened. Vairotya 
went home too. That night, the wife of the snake Alinjara appeared to a 
neighbor of Vairotya's in a dream and said, “Fair lady! I am the wife of the 
snake Alinjara. Vairotya is my daughter. She is pregnant and longs to eat sweet 
milk pudding. You must fulfill her wish. And so I instruct you that you should 
say these words to her, ‘Your father is gone. But I shall take care of you as your 
own father would have done. I shall cool the burning pain that you feel from the 
fire of your mother-in-law's wrath.’” 

The next morning Vairotya's neighbor treated her to a meal of sweet milk 
pudding. Her pregnancy longing fulfilled, she gave birth to a son. As for the 
snake lady, she gave birth to a hundred sons. When the day came for Vairotya’s 
son's naming ceremony, the snake Alinjara made a huge party for her. He had 
all the snakes in the underworld build a magnificent and beautifully appointed 
mansion on the spot where her father's house had stood. All the snakes gathered, 
with their troops and their elephants, their horses and their finest chariots. They 
filled her house with riches. And Alinjara's wife, who now considered Vairotya 
to be her adopted daughter, went there too, along with her husband and her 
many sons, and showered her with the most beautiful gifts of the finest clothes, 
silks, gold, and bracelets and necklaces all studded with precious gems. And 
Vairotya began to visit Alinjara's wife frequently after that. Vairotya was treated 
with great respect by Alinjara's wife and shown much honour. Her mother-in- 
law, seeing that Vairotya's father's house now had returned, as it were, to its 
former wealth and splendour, began to treat Vairotya with great deference, for 
it is true what they say, “People show respect to someone whom others already 

The snakp lady sent her very own young sons to protea Vairotya and watch 
after her. She put all those snakes into a pot. Now one day a servant girl 
chanced to put that pot on top of a metal pan that had just been heated on the 



authority in thejx home, for sure all of this is nothing but the result of the status 
and power of their fathers, who are always there behind the scenes.” 

But though she was exceedingly pained by her mother-in-law's words, which 
burned like a raging fire as it consumes dry chaff, she cursed her own bad luck 
and never uttered a word against her mother-in-law. And she thought to herself, 

“Everyone reaps the fruit of his own past actions. Another person is just the 
incidental cause of our misery or happiness, which we alone bring about through 
our very own deeds.” 

One day Vairotya had a dream in which the Snake King announced her 
impending pregnancy to her and she conceived a child. She began to crave 
sweet milk pudding. It was then that the Jain monk Aryanandila happened to 
stop in a nearby public garden; like Aryaraksitasvamin before him, he possessed 
knowledge of thirteen of the fourteen ancient texts. Now that mother-in-law 
proclaimed, “This woman will give birth to a daughter, she will never produce 
a son.” The chaste and faithful Vairotya, pained by the harsh words of her 
mother-in-law, which pierced her ears like a sharp sword, went to pay her 
respects to the Jain monk. She bowed down to the monk. She told him about her 
dreadful relationship with her mother-in-law. The monk said, “This is the fault 
of some previous deed that you have done in another life. Do not let your anger 
grow. Do not let it grow, because it is the cause of rebirth and continued 
suffering. O daughter! In this birth, anger gives rise to such things as bodily 
harm, constant fighting and even undying hatred; and in the next world, it results 
in the most terrible suffering that comes from rebirth in hell and similar terrible 
misfortunes. I promise you, you will give birth to a son. I know that, since you 
have become pregnant, you long to eat sweet milk pudding. I promise you that 
somehow your craving will be fulfilled.” 

Delighted by these words of the monk, she went back home. And she thought 
to herself, “What they say is true: 

‘No matter how long we wander this earth, which is girded by the four vast 
oceans, we will never meet a person of truly noble nature to whom we can jell 
the long-kept secrets of our many miseries or even joys, and thereby for a 
minute, or even for a half a minute, feel suddenly at rest and peace.’ 

But I have met such a person today in meeting this monk." 

One day, PadmayaSa, for her part, on the full moon night of the first month 
of spring, performed a ritual fast and was about to break her fast with 
appropriate ceremony. On that day it was the custom to give to the monks an 
ample portion of sweet milk pudding and to show particular generosity to all the 
lay members of the Jain faith. She did all of that. But because she hated her 
daughter-in-law, she gave her only coarse fare of cheap grain. Now the 
daughter-in-law secretly took some of the sweet milk pudding that was left over 
in a large cauldron and hastily poured it into a small pot, which she concealed 



under her clothes as she went out to the lake to fetch water. She set the pot 
down under a tree and went to wash her hands and feet. 

Now it so happened that at this very moment in time there was a snake 
named Alinjara, who lived in the underworld, and whose wife was also pregnant 
and longing to eat sweet milk pudding. She had come out from the nether 
regions and was now roaming the earth in search of some sweet milk pudding. 
That was how she came to see the pudding in the pot under that tree. And she 
ate it all. The snake lady then set out for her home by the very same path that 
she had taken to come up from the underworld. When Vairotya had finished 
washing up and got back to the tree, right away she saw that there was no sweet 
milk- pudding left in the pot any more. But even so she did not get angry and 
she did not utter a single nasty word. Instead she spoke these words of blessing, 
“May you find fulfillment of your wishes, whoever you are, who ate this 

Now Alinjara's wife, concealed from view by the tree, heard her words of 
blessing. She returned home and told her husband what had happened. Vairotya 
went home too. That night, the wife of the snake Alinjara appeared to a 
neighbor of Vairotya's in a dream and said, “Fair lady! I am the wife of the 
snak-p. Alinjara. Vairotya is my daughter. She is pregnant and longs to eat sweet 
milk pudding. You must fulfill her wish. And so I instruct you that you should 
say these words to her, ‘Your father is gone. But I shall take care of you as your 
own father would have done. I shall cool the burning pain that you feel from the 
fire of your mother-in-law's wrath.’” 

The next morning Vairotya’s neighbor treated her to a meal of sweet milk 
pudding. Her pregnancy longing fulfilled, she gave birth to a son. As for the 
snak-p lady, she gave birth to a hundred sons. When the day came for Vairotya's 
son’s namin g ceremony, the snake Alinjara made a huge party for her. He had 
all the snakes in the underworld build a magnificent and beautifully appointed 
mansion on the spot where her father's house had stood. All the snakes gathered, 
with their troops and their elephants, their horses and their finest chariots. They 
filled her house with riches. And Alinjara’s wife, who now considered Vairotya 
to be her adopted daughter, went there too, along with her husband and her 
many sons, and showered her with the most beautiful gifts of the finest clothes, 
silks, gold, and bracelets and necklaces all studded with precious gems. And 
Vairotya began to visit Alinjara’s wife frequently after that. Vairotya was treated 
with great respect by Alinjara's wife and shown much honour. Her mother-in- 
law, seeing that Vairotya's father’s house now had returned, as it were, to its 
former wealth and splendour, began to treat Vairotya with great deference, for 
it is true what they say, “People show respect to someone whom others already 

The snak-p lady sent her very own young sons to protect Vairotya and watch 
after her. She put all those snakes into a pot. Now one day a servant girl 
chanced to put that pot on top of a metal pan that had just been heated on the 



stove At once Vairotya took it off. She sprinkled the snakes with water and 
revived them. But one baby snake had lost the tip of his tail. As she saw him 
slither and slip, having trouble without his tiny tail, she affectionately called out 
Long live my clown of a tailless one, who'll show us all a trick or two before 
hes done.” And the snakes, who were bewitched by Vairotya's charming son 
and loved him very much, all became like members of her own family and they 
gave her fine costly garments, gem stones and gold. And having made such a 
fine celebration for her son's naming day, eventually they all went back to their 
own homes. Vairotya came to be the object of everyone's respect because of all 
the wonderful things the snakes did for her. 

One day the snake Alinjara noticed that one of his sons had lost his tail and 
he became furious. “What wicked person has damaged my son’s tail?” And 
when he knew through his supernatural powers that it was Vairotya who was 
responsible for the loss of his son's tail, then, despite all the kind feelings he had 
cherished for her up until that moment, he became enraged at her now. And in 
his anger he went to her home in order to do her some harm in return. Alinjara 
hid himself in her house. Now Vairotya had come to have the habit that 
whenever she entered a dark room, she would call out a little blessing to that 
snake that she had inadvertently injured, in order to ward of any evil that might 
lurk there. She would say, “Long live my little clown of a tailless one,” as she 
had called him that day. Now when he heard Vairotya call out these words, the 
snake king was pleased with her and gave her a pair of anklets. And he showed 
his favour to her with these words, “My daughter, from this day on you must 
come regularly to us in the underworld and the snakes will come to you.” And 
Vairotya, through the power of this boon from the snake, did indeed come and 
go between the earth and underworld as she pleased. She called her son “Naea- 
datta,” “Gift of the Snakes.” 

At that time the Glorious monk Aryanandila told Padmadatta, Vairotya's 
father-in-law, “You must tell Vairotya, ‘Go to the domain of the snakes and say 
to the snakes, You must help everyone in our world. You must never bite 
anyone.’ Her father-in-law related these words of the monk to her and she told 
them to the snakes. She went down there and she told them in a loud and clear 
voice. Long five Alinjara's wife. Long live Alinjara. They restored my father to 
me even though he was dead by restoring the prestige of his house. They were 
my refuge when I had no refuge. Hear, hear, all you young snakes. The Great 
monk Aryanandila commands, ‘Do not trouble our world. Help every one of 

“5. Vair0 ^ 111611 went back home - The monk composed a new hymn called 
Praise to Vairotya.” Whoever recites this “Praise to Vairotya” need not fear any 
harm from snakes. 

Vairotya brought all the snakes to the monk, who had become her teacher He 
instructed them in the Jain faith. They all became calm and pure in mind. 
Varrotyas son, who was called Nagadatta, became a rich and prosperous man. 
Padmadatta became a Jain monk and his beloved wife became a Jain nun. He 


practiced austerities and went to heaven. And for her part Padmaya^a became his 
divine wife, according to his wishes, for he had achieved the power to bring into 
being anything that he desired. And Vairotya died while meditating on the king 
of snakes and was reborn as the wife of the snake Dharanendra, a protector of 
the Jain faith. In that rebirth she kept the name Vairotya. 

The Glorious Jivadeva, from the Prabandhako&a, pp.7-9. 

There is in Gujarat a prosperous town named Vayata, which was founded by 
the God Vayu, God of the Wind. In that town there lived a wealthy merchant 
named Dharmadeva. His wife was called Sllavatl; she was like the Goddess of 
Domestic Prosperity and Bliss incarnate. They had two sons, Mahldhara and 
Mahlpala. Mahlpala only wanted to amuse himself; he never studied any of the 
traditional skills. Scolded by his father, he left home in anger and went abroad. 
The merchant Dharmadeva passed on to the other world. And Mahldhara also 
left the world; he became a Jain monk under the tutelage of the Glorious 
Jindatta, who belonged to the lineage of monks known as the Vayata Gaccha. 
He became a leader of the monastic community and his name as a monk was 

Now it happened that Mahlpala, too, became a monk; in the East, in the city 
Rajagrha, he became a Digambara Jain monk and he was honored for his 
learning and known as a great teacher. His name as a monk was Suvamakirti. 
His teacher Srutakirti gave him two magic spells, the one enabling him to 
summon the protecting Goddess CakreSvaii, and the other enabling him to enter 
into someone else's dead body and reanimate it When Dharmadeva went to 
heaven, Sllavati was deeply saddened, for what they say is true: 

“Like a river without the ocean, like the night without the moon, like a lotus 
pond without the sun to make it bloom, so is a good woman without her 

She learned from someone who had come from Rajagrha that her son, who 
was now called Suvamakirti, was there, and she went there to see him. She 
found Suvamakirti. Both son and mother felt great affection for each other. One 
day she told Suvamakirti, “Your father has gone to heaven. You are now a 
monk here. But your brother, Mahldhara, has also achieved fame as a monk; he 
occupies a position of great respect in the Svetambara Jain community and is 
known as the monk Rasilla. He is active in Vayata. You two should get 
together, settle your differences and espouse the same faith.” 

She brought Suvamakirti back to Vayata and the two brothers were reunited. 
Suvamakirti's mother told him, “Son, become a Svetambara. “Suvamakirti 
replied, “Let Rasilla follow in my footsteps and become a Digambara monk.” 
When things had come to this impasse, the mother prepared two dishes for them 
to eat. Now one of the dishes she made had been specially prepared for them 
and it was rich and delicious. The other was nothing special; it was just taken 






from the usual cooking that she had done for everyone else in the household. 
She summoned the Digambara first. He ate the first dish, the specially prepared 
rich food, to his heart's content. He didn't even so much as cast a glance at the 
ordinary food in the second dish. Two students of Rasilla then arrived. They 
both took the ordinary fare, desirous of burning off the effects of the bad deeds 
they had done in the past through the correct observance of their monastic vows. 
After everyone had eaten, the mother said to the Digambara, “Son, these 
Svetambaras are pure. You don't seem bothered by any rule that says that a Jain 
monk cannot accept food that has been specially prepared for him. These 
Svetambaras on the other hand firmly declare, 

‘The monk who accepts food that has been specially prepared for him and 
does not refuse such delicacies, indeed hankers after them, must be considered 
as outside the pale of the true Jain community. Such a monk fails in his duties.’ 
And these Svetambaras steadfastly practice what they preach. For this reason, 
you should join their group if you truly are seeking final release from the bonds 
of this world.” 

Suvarnaklrti, brought to his senses by these words of his mother, became a 
Svetambara monk. His name as a monk was Jlvadevasuri, and it was a name 
that soon became known all over the world. He wandered from place to place, 
accompanied by five hundred monks. And this Glorious Monk, a leader among 
monks, destroyed forever the disease of false belief for those noble souls whose 
time had come for them to accept the true faith, showering on them the magic 
healing elixir of his preaching of the true doctrine. 

One day a strange ascetic showed up at one of his lectures. In feet he was 
trying to master a certain magic spell that would enable him to conquer all the 
three worlds, heaven, earth and the nether world. To that end he was in search 
of a man who possessed the thirty-two marks of greatness. Now at that time in 
history there were only three such men alive. One was King Vikramaditya; the 
second was the Glorious Monk Jiva, and the third was the ascetic himself. 
There was no one else on earth who was so great as to bear the entire thirty-two 
marks of greatness on his person. Now he could not kill the king, but he needed 
to eat his one daily meal by begging for it with the skull of such a great man as 
his begging bowl for a full six months in order to accomplish the magic spell. 
That was why he had come to the Jain monk to try to work black magic on him 
so that he could murder him and get his skull. But because the monk had an 
even more powerful spell, a Jain spell, although his monastic robe turned black 
and rotted, his body was untouched by the ascetic's magic. Then the ascetic 
paralyzed the tongue of the monk who was standing next to the Great Jlvasuri 
and whose duty it was to recite the sacred texts. The Great Jlvasuri in turn 
paralyzed the ascetic’s speech in retaliation. Then that one wrote on the ground 
with a piece of chalk. 

“Everyone does a good deed to the person who has done him a service. 
There's nothing to that. But rare indeed is the man who helps out someone who 
came to do him harm. 

I came here to work black magic on you. You figured that out and have taken 
away my powers of speech. Show mercy on me. Release me from your grip. 
Take pity on me.” 

Anyway, this was the gist of what he wrote there. And so, out of compassion, 
the noble monk released him; the ascetic left Vayata and took up residence in a 
monastery just outside the town. The monk called together all the members of 
his own monastic group and told them, “That wicked ascetic is staying in a 
monastery over there. Take care that no monk or nun goes near the place, no 
matter what” They all accepted this prohibition without any dissent. But then 
two nuns, simple souls, got curious and they went to that very place that had 
been forbidden them. The ascetic saw them there and brought them under his 
control with some magic powder so that they never left his side. The Jain monk, 
Jlvadevasuri, remaining right there in his own lodgings, made a grass effigy. 
When he cut off the hand of the effigy, the ascetic’s hand fell off. The ascetic 
released the two nuns. They were restored to their normal selves after they 
washed their heads, removing the last vestiges of the ascetic’s magic spells. 

Now one day in Ujjain, King Vikramaditya decided to start a new era which 
bore his name. In commemoration of that great event he sent the minister Nimba 
to Gujarat as part of his larger plan to free all his territories of poverty an 
make every place in his realm rich and prosperous. That Nimba built a temple 
to The Glorious Mahavlra in Vayata. The Glorious Jlvadevasuri performed the 
consecration ceremony for the image in this temple. 

At exactly that time there was in Vayata a merchant named Lalla who was a 
devout follower of the false faith. He began right then and there to cany out a 
costly and lavish Vedic sacrifice. All the Brahmins gathered. Oppressed by the 
smoke from the sacred fire, a snake fell out of a nearby tree and landed on the 
edge of the fire pit The cruel Brahmins picked up that poor creature and hurled 
it right into the fire. Seeing that, Lalla was suddenly disgusted with the 
Brahmins. He said, “Look how cruel they are; they actually enjoy taking the 
lives of living beings. I do not need to make men such as these my teachers in 
matters of religion.” And with those words, he dismissed all the Brahmins and 
returned to his own home. He looked everywhere for a religious teacher. One 
day at mid-day a pair of monks who were the disciples of die Glonous 
Jlvadevasuri came to his house for alms. He was pleased with their demeanour 
and the way they took only pure food. He asked the two monks, “Who is your 
teacher?” They told him it was the Glorious Jlvadevasuri. Lalla went to see 
him He formally became a lay devotee, accepting the twelve rules of conduct 
for a lay disciple. One day Lalla told him, “I had set aside a lakh of gold as a 
donation on the occasion of the festival to the Sun God. I have spent half of that 
sum. Please take the other half.” The teacher did not accept the money, for he 




was without any greed or desire for worldly wealth. Lalla was even more 
pleased with his new teacher than before. The teacher instructed him, “You must 
bring to me the gift that you will receive tonight while you are in the middle of 
washing your feet.” Obedient to his teacher's words Lalla went home. 

That evening someone brought him a gift of two bulls. Lalla brought them to 
his teacher. The teacher told him, “Let these bulls go on their own. Build a 
temple on the spot where they stop.” Again, obeying his teacher’s words, Lalla 
released the bulls. The two bulls then went as far as the village Pippalana and 
then just stopped somewhere there. At that very place Lalla began to construct 
a temple. When it was finished, a strange Saiva ascetic arrived on the scene. He 
declared, “There is a flaw in this temple.” The people asked, “What is the 
flaw?” He said, “There is a woman who will haunt it” Lalla had heard all of 
this and he went back and told his teacher what was happening. The teacher 
said, “You must rid the spot of that offending ghost and then rebuild the temple. 
Lalla! Do not worry about where the money will come from. The Goddesses 
whose task it is to look after the temple will provide all the money that you will 
need.” They began to dismantle the temple. They heard a voice, “Do not take 
down this temple.” They told the teacher Jivadevasuri about the voice. He 
withdrew into meditation. The superintending Goddess appeared. She said, “I am 
the daughter of the king of Kanyakubja. My name is Mahanlka. A long time 
ago, when I was living in Gujarat, Muslim armies invaded. I fled, but the 
soldiers pursued me, and in my terror I jumped into a well. I died and became 
a demi-god. I will not permit you to clear the ground by digging up the bones 
of my body. Make me the superintending Goddess of your temple and I shall 
make your temple rich and prosperous. “ 

The teacher agreed to do as she said. On a spot of land that she showed them 
they built a small shrine to her. And on that very spot they found all the money 
they needed, so much that they could not even begin to count it. Lalla became 
the happiest man in the world; no one could have vied with him for that 
distinction; the Jain community was also pleased. Angry at Lalla, the Brahmins 
placed a dying cow in the Jain temple. It died there. The lay disciples told the 
teacher about this. Through his magic powers the teacher moved the dead cow 
and put it in the temple of the Brahmins. As they say, “Plot against another and 
it happens to you." Desperate, with no other recourse, the Brahmins sought to 
appease the Glorious Jivadevasuri, crying out, “O Jivadevasuri, rescue us.” The 
Glorious Jivadevasuri scolded them and then told them, “If you all worship in 
my temple like faithful Jain lay believers and show my successors respect, if 
you donate a sacred thread made of gold on the occasion of the installation of 
my successor in my position, and if you promise that you will carry his sedan 
chair on your own shoulders, then and then only will I remove this cow from 
your temple.” And they were so desperate that they promised all that he asked. 
They even fixed the agreement between them in writing, with seals and all. 



Then the teacher, with his magic, removed the cow from the Brahmin temple. 
All the four castes were pleased at this. 

Later when he knew that it was his time to die, the Jain monk, fearing that 
ascetic who had sought his skull to accomplish his evil magic, instructed the lay 
disciples to break his skull. He was afraid that if the ascetic succeeded in his 
designs he would trouble the Jain community. They did exactly as he asked. The 
ascetic, deprived of any hope for success, cried for a long time. 

Aryakhapatacarya, from the Prabandhakota, pp. 9-11. 

In some lineage of monks there appeared the Glorious Aryakhapatacarya, who 
possessed very many marvelous supernatural powers and was like a sovereign 
lord among the host of other teachers known in his faith. He had a student who 
was also his nephew and whose name was Bhuvana. Now one day the great Jain 
monk came to Bhrgupura. There one Balamitra, a devout follower of the 
Buddhists, was king. Now the Buddhists were extremely haughty; for one, they 
were gifted in the science of logic and argumentation, and for another, they had 
just secured for themselves such an impressive patron; as the saying goes, “To 
begin with a she-monkey is wild by nature, and one that has been bitten by a 
scorpion knows no limits at all.” They threw bundles of grass into the Svetam- 
bara holy places, as if to say, “You are all no better than dumb beasts.” 
Ary akhapata carya was not in the least perturbed by their displays of contempt, 
because he was a great man. For it is said, 

“Noble men do not get angry at the lowly creatures who harass them; after all 
what can tiny minnows fluttering here and there do to the mighty ocean. Lord 
of the Waves?” 

But Bhuvana was good and mad. Accompanied by a crowd of a hundred lay 
disciples he sought an audience with the king. With the permission of the master 
and of the Jain community at large, he shouted loudly before the king, 

“Let those scoundrels beat the drum to challenge all and sundry to debate; let 
them praise themselves and show contempt for their betters as long as I do not 
stand before them, with my many arguments all in readiness, to scorch them and 
bum them to nothingness like the soaring flames of a fire that has been 
constantly fed with dripping ghee.” 

King Balamitra said, “O holy man! How dare you speak this way?” Bhuvana 
said, “Your teachers, who brag that they are the world's greatest logicians, like 
dogs that bark on their own doorstep but cower once off the porch, have been 
abusing the Svetambaxas. And so I have come to your court to challenge them 
to a debate. Let them test their mettle against me just one time. Let everyone 
come and make a day of it, listening to our debate.” 

And so the king summoned them. He organized a debate in the presence of 
the full royal assembly of ministers and wise men. The Buddhists, like jackals 
silenced by the blows of a lion's paws, were silenced at once by the blows of 



sage Bhuvana's logic. The king and all the bystanders proclaimed victory to the 
doctrine of the Svetambaras. In all the Jain temples there was great rejoicing, 
but the Buddhists were like clusters of lotuses whose beauty had been destroyed 
by a sudden frost. 

When he learnt of this humiliation of the Buddhists, the great logician named 
Vrddhakara came from GudaSastrapura to Bhrgupura. He told the king, “Arrange 
a debate between me and the Svetambaras.” The king, who was overwhelmed by 
Bhuvana's brilliance, tried to dissuade him, but he was adamant. And he, who 
had never before been defeated in debate, was defeated by Bhuvana, as if to 
prove true the proverb, “The King of Death never has his fill of eating human 
beings.” Bhuvana, having secured victory, proclaimed to all the witnesses in the 
royal assembly, 

“What a chisel is to stone, what the sun is to darkness and the moon to a host 
of Sephali blossoms; what fire is to a moth and a thunder bolt is to a mountain; 
what a hurricane wind is to a cloud and an ax to a tree; what a lion is to an 
elephant, that am I to any man who seeks to argue philosophy.” 

The members of the royal assembly were all greatly impressed and they 
shouted out, “Victory to the doctrine of the Svetambaras!” 

Vrddhakara, in the meantime, burning from this public humiliation, which had 
struck him as suddenly as a bolt of lightning, fasted to death and was reborn in 
Gudaiastrapura as a demi-god. Because of the hatred he had for them in his 
previous birth he sought out die Jains and tormented them by making them sick, 
by terrifying them and by robbing them of their wealth, for a start. The local 
Jain community sent word to Aryakhapatacarya, telling him of their travail, and 
so he went to GudaSastrapura. He entered the temple of the demi-god and 
straightaway placed his shoes on the ears of the demi-god. He then put his feet 
on the chest of the demi-god. A crowd gathered. The local king appeared on the 
scene. Now when the king showed up, the teacher covered himself completely 
with his white monk’s robe and lay there quietly. No matter where the king 
pulled bade the robe, he was treated to the lofty sight of the teacher’s bare 
buttocks. Furious at this, the king ordered his men to beat Aryakhapatacarya. 
Those blows fell instead on the limbs of the king's wives in his harem, limbs 
tenderer than the soft inside of a Sinsa flower. A hue and cry arose from the 
women in the harem, “0 Lord! Save us! Save us! Some invisible demon is 
beating us. We're dying! We're dying!” The king's mind was filled with wonder 
at the supernatural powers of the Jain monk and he threw himself at the monk's 
feet, and these are some of the words he uttered, “Show mercy on me! I beg of 
you. Allow me and mine to live. You are a compassionate soul, I know.” As for 
the demi-god, he got up from his seat and went over to the monk and submis¬ 
sively began to massage the monk's feet for him. He said, “I am but a worthless 
worm. It is not right that you should send a well-equipped army against me.” 
More and more people gathered. Aryakhapatacarya told the demi-god, “Hey! 
Wretch! So you want to make trouble for my followers? Well then, make all the 



trouble you want That is, if you can!” The demi-god-said, “There is a saying, 
‘When a monkey is there to guard the spoils how can mere birds snatch them 
away?’ I am your loyal servant. Do not hurt me. From now on I shall protect 
your followers as if they were my own brothers.” 

The king and all the others who were present there enjoyed the spectacle and 
were suitably amazed by what was happening; they all became devoted 
followers of the monk. Now when the monk left the temple, the demi-god, who 
after all was no thing but a stone, went out after him. Two other stones, two 
stone pots, and some minor demi-gods also followed him. When he got to the 
city gate the Lord of Monks bade them take their leave and they all returned to 
their own places, except for the stone pots, which the monk stationed firmly at 
the city gate as a reminder to everyone of what had happened. The king received 
religious instruction and immediately became a lay disciple. He went back to his 
own palace. Everyone in the city, of every caste and station, praised that Lord 
of Monks, railing him the “Dancing Master of the Dancing Girl, Spreading the 

At this juncture two monks arrived from Bhrgupura. They told the master, “O 
Blessed One! One of the apprentice monks read the notebook that you hid when 
you left Bhrgupura to come here. And in the process of reading your secret book 
he obtained a magic charm that allows him to transport objects through the air. 
With that charm he caused the food that was cooked in the homes of Wealthy 
merchants to fly through the air to him and he was feasting on it like a king. 
The community of monks found out about this and told him to stop but he did 
not listen, because he is a slave to his lust for food. Finally the community of 
monks kicked him out. Furious, he has gone and joined the Buddhists. He has 
practically become their leader. He directs the begging bowls of the Buddhists 
from their monastery to the homes of the householders and then brings them 
back to the monastery through the air, filled with food. Everyone can see this 
marvel, and whoever sees it wants to become a Buddhist. Please, do whatever 
you think- should be done.” Aryakhapatacarya thought for a moment and making 
up his minri as to what he should do, he went to Bhrgupura. He remained 
incognito once he got there. The begging bowls of the Buddhists, filled with 
food, were flying here and there. He broke them in mid-air by means of a stone 
that he magically caused to appear. From the broken bowls sweet meats and 
candies pounded down on the heads of all the innocent bystanders. The wretched 
student, figuring that his teacher must have come, beat a hasty retreat. The Jain 
m onk along with his followers went to the Buddhist monastery. The stone 
Buddha image rose to greet them. It praised him with words like these, 
“Victory! Victory to the Crest Jewel of all Great Sages!” Once more the 
Doctrine of the Lord of Jinas shone brilliantly. Aryakhapata then went elsewhere 
to continue his duties as a monk 

At the same time as all of this was taking place. King Dahada in the city of 
Pataliputra, who was a devout follower of the Brahmins, summoned all the Jain 



monks and ordered them, “You must bow down to the Brahmins.” The Jains 
told him, “O King! Your order is unjust For they are householders and we are 
monks; it is we who are worthy to receive honour from them.” Dahada said, “If 
you do not bow down to them, then I shall cut off your heads.” The Jain monks 
asked for a respite of seven days. The king granted their request. It just so 
happened that at that very moment a disciple of Aryakhapata, the teacher named 
Mahendra, arrived there from Bhrgupura. The Jain monks told him of their 
troubles. He reassured them. The next morning Mahendra took with him two 
tree branches, one red and one white, and went to see Dahada. This was the 
morning of the eighth day. The king said, “Call the Svetambara monks so that 
they may bow down to the Brahmins.” They were summoned; they stood before 
him, in a neat row, straight and tall. Mahendra waved the red stick and said to 
the king, “Shall we bow down to the Brahmins starting from this end of the 
row, or from that end of the row?” And at the very moment that he uttered these 
words the heads of the Brahmins fell off like so many ripe palm fruits and 
rolled on the ground. Seeing this the king was struck with terror and he began 
to try to win over Mahendra with honeyed words. He said, “I shall never again 
show disrespect to these monks.” At this Mahendra recited the following verse: 

“Who would touch the thick and luxurious mane of the roaring lion with his 
bare hand? Who would scratch his very own eyes with the sharp blade of his 
sword? Who would tty to steal the jewel that the King of Cobras wears in his 
hooded crown? That is what the person who would dare treat with contempt the 
worthy monks of the ^vetambara persuasion indeed does try to do.” 

The king, even more terrified now of the power of the Doctrine, threw 
himself at Mahendra's feet. At that Mahendra waved his white stick in both 
directions. The heads of the Brahmins were back on their shoulders. The king 
and all the Brahmins came to accept the true doctrine. In this way the cause of 
the Jain Faith was greatly furthered. Even Bhuvana then left the Buddhists and 
returned to his own teacher. The teacher forgave him. The teacher then showed 
him much respect. After this Bhuvana became good, humble, pious and learned. 
Aryakhapata installed Bhuvana as his own successor and leader of the communi¬ 
ty of monks and fasting to death he went to Heaven. 

Harsakavi, from the PrabandhakoSa, pp.54-58. 

In the East, in the city of Varanasi, Govindacandra was king. He had plucked 
the blossoms of virginity from seven hundred and fifty young maidens in his 
harem, enjoying as it were their new fragrant pollen and freshly coursing sap 
His son was Jayantacandra. The father, giving the kingdom to the son, devoted 
himself to religious austerities and conquered the next world. Jayantacandra 
conquered this earth that measured a full seven hundred leagues. His son was 
Meghacandra, who with his loud and imposing voice that was like the roar of a 
lion could have destroyed even a pride of lions, to say nothing of what he could 
have done to a herd of elephants in rut, blinded by their condition. And because 


when the king was marching with his army, his soldiers were not satisfied with 
any water other than that of the holy Ganges and Yamuna, the king secured both 
those rivers. And they became his walking canes as he marched through the 
lands; and so people called him the “Lame King.” And the River Gomatl, like 
an obedient servant that puts armour on the horses to prepare them for battle, 
overran the lands of his foes as if on a military rout and caused them to tremble 
in fear, leaving the king with no need to lift a finger. 

That king had many learned men at his court. One of them was a Brahman 
named Hira. He had a son, an Emperor Among All The Wise Men, Sn Harsa. 
At the time when these events happened he was still a boy. Sn Hira was beaten 
in debate by one of the scholars in the king's court, in front of the king, and he 
was silenced in shame. He was so humiliated that he felt as if he had slipped in 
a pool of mire from which he could never climb out. He bore undying hatred for 
the man who had defeated him. On his death bed he said to Harsa, “Son! I was 
cruelly defeated by that man, a court poet, in the very presence of the king. That 
is the source of all my grief. If you are truly my son then you will defeat him 
in debate in the court of the king.” Sn Harsa said, “I promise you I shall.” 

Hira went to heaven. And Sri Harsa, entrusting the responsibility of 
supporting his family to some relatives, went to foreign lands, and studying 
under many different teachers soon became master of all the sciences, a brilliant 
scholar of logic, poetics, music, mathematics, astronomy, gemology, spells and 
grammar, among other subjects, and capable of commanding much learning at 
will. For one year he practiced a spell called the “Wishing Gem Spell,” which 
his teacher had given him, there on the h anks of the Ganges, without wavering 
for single moment The Goddess Tripura appeared to him in person. She granted 
him a number of boons including the ability to command her as he pleased. 

From that time on he began to wander from the court of one king to the court 
of another He would offer a host of arguments, but they were all phrased in 
such an unusual way that no one present could understand them. This time, 
oppressed by the fact that he had too much wisdom that was beyond the range 
of the understanding of ordinary mortals, he summoned the Goddess of Learning 
to him once more and said to her, “Mother! This time my excessive learning has 
turned out to be a disadvantage for me. Make me capable of being understood 
by others.” At this the Goddess said, “If that is what you want, then, at mid¬ 
night smear yogurt on your wet head and then go to sleep. You will be made 
somewhat dull-witted by the phlegm that is produced in this way.” He did 
exactly as she said. Now people could understand what he said. He composed 
more than a hundred works including the Khandana. 

Having accomplished what he set out to accomplish, he returned to KaSl. He 
stayed just outside the city. He informed Jayantacandra, “I have completed my 
studies and am back now.” The king, who was ever partial to the virtuous, along 
with the court scholar, who had once defeated Hira, and an entourage made up 
of members of the four castes went to the outskirts of the city. He greeted Sn 


Haisa with respect 6x1 Haisa responded by greeting the members of the king's 
entourage as was fitting, but he praised the king with these words: 

“Young women everywhere! Do not cast lustful eyes on this king, just 
because he is the son of one Govinda, as the God Love was the son of another 
Govinda, and do not be drawn by his handsome good looks. For if the God of 
Love makes women into weapons in his conquest of the world, this one too 
plays tricks with the sexes, turning men into women by depriving them of their 
manly courage.” 

And he explained the complicated puns in the verse in a loud voice. The 
courtiers and the king were all pleased. But when he saw among them the court 
scholar who was his father’s sworn enemy, then with brow furrowed in anger, he 

“Whether it is poetry that I am composing, soft and delicate, or philosophy, 
with tightly pulled knots and twists, the Goddess of Learning dances at my side. 
Whether they lie on a bed covered with the softest quilt or on the earth strewn 
with grass, if the man should please them then women take their pleasure just 
the same.” 

Hearing these words the scholar said, “My Lord! Lord of all Philosophers and 
Scholars, Master of the Goddess of Learning! There is no one who is your 
equal, no one who surpasses you! For true it is that they say, 

‘There are many ferocious creatures in the jungle, who boast of courage and 
strength; but we single out for praise only the lion, who in his might is greatest 
of all. For at the sound of his haughty roar herds of boar give up their rambles, 
elephants maddened in rut stand humbled, wild hunters cease their quarrels and 
buffalo leave behind their sport.” 

When he heard these words Sri Harsa seemed almost mollified. The king 
said, “You have risen to the occasion.” He was addressing these words to the 
enemy of Sri Hlra. The Lord of the Earth commanded the two men to embrace 
each other. He led Sri Haisa to his palace with great fanfare, welcomed him 
with appropriate ceremony and then sent him home. He gave him a lakh of gold 

One day, relaxed and without a care in the world, the king happily said to Sri 
Harsa, “O Lord of Poets! O King of Philosophers! Write some jewel of a work.” 
And so he came to write the great poem Naisadha , which was filled with the 
most subtle poetic flavor and laden with rich bidden and concealed meaning. He 
showed it to the king, who said, “This is absolutely magnificent Now you must 
go to Kashmir. Show it to the learned men there and place it in the hands of the 
Goddess of Learning. For the Goddess of Learning is present in the temple there 
in real physical form. She throws away, like so much rubbish, a bad book that 
is placed in her hand, while she accepts a great work, shaking her head in 
approval, and uttering the words, ‘Well-done!’ Flowers fall from on high. 



Harsa ^0 with him ah sorts of things for the journey that be had 
ob^hStaugh tta generosity of the tog, went to Kashmir He placed to 
So^to the h L of the Goddess Sarasvafi. She threw >t far away. Sn Ha^a 
said. “Ate you now so old that yon have lost your wits and so throw away my 
sa *i , " anv ordinary work?" Bharat! said, "Hey! Revealer of other 

people's dark secrets! Do you not tetnember how in the eleventh chapter m verse 

Sll ‘Tte Gaidess who sanctifies by her presence the left side of the four-armed 
Oc^r^once more .t dignified and beautiful young womam 
saying 'Show favour on all good qualities by taking the hand of this man, who 
bears an unsheathed sword in his palm. 

And by telling the world that I am the wife of Vrsnu, have you not sulhed 
toever my reputation as a virgin? That is why I threw your book away. 

Wh J tupphaut. 13 a^deceiver, an illness, death and someone who reveals another 
person’s weaknesses, these five would bring distress even to the mind o 

'"Hearing these words of the Goddess of Speech, Sri Harsa said, “Then why 
dSbW« for your husband in one of his incamatrons? Even toe 
ourlnas know you as toe wife of Vrsnu. Why should you be angry if I have told 
toe truth? And has anger ever freed a person from scandal. ai ui 
nicked up toe book herself and held it tightly in her hand. And toe book was 
highly pLed by the scholars who wem members of the king s 

Srt Han. told all the local scholars, “Show my book to your tong, Madtarya- 
dl a inner to King Jayantacandra saying The work to,P-** 

,» t>... even though he told them this and they knew that the book 

"accS rtddnss Bt*ati, they did n«send£ 

mlt d KT X-jrJAtSTSS - *3L- 

him for the journey. He sold the livestock he had with bin. 

a few of his servants. One night in secret he recited a ^ 

a small temple that was right on the edge of a nver bank. Two saucy servant 

girls from wo different households were down at toe nver 

over which one of them had toe right to draw water fiat.They 

others' skulls in with their water pots. They each 

the court of toe king to be settled. The king searched for a whmess to to 

quarrel. He asked them, “Was there anyone who saw yoor 

“There was a Brahmin there, intent on his sacred devotions. The kings m 

W ^ri Harsa was brought to toe king and asked which of those two women was 
4 -OHS- Hama said to Srmstoit, 1 

not know what these two said »-od^n then' 

is what sounds they made.” The long sard. Tell us. Ann ue 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

everything they said, in the exact order in which they said it, word after word 
hundreds of words. Tire king was amazed. “What 4dom ^ou havd X^ 

riahT^’t h t hC d6Clded for hunself which of the servant girls was 

right and to the best of his abilities he chastened the one and rewarded other 
and sent them on their way. 

Tlren he spoke to Sri Harsa, “Who are you, O Crest Jewel Among the Wise?” 
Sn Harsa told him his whole story. “O King! I have endured much misery in 
your city on account of the wickedness of the learned men here.” The king who 
knew wen their relative merits, summoned ah the local scholars and s^ to 

■ ’ dlSgu , St me ’ y0u fools! Do y°u mean to say you feel no affection for 
a jewel such as this man? True it is, what they say: 

Tt is better to jump into a blazing fire than to show even the slightest 
jealousy towards a person who has special qualities. S 

be downed ^ T StatC WhiCh “ bey ° nd ^ qualities > for eveD noble men can 
be downcast in the presence of someone of special qualities; just as it is better 

gJZ±’° SSOmS “ thQn natUral StatC> f ° r fl0WCrc wilJ «*e strung in a 

Sj® I ^. ,bat you are an a bunch of scoundrels. Go now, and each of you 
te this great man to your homes and show him due honour.” At this Sri 

■HiirSti S31G, 

“ What woman can steal the heart of a lad the way she can a young man who 

wiS* hV° Ve H f my WOTdS ’ ^ ** ***■ °f immortaUty, stir toe hfarts of toe 
mse, what need I taste the flattery of men who lack toe very sense to appreciate 

hn ^ d ^ *° Se SCh0l f were dee P ly shamed. They invited Sri Harsa into their 

ktoTaftt D0Ur ’ W ° n h™ 0ver ' md I* 1 ™ had ^ honored by toe 

king, after which, those wise men sent Sn Harsa back to KS&. 

nIfl He metJayantacandra. He told him aU that had befaUen him. The king was 
pleased. The poem Naisadha became very popular. 

Whfle aU of this was going on, Jayantacandra's chief minister named 

I riTefT WeDt t0 ^ G1 ° riOUS dty ° f AaaMa P attan a. There on the banks of 
washL IT ? SWa ™ 5 beCS aUghting on a cloth toat a washerman was 

“Sh^wL ihf ^ 2 u fl0Wet Suiprised > he said t0 tot washerman, 
that X ** woman to whom this garment belongs.” The minister had decided 

Si hL h 156 3 SpeaaI “ of woman - Thai night the washerman took him 
with him when he went to return the garment and showed him its owner a 

woman named Suhavadevi, who was the widow of a weaver and still in the ton 

ST 6 °h h ? y ° Uth ‘ He S ° Ugbt P ermissi0D t0 tak e b er from toe King Kumara- 
pala, and this granted, he took her back to KasI with him, stopping along toe 

way to make a pilgrimage to toe holy temple at Somanatoa. He gave toat lovdy 
woman to Jayamacandra for his pleasun. She was known as ShhavaSw tS 
because she was so proud and so clever people also came to call her “Kalabha- 



rati,” “toe Goddess of Wisdom for all toe Arts.” And they called Sri Harsa 
“Narabharati,” “the Goddess of Wisdom in Masculine Form.” Now she was so 
given to jealousy toat she could not bear to hear him called by this title. 

One day she summoned Sri Harsa with great deference. She said, “Who are 
you?” He said, “I am toe Omniscient One, Knower of all toe Arts.” The queen 
said, “In toat case make me a pair of shoes.” If you ask what her intention was, 
it was this. Should he say, “I do not know how,” because he is a Brahmin and 
Brahmins cannot touch leather, well then he would have shown that there is 
something he does not know. Sri Harsa thus said yes to her. He went home. 
The next morning, red-eyed from all toe work he had done to turn out slippers 
from tree bark, he summoned his mistress, remaining at a respectful distance 
from her. He then had her put toe slippers on, following exactly toe custom of 
shoe-makers, saying these words, “Anoint me, I am your shoe-maker.” And 
telling toe king of her wickedness, wearied and distressed, he abandoned toe 
world to become a monk on toe banks of toe Ganges. 

And toat Suhavadevi, toe real master of toe realm, gave birth to a son. He in 
turn gradually became a young man. He was determined but given to wicked 
ways. And toat king had a minister named Vidyadhara. He was known as a 
second Yudhisthira on account of the fact toat he fed eight thousand and eight 
hundred Brahmins through toe power of a touchstone which was famous for 
turning all base metals into gold, and which he had received as a boon from toe 
God Vinayaka, The Wish- Granting Jewel. He also had a mind as sharp as toe 
pointed tip of a blade of grass. The king asked him, ‘To which of toe princes 
shall I give my kingdom?” He said, “Give it to Meghacandra, who is of a 
distinguished lineage, and not to toe son of your concubine.” But Suhavadevi 
worked her magic on toe king and he was about to give the kingdom to her son. 
Thus there arose ill feeling between toe king and his minister. 

Somehow toe minister was able to persuade toe king to ignore toe queen 
Suhavadevi’s words and give toe kingdom to Meghacandra. The queen was 
furious. Because she had abundant wealth at her disposal and because she was 
always free to come and go as she pleased, she was able to send some of her 
trusted and loyal servants to toe Muslim overlord of TaksaSila and to convince 
him by giving him lakhs and crores of gold at every step of toe way to come 
down and destroy Ka£I. He came. But Vidyadhara came to know of her plans 
through his spies. He told toe king. The king, totally deluded by all her sorcery, 
said, “She is my beloved wife; she would never rise against her husband like 
toat.” But toe minister said, “Lord! The Sakha king has already reached this 
point toat I show you here on toe map in his journey.” He was sent away by toe 
king and went home. He thought to himself, 

“First of all toe king is deluded and toe queen is very strong. She has 
followers everywhere and will stop at nothing. If I can die before my master, 
then I shall count myself among toe lucky.” 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

Early in the morning the minister left his own home. As he was going along 
e road he came upon an oil cake and wanted to eat it As he went ahead a bit 
noticed a cracked cake made of lentils and suddenly felt like eating it Aware 

wem m'theT f “** ** dayS of good fortune were numbered, he 
went to the king and announced to him, “My Lord! I shall plunge into the 

Ganges and drown myself, if you so command me. The king said, “If you die 

en at last I can live in peace. You will stop giving me a headache with all 

your useless prattle.” The minister was despondent. For he thought of what they 

“When a man does not heed words said for his own benefit; when he acts 
unjustly; when he displays hatred towards those who love him and shows 
toespect towards his elders and betters, these are surely the fore-signs of his 

He knew that the king’s death was near. Taking leave of the king he returned 

Possessions to the Brahmins, disgusted with worldly 
existence, he w^ked into the water of the Ganges and said to his family priest 
Accept my gift.” The Brahmin held out his hand. He gave to to £ 
touchstone. The Brahmin said, “What kind of a gift is this? You give me a 

took^e^h’ he ,?™ * ^ **“ * 1116 Goddess of * e Rivfr Ganges 
the stone herself. The minister sank into the water and died. The king had 

no one to help him. The Sultan came. Tire city was filled with headless ojses 

Rom hL ° De 3t0P ^ ^ ^ “** Went out *> meet to in ££ 

From his own retinue rose up eight thousand four hundred cries, but the king 

he^d not a one of them. He took his leave of those who stood by to S 

ets" Twi CaD ** hCaid ° Ver * e S0Und 0f ^ bows ofthe unbeliev- 

^ kmg l0 f he3It No one ever ^ew if he was slain, fled or died. The 
city was overrun by the Muslims. 

Madanaklrti, from the Prabandhako&a, pp. 64-66. 
to Ujjayin dwelt the Digambara Vi^alakTrti. He had a disciple named 

^ thiS ^ Madanakirt1 ’ having defeated 311 to rivals in debate in 
three directions, the East, West, and North, and having obtained the 
honorific title, “Crest Jewel among all the Philosophers,” had come back to 
jjayin, which was graced by the presence of his teacher, and there he had 
humbly submitted himself to Walakfiti. Madanaklrti had become famous 
everywhere, and everywhere people talked of to. He boasted to his teacher and 
his teacher was amused. Then after a few days Madanaklrti said to his teacher 

° ne ' 1 want t0 defeat in debate the philosophers in the South’ 
Please, let me go to the South.” The teacher said, “My child! Do not go to the 

shaken from Ms ** ^ pleaSUreS ‘ No monk could go there and not be 

shaken from his vows, no matter how great an ascetic he might be.” Madana- 

kirtt was puffed up with pride in his own learning and so he ignored these 

words of his teacher. And he set out with a host of disciples, carrying with him 



a net, spade and ladder, to seek out any possible rivals in the seas, on earth and 
in heaven. After he had first crushed all the philosophers in Maharash tra, 
Madanaklrti finally arrived in Kamatak. 

There in the city Vijayapura he sought an audience with the king . Formally 
ushered into the royal assembly hall by the door-keeper, Madanaklrti saw the 
King Kuntibhoja seated amongst all his courtiers. Now this king was himself 
learned in the Three Vedas and he was eager for the company of other learned 
men. Madanaklrti praised the king with these verses: 

“Lord, how can we tell which one is the snake Sesa or which are the stars? 
How can we know which is the milk ocean and which is the moon; which is a 
jasmine blossom and which is a lump of camphor; what is a hail stone and what 
is mother of pearl? How can we find the Himalaya mountains, when everywhere 
is made shining white by your fame, which shimmers like so many drops of 
molten mercury, heated to the boiling point by the blazing flames of your 
military prowess, which leap and sputter from your valiant and prideful strong 

“Your fame, O Kaikata, Kuntibhoja, plunges deep into the heavenly river, the 
Ganges; encircling the Guardians of the Quarters and looking like a blazing ball 
of light, it traverses the seven oceans, and as if to proclaim to all and sundry 
that it belongs like a faithful wife to you and you alone, it touches the world of 
Visnu on high, and reaches below into the netherworld to stroke the many crests 
of the snake 3esa who supports the universe.” 

The king was charmed with his words. The Digambara was given lodgings 
near the royal palace. The king commanded him, “Write a book that tells of the 
deeds of my forebearers.” Madanaklrti said to the king, “My Lord, I can 
compose five hundred verses in a day, but I cannot write them down that fast. 
Give me a scribe to assist me.” The king said, “My daughter, whose name is 
Madanamanjari, will sit behind a curtain hidden from your sight and write down 
your verses for you.” 

The Digambara began to compose the work. The princess wrote down five 
hundred verses each day. And so passed a few days. 

One day the princess heard Madanaklrti's voice, which was sweet like the 
voice of a warbler in springtime, and she thought, “He must be as handsome as 
his voice is beautiful. But how can I see him from behind this curtain? I must 
think of something. I know, I shall have the cooks put too much salt into his 
food.” Now Madanaklrti also wanted to see the princess, who was so learned 
and who also had such a sweet voice. When he found his food too salty, the 
Digambara said, “How this makes me shiver!” The princess replied, “A cold 
wind blows no good!” And with their coquettish banter back and forth and their 
clever puns and jibes, both pushed back first the curtain of respectful distance 
demanded by convention that had kept them apart, and then, the real curtain of 
cloth that divided them from each other. They beheld each other's divine beauty. 
At once the Digambara said. 



d ° es ** 1 , otus cree P er s Pe°d its life, if it has never beheld the orb of 
the moon with its delicious cooling beams.” 

And the princess, for her part, replied, 

moo °’ t ° o ' rises to ^ if *' ixs mt awaken ^ ioms cn *p“ 

“ ““ sajd "? *“ s ■ "0* many arrows of love strike fast and furious 
once loveis have enjoyed the fiist pleasurable glimpse of each other”; so these 
two gave up their virginity for passionate love-making. 

the P 2 e f ™f n !° ^ T u S b °° k W3S DOt Passing very fast. One evening 
n tf ^°° k 31 ** WOlk - m y° u d0 so little today?” All thf 
Digamb^a had written there were two or three verses of quite poor quality 

TuSeZ T“ 10 ^ ago lladete S£ 

somTnn. h ? V6r reClte my W0± 211(1 tove ^ written down by 

someone who was not learned. Now your daughter did not understand this 

section very well. And so it took some time. That is why the book is not 
progressing so fast.” The king thought to himself, 

“This sounds like a sorry excuse to me. I shall have to take a good look and 
see just what those two are doing together.” 

One day, as soon as the sun came up, the king went alone in disguise to the 
room where they were wont to work and hid behind one of the Walloons 
At that very moment the Digambara said these words to the princess, words that 
a lover would say to his angry mistress: 

“O you, with your lovely eyebrows! Since you became angry with me I have 

noTfoucSr 8, I fi CanDOt J? ear even 10 raenti0D a word about women and I have 
nottouched my fine perfumes and vials of fragrant incense. O angry one be 

angry no more. I throw myself at your feet Have mercy on me no^7 Without 
you, my beloved, the world is a cold and joyless place for me!” 

When he heard this poem, the king was sure that the two were behaving 
wantonly and he crept silently from that room. The Lord of the Earth returned 

* r e n mMy FUn0US ’ he Summoned *** Digambara to him at once, 
en the Digambara got there, the king said to him, “O scholar! What is this 
new verse I heard you recite, the one that starts off, ‘O lovely one! Since you 

STT W1 , mC ’ 1 haVC St0pped eatin g ? ’” Tte Digambara reflected, “The 
g has definitely seen me. I have been caught red-handed. Never mind. I still 

™rr *5 SOm t Way 0r an0ther -” *“* he toought of all sorts of things 
and, finally, he said to the king, “My Lord! For the last two days my eye hL 

been hurting me terribly. I was addressing my eye with this verse trying 
somehow to make it stop tormenting me.” And with those as opening’well 
that Digambara, undaunted, went on and on like this, explammg away his’ 
xtraordinary behaviour. The king was secretly delighted by Madanakirti's 

rakT SpeCCh ’ bUt he W3S Stm over tos unpardonable offense. And so 

8 ° ne eyebrow m 311 expression of his fury, he called to his servants "Tie 



this fellow up! And kill him for his criminal acts.” Madanaklrti was bound by 
the king’s men. 

Having heard what had happened, the princess grabbed a knife and rushed 
into the assembly hall with thirty-two of her friends who were similarly armed. 
She stood right before the king and said, 

“If you release my beloved, then all will be fine. If you do not release him, 
then you will be guilty of thirty-four murders. One will be the murder of the 
Digambara and the others will be the murder of these thirty-three young 
women.” At that point the king's ministers advised him, 

“My Lord, you yourself brought these two together. And the presence of a 
woman for a young man is the springtime shower that makes the tree of love 
blossom in all its fiillness. Who is to blame for what has happened? For what 
they say is true: 

‘The glances of women, even in a painting, rob the minds of those who see 
them; what chance does a man have before the throbbing glances of a live 
woman, with all her amorous games?’ 

Show mercy and release the Digambara. And give your daughter to him.” He 
listened to their words, released the Digambara and made his daughter the 
Digambara's wife. And the Digambara was given a share of the kingdom. He 
gave over to his father-in-law whatever riches he acquired in conquest. 
Abandoning his religious vows, he enjoyed worldly pleasures. 

From Ujjayin, his teacher ViSalaklrti heard all these things that had happened 
to Madanaklrti. And he thought, “How mighty is the power of wealth, youth, 
and the company of bad friends; for through these things even a man like 
Madanaklrti, faithful to his monastic vows, learned, a fine philosopher, and 
adept in spiritual exercises, has stumbled onto a false road that can lead only to 
the most terrible rebirths in the next life. Alas, alas! 

‘The mind is beset by some strange distortion, rife with all the many 
delusions that arise upon the destruction of right discrimination; unknowable, 
never even experienced before in any other birth, this strange process at once is 
like ice to the warmth of wisdom within and causes terrible burning pain.’” 

Thinking such things, he sent four of his most skilled disciples in order to 
bring Madanaklrti back to his senses. When they got there they said to him, 

“‘O wise one! Turn away from die momentary pleasure of the company of a 
woman, a pleasure that will soon vanish. Seek the company of the damsels 
Compassion, Wisdom, and Friendliness. For in hell no firm breasts adorned with 
pearl necklaces will save you, nor any woman's thighs with jangling girdle bring 
you solace.’ Your teacher recalls you to your senses with words like these. 
Accept his instruction. Do not be deluded.” 

Shameless, Madanaklrti wrote down some verses for his teacher on a piece 
of paper and told them to deliver them. They went back there. The teacher read 
the verses: 




“Logic can be twisted to prove anything you want. The scriptures are all 
different. There is no teacher whose words can be accepted as the absolute truth. 
They say that the real truth is hidden in a secret place. The true path is that one 
followed by every man.” 

“Seeing my beloved is the only divine sight I need. You may call your 
philosophy divine sight, but who needs it, when even the man with lust and sin 
can feel such bliss from the sight of the woman he loves.” 

“The man who has passionately and forcibly kissed his angry mistress, while 
she was biting her tender sprout-like lips in rage and furiously shaking her 
fingers at him, while her eyebrows danced up and down as she shouted, ‘Let go 
of me, you good-for-nothing! Let go of me!,’ and her eyes were clouded from 
the steam of her own breaths that escaped, despite everything, from the passion 
of die moment, such a man has truly tasted the nectar of immortality. Seeking 
this divine drink, the Gods were silly, indeed, to have gone to such fuss to chum 
the ocean.” 

When he read these verses and others similar to them, the teacher was silent. 
As for Madanaklrti, he had a very good time for himself indeed. 

Mallavadin, from the Prabandhakoto, pp. 21-24. 

“Having bowed down humbly to Glorious Indrabhuti, I now begin the tale of 
the deeds of Glorious Mallavadin, Lord of Monks, Crest Jewel Amongst Those 
Who Furthered the Cause of the Faith.” 

There is in the Kingdom of Gujarat a large and prosperous city called Kheta. 
There dwelt the Brahmin named Devaditya who knew all the Vedas and had 
penetrated their secrets. His daughter, who was named Subhaga, had been 
widowed as a child. She obtained a magic spell to summon the Sun God from 
some holy man to whom she was devoted. And the Sun God, called to her by 
the power of that spell, made love to her. Not long after she enjoyed his touch 
she found herself pregnant. Although it is certainly true that a woman cannot be 
made pregnant by a God who bears a body that has been supematurally created 
for temporary purposes, there was nothing untoward in this case, for the God 
had a real physical body from which the woman received his semen. 

Her father, seeing that her cheeks had taken on a particular pallor and that her 
body had become weak, asked her, “My child, how could you have been so 
shameless and disgraceful?” She answered him, “Father, I did not act out of rash 
impulse or lust. I had no choice at all in the matter, I summoned the Sun God 
to my side with the power of my magic spell and this is what he left me with, 
a precious trust to guard and watch over.” 

But even though this was what his daughter told him, Devaditya was 
despondent over her wicked deed, and he sent his daughter away to the city of 
VallabhT with only a servant to accompany her. 

When her time came she gave birth to a son, who was radiantly beauttM, and 
to a daughter. And she dwelt there for a long time, living off the money that her 
father had provided for her. And those two children gradually grew up, splendid 
both of them like the newly risen sun. When eight years had flown by, hke toe 
twinkling of an eye, they were boto entrusted to toe care of a teacber J^ , 

to instruct them. Now it happened that toe school children chanced^o quarnft 
with toe boy, and they taunted him, saying that he had no father. The child 
grieved by their remark and he asked his own mother, “Mother, is it really ttue 
toat I have no fatoer, just as everyone says?” The mother snapped back. How 
should I know? Now stop pestering me with your questions. 

Even more grieved at this, toe child, possessed of great manliness and 
courage, determined to put an end to his own life, if not by poison toenby some 
other means. The Sun God appeared to him in person and said, Cinid, I am 
X father. I promise you that I shall take away toe life of anyone who insults 
you.” And with those words he gave a small pebble to the c ^,insffuctmg tom, 
“Whosoever does you any harm you shaft strike with this pebble. And he shall 

die instantly, I swear to you.” 

Armed with this weapon, a tiny pebble, the child, who was already strong, 
became even stronger, he killed each and every school mate who teased or 
taunted him in any way. But toe king of toe city of Vallabhi heard about toe 
murder of toe school children, and furious, he ordered the citizens to bring to 
boy before him. He said to him, “Hey! Heartless and cruel boy! Why do you 
kill these young children?” The boy replied, “I can kill not only these children, 
but kings as well.” And as he spoke these words he struck the kmg wjto tos 
pebble. S He became himself toe mighty ruler in the empire that had once 
belonged to toe king who thus met his end. 

Known as “Siladitya,” “The One Who Was Given a Stone by toe Sun Goto 
he was like toe sun in the kingdom of Saurashtra. And be received a tovme 
chariot from the Sun God toat was capable of crushing the realms of all 

He gave bis own sister in marriage to the king of Btoguksetra. She gave birth 
to a son of divine radiance, possessed of all toe marvelous signs of a great man. 
And Silkditya restored toe Jain temples on Mount Satrufijaya, joining toe ranks 
of such famous lay men as King Srenika. 

Now one day some Buddhists, puffed up with pride for their skills in toe 
science of logic and debate, came to toat city and said to Siladitya, T^ere are 
“LSmbaras here in your realm. Ht us decide-- if theyc® defcatus 
in debate, then they shall five here in peace, but if we defeat therfi, then to y 
must go elsewhere.” And as fate would have it, toe Svetambaras were all 
defeated in debate by those Buddhists, and they all sought refuge m other lands, 
waiting for toe right moment to reclaim their lost position. King Siladrtya 
became a great devotee of the Buddhists and showed them much honour, and 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

tiiey worshipped the image of Rsabhanatha at Satrunjaya, considering it to be an 
image of their Buddha. 

In the meantime Siladitya's sister had lost all interest in the world after the 
death of her husband and had become a Jain nun under the guidance of 
Susthitacarya. She also had her eight year old son ordained as a monk and had 
him taught some of the rules that govern the correct behaviour of a monk. Now 
one day the child, who was easily roused to anger, asked his mother, “Why is 
our community so small? Was it always small like this?” And with tears in her 
eyes she told him, “How shall I answer you, when I am so much to blame? At 
one time the Glorious community of Svetambara Jains prospered in every city 
m toe realm. But, because for a long time there has been no great monk to 
further the cause of the Faith, our enemies have won over King Siladitya, your 
own uncle and my brother. The holy place Satrunjaya, which is celebrated as the 
cause of final release, without the Svetambaras to guard it, has been overrun by 
the Buddhists, as if by a host of goblins and ghosts. The Svetambaras, all living 
now outside this realm, somehow bide their time, unable to cany on their duties 
bereft of their former pride and strength. “ 

When he heard this, the child became furious at the Buddhist aggressors and 
he made this vow in a voice as loud as a thundering rain cloud at the opening 
of the monsoon season, “If I do not uproot those Buddhists, like so many trees 
chnging to the nver’s bank, then may I be tainted with the heinous sin of killing 
the Omniscient One.” And with those words the child took leave of his mother 
an raging like the fire at the end of the universe, he went to Mount Malla and 
practiced the most extreme and severe austerities. He broke his fast with food 

^ gged from a nearb y village. In a few days the Protecting Goddess of 
trie Fanh came to know of his austerities, and she spoke to him from the sky 
What are sweet?,” she asked. And the child, his eyes fixed upon the heavens, 
answered her from his own recent experience, “The coarsest of grains.” Six 
months later she asked him again from the sky, “With what?” And that child- 
sage, for his part, replied, “With fine ghee and brown sugar.” She knew then 
from the remarkable strength of memory that he displayed, that he was worthy 
and so the Protecting Goddess appeared to him in person and said, “Son' May 
you destroy those who do not share your Faith. Noble One! Take this text of 
logic, the Nayacakra. Words will never fail you; they will be the infallible 

advance 1 ”^ ** ° f wicked ^g^nts that your opponents 

Ihe child-sage set that book down on the ground; on such an occasion it is 
not hard to make a careless mistake, particularly when a person is so young and 
under the sway of youthful fancies. Enraged, the Protecting Goddess told him, 
Because you have shown such disrespect to the Faith, I shall never appear to 
you in person again, although I shall always be by your side.” 

Mallavadin, having obtained that book, was even more radiant and resplendent 
than before, just as Arjuna, the son of Pandu, was after he had obtained the 



magic weapon from Siva. He returned to the port of Vallabhi, the jewel of the 
kingdom of Surashtra, and, blazing fiercely like the sun at the end of the world, 
he spoke to Siladitya, “The world has been devoured by the Buddhists to no 
good end. Here I am to fight them, ever vigilant, Mallavadin, your very own 
nephew, daughter of your sister.” In the presence of King Siladitya, that chief of 
debaters debated with the eloquent Buddhist master, with mighty and terrible 
arguments, loud and forcefully delivered. And when Mallavadin, invincible and 
terrible to encounter, backed by the might of the Nayacakra, fired volley after 
volley of clever inferences for six long months, that Lord of the Buddhists knew 
in his heart that all was lost. 

On the last night of that debate, which had gone on now six months, as day 
began to break, the Buddhist took one of his own logic texts from his library 
and began to read a little. His mind was so injured by blows of worry that he 
could not make out a thing he read; that Buddhist thought, “On the mom, I shall 
be completely defeated, shorn of any vestige of glory and respect. That spark of 
a Svetambara indeed has a different kind of flare, a powerful fire that I have 
never seen before. The Buddhists, who have enjoyed power and prestige in the 
empire, will surely be expelled from the kingdom. How true it is, what they say, 
‘Lucky are those who do not see their country destroyed, their family ruined, 
their wife in another's hands, and their beloved friends in dire straits.’” 

And at that moment his heart broke from the pressure of all his sufferings. 
The next morning when the king's men came to fetch him, his poor disciples 
would not open the door at first, saying, “Our teacher is not well today. He 
won't be able to come to the king's assembly hall.” When they went back to the 
assembly hall and Malla heard their report, he was delighted. He said to 
Siladitya, “That Lord of the Buddhists has died of grief.” 3iladitya went to the 
Buddhist's lodgings in person and he saw him, dead like that. He expelled all the 
Buddhists from bis kingdom, for no one cares much for the man who has fallen 
from grace. He made the master Mallavadin, who was the Lord of the Goddess 
of Speech, his teacher, and the king then recalled from abroad all the Svetam- 
bara sages. The king returned to the control of the &vetambaras the Lord of the 
Jin as, who has broken out of the cage of worldly existence, and organized a 
pilgrimage to the holy place of Satrunjaya. 

Now some time later there was a merchant in that city who was named 
Rahka. A wandering ascetic entrusted a vial of magic elixir to him to keep for 
him while he was on a pilgrimage. When he saw that base metal turned to gold 
at the touch of a drop of the elixir, the merchant moved his shop elsewhere and 
by cheating the wandering ascetic Rahka became a very rich man. His daughter 
and the daughter of the king became close friends. One day the king's daughter 
noticed a bracelet on Rarika's daughter's arm. It was gold and studded with 
divine jewels. She asked her for the bracelet When Rahka would not give it up, 
the king himself demanded that Rahka hand the bracelet over to the princess. 
And just because of this one act, which made him so jealous of the king's 



power, Rafika led an army of barbarians into the kingdom. The city Vallabhl 
was destroyed and everything was wrecked. Siladitya was brought to ruin by 
that merchant with all his great wealth. All the Saka soldiers, who haH been 
tempted with money and brought there by the merchant and thrown into battle, 
eventually succumbed to thirst; the terrible havoc that they wrought was finally 

Five hundred and seventy three years into the Vikrama era occurred this sack 
of Vallabhl. The wise men, who could see into the future, deserted the city 
before it even fell. The images in the Jain temples flew through the sky to settle 
in other lands. For in cases such as this, images, guided by their superintending 
deities, can indeed move. And the great sage Mallavadin, who had foreseen what 
would happen, along with his followers went to the city Pancasara. He became 
the leader of the community in those holy places that were under the control of 
the monks of the Nagendra gaccha. His group wielded authority even in the holy 
place, the Glorious Stambhana. 

“O Good Men, who are destined for release! Hear this account of the deeds 
of Glorious Mallavadin, pure and uplifting in that it tells of the spread of the 
glory of the Jain Faith, and do you yourselves further enhance the cause of the 
Faith with such wonderful gifts as you may possess, like poetic talent and fine 

Mallavadin, ( Akhyanakamanikoia , pages 172-174). 

In the city of Bharuyaccha, which was like the ocean with its store of rich 
gems, like a vast and spreading forest with lush undergrowth in its seemingly 
endless extent, and like the very abode of the Gods with flowering coral trees in 
all its splendour and prosperity, there lived a Jain sage, Jinananda by name. And 
there lived in this city a Buddhist monk, too, who was called Buddhananda. The 
two of them engaged in a debate in the presence of the king. They had agreed 
as the condition of their debate that the loser must leave the city with his 
followers. And as soon as they set these terms, they began straightaway to 
debate with each other. Now fate would have it that the Lord of the Jain Monks 
was defeated by the Buddhist, and with the entire Jain community he left that 
city and went to the town of Vallabhl. The sister of that Jain monk, Dullaha- 
devT, was ordained as a Jain nun and with her three sons were made monks. 
Their names were Ajiyajasa, Jakkha and Malla, and they were all pure and 
sincere. All three of them soon mastered all the Jain scriptures, particularly 
Malla, with the exception of the entire Nayacakka, The Wheel of Reasoning, 
which belonged to a class of the sacred texts that had in part been lost in 
antiquity and whose few remaining works were carefully protected. The text 
consisted of twelve sections that were like the spokes of a wheel and it had been 
rescued from the lost ancient works. Whoever studied the text was supposed to 
worship the Jina at the beginning and end of each stanza; not to do so meant 


certain disaster for the entire Jain community, whether the text was being 
expounded to a group or simply read by a single monk. 

The Jain monk gave this nun his box containing the sacred texts and one day, 
when he had to go elsewhere, he said to Malla, “You must not try to read this 
book, the Nayacakka." With these words he departed. Now it so happened that 
the nun also went out to do something or other. Malla, curious to know what 
was in that book, took it out and opened it He took the first page in his hand 
and began to read aloud its first verse in a sweet voice, a verse that stood as 
proof for the entire teachings of the Jain faith. He read, “All teachings other 
than the Jain teachings are false like so many meaningless words, because they 
are devoid of the correct analysis of the physical and mental world in teims of 
the many possible viewpoints of understanding. And this statement should be 
understood as showing the absence of the quality under discussion, truthfulness, 
in that which does not possess the characteristic of employing the correct 
analysis of the world.” As he was pondering intently the meaning of this cryptic 
verse, the Presiding Goddess of the Faith, knowing that he had not performed 
the proper rituals of worship before reading the text, snatched away the entire 
book, including this first page. And when Malla could not find the book he 
became downcast. 

The nun returned and asked him, “What troubles you so?” He told her how he 
had lost the book and she in turn told the entire community what had happened. 
When they heard the story all of the Jains became extremely pained. Malla 
thought, “I must not live here as long as I cannot get that book back. And I 
must subsist only on the coarsest of foods, in feet on coarse grains alone. The 
others told him, “You will become ill if you eat only coarse grains. You must 
also take something richer.” Accepting this command of the other Jains, he went 
and took refuge in a mountain cave, subsisting only on coarse grains with 
molasses and ghee. The other most excellent monks brought to him in the cave 
the necessary foods with which he could break his periodic ritual fasts. After 
some time , to test his wit, the Presiding Goddess of the Faith spoke to him late 
one qight, asking, “What are sweet?” He immediately answered, “The coarsest 
of grains.” At the end of six months she asked him again, “With what?” The 
novice Malla replied, “With molasses and ghee.” The Goddess, delighted with 
his obvious intelligence, told him, “Malla! Ask of me anything that you desire. 
For I am pleased with you.” So the novice Malla said. Give me the book, the 
Nayacakka." The Goddess told him, “You will yourself be able to write that 
book from the first verse that you read.” 

And so it cam e to pass that through the grace of the Goddess he did indeed 
compose the Nayacakka. And he was welcomed back into the city of Vallabhl 
by the entire Jain community with much pomp and splendour. 

By that time his teacher had returned from his monastic tour and he came to 
know all that had transpired. Realizing that Ajiyajasa, Jakkha, and Malla were 
all endowed with excellent qualities, he installed them all in positions of the 




highest leadership among the monks. And they all became like lions to the 
elephants who were their rivals in debate. Now one day the Glorious Malla 

Buddh d f R h 7 ^ Jam m0DkS *** been defeated 111 deb ate by the 

BuddMst Buddhananda, and how they had been forced to leave Bbrguyaccha 

th die entire Jam community. Learning more from his teacher about the 

humihanon of the Jam community and their ignominious defeat, Malla, the Loid 

of Monks, hastened to Bhrgukaccha. Having made exactly the same wager as 

had been made earlier between the Buddhists and Jains, he began to debate 

agamst the Buddnsts in the court of the king, in the presence of many learned 

Witnesses. The Buddhist gave Malla the chance to speak first in the debate 

ayrng I have already defeated the teacher of this child, who was in fact a 

^eat^debater, and secondly I surely need not fear one so young and inexperi- 

D0 “ 7 ****** G ° ddeSS ° f Fdith ’ to « to 

position. He took six full days to present his arguments, which included all the 

varymg viewpoints under which reality is examined in the Jain texts. When he 

“7 7 d ’ “ Repeat everythins ±at 1 have said and show this assembly 
exactly where I have gone wrong.” That night the Buddhist monk Buddhadasa 

“ 7 S 7 S ’ 1 MS 011 lamp md t0ok “ his hand a new piece of white 
ch^k. Bu when he went to write down what Mafia had said on the white wall 
of his cell try as he might, it all got mixed up in his mind and he could not 

“ul^ar W ht He felt " SUddeD St3b ° f Pain iD Ws heart *> d 

thought. What shall I say tomorrow in the king's court?” And his fear was 
so great that he dropped dead right then and there. 

7 7^ did ° 0t Sh0W Up da y the wise men had all 

gathered, the king sent his men to fetch him. When they got there they saw the 

monk sitting m front of the wall, his eyes fixed vacantly on the ceiling, chalk in 

7 7^’ Wlth0 jJ a breath of life. They returned to the king and told him what 

surelv^ieT^ th ° Ught fr ° m What ^ ^ told hun to at the monk had 
surely died of fear. In any event, he had lost the debate. The king conferred 

M a ’ ** Debater ’ md ^ Mn community was given a great 

w7L t0 eXde * foUowers of •** Buddhist monkfbut 

was stopped by the compassionate Malla The Jain monk Jinananda was brought 

wkh 77 ^ by ^ i 7 S ’ Wh ° WeDt “ P^ 00 t0 meet b™ and welcome hL 
th great ceremony. The Glonous Monk Malla for many years to come 

deed f “ service of to M and destroyed many rivals in 
debate. Having brought to many worthy souls the true teachings, which were so 
sweet to hear, the Glorious Malla, the Debater, then died and went to heaven. 

Jinegvarasuri, from the Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali, pp. 1 - 6 . 

In the country Abhohara lived the master Jinacandra, who belonged to the 
faction that held that Jam monks ought to dwell in special monasti/establish- 
ments built exclusively for their use. He had jurisdiction over emhty-four 



temples. He had one particular student who was named Vardhamana. Now while 
this student was trying to master the Jain doctrine, he encountered the eighty- 
four .problems that lead to misapprehension of the doctrine and a display of 
disrespect for the faith. As he was overcoming each of these problems, it 
occurred to him, “If only I can protect myself in these trying moments, then all 
will be well.” He told his problems to his teacher, who was guiding him in his 
spiritual practices. The teacher realized, “He is not happy here,” and he granted 
him special honour. Despite this Vardhamana could not reconcile hims elf to the 
practice of Jain monks dwelling in special monasteries. And so with the 
permission of his teacher he left there, and accompanied by a few fellow-monks 
he wandered from place to place, including in his tour such cities as Delhi, or 
Dali, as it is also called. 

At that time it chanced that in that very city of Delhi there lived the most 
excellent monk, the master Udyotanasuri. He learned from him the true me anin g 
of the Jain scriptures and made the decision to serve him faithfully and obey his 
words. Not long after this took place, Vardhamanasuri thought to himself, “I 
wonder which God it could be who presides over the magic formula that my 
teacher has taught me?” In order to find out the answer to this question he 
undertook three fasts. At the end of the third fast the Snake King Dharanendra 
appeared to him. He told him, “I am the superintending deity of your magic 
formula.” And then he explained to him the wonderful results that were 
guaranteed from reciting each individual word in the formula. This was how 
Vardhamana mastered the magic formula and gained, in addition, the ability to 
call up its presiding deity when he wished. And at this very same moment 
Vardhamanasuri and his followers all became possessed of this special ability to 
summon the minor protecting deities. 

At this juncture, the scholarly JineSvara, who led his own small group of 
disciples, announced to Vardhamana, “O Blessed One! What is the use of 
knowing the Jain doctrine if we do not go somewhere and reveal it to others? I 
understand that the country of Gujarat is vast and that it is has been overrun by 
those who believe that Jain monks should dwell in special monasteries. Clearly 
we must go there.” 

Vardhamana replied, “What you say is correct, but let us first examine the 
signs and portents, so that all will be well with us on our journey and in our 
undertaking.” This done, he set off with a sizable retinue of learned men, 
seventeen of them in fact. In time they reached Palli. Vardhamanasuri and the 
scholarly JineSvara, one day on their rounds, tending to their bodily needs, 
happened to meet a £aiva ascetic named Somadhvaja. They began to chat 
pleasantly, and Vardhamana, perceiving praiseworthy qualities in Somadhvaja, 
exchanged this light banter of questions and answers, each answer supplying a 
letter of the ascetic's name, “Somadhvaja.” Here is how it went: 

“Who is it that destroys misery and suffering? “Sa,” which is a name for the 
Goddess of Fortune. And what is the word that at once is the name for the Gods 




Visnu, Brahma and Siva? It is the word “om.” What kind of tiredness must 
travellers carefully resist? Tiredness that comes from their journey, “adhvaja.” 
And there you have it, “Somadhvaja.” But let us go on, for we can do this last 
part in yet another way. Now, what gives beauty to the abodes of the Gods? 
Flags, which are spelled “dhvaja,” and that gives you the one who is known to 
all for his gentleness and his wisdom, “Somadhvaja.” 

The ascetic was delighted. He became an ardent devotee of the Jain monk. 

After this encounter, Vardhamana proceeded on his way with the very same 
group of learned men with whom he had begun his journey. In time he reached 
Anahilapattana. They stopped at an open pavilion that was a public resting place 
for travellers. At that time there was no enclosed shelter to the place; there was 
also no Jam lay devotee in the city who respected the true teachers and thus 
whom they might ask to house them. As they sat there they all were affected by 
the intense heat of the sum And so the scholarly JineSvara said, “O Blessed One. 
You will surely not accomplish anything by sitting in this place.” “My best 
student, then tell me what we should do.” “If you allow me, I shall go to that 
lofty mansion that you can see just off a little ways in the distance.” “Go then.” 
And so, bowing respectfully to the lotus-feet of his teacher, he set off in the 
direction of the mansion. 

Now the mansion belonged to the personal priest of the King Durlabha. And 
when he got there that priest was in the process of having a massage. He stood 
before him and recited this benedictory verse: 

“O King Among the Brahmins! May the Gods Brahma, Visnu, and Siva, who 
give joy to those who revere them, and who have many wonderful qualities and 
work many wondrous deeds, riding on their respective mounts, the goose, cnnkp 
and bull, grant you everlasting prosperity.” 

The priest was pleased and thought that whoever he was, the monk was surely 
a clever fellow, for embedded in the adjective used to describe the mounts of the 
Gods was yet another divine epithet. Now the monk could hear some students 
reciting their portions of the Veda from somewhere inside the house and he 
called out, “Do not chant like that.” “How then should we chan t?” “This way.” 
At this the priest said, “Outcastes have no right to recite, study or teach the 
Vedas.” Then the scholarly monk said, “I am a Caturvedi Brahmin, a Brahmin 
who is learned in all four of the Vedas, in deed as well as in name.” The teacher 
was pleased with his remark. “Where have you come from?” “From Delhi ” 
“Where are you staying?” “At the tax barrier, the gate to the city. We cannot 
find a place to stay, for the city is overrun by our enemies. My teacher and 
some more disciples are also there; we are eighteen monks in all.” “My house 
is large; there are four separate pavilions here with separate entrances. Gather 
together your group and all of your things and take one of the buildings to use 
as you please. When the proper time comes for you to beg your food, then take 
one of my men along with you on your rounds. Go to the homes of the 
Brahmins; you will have no trouble getting alms.” 

t Then in the city of Anahilapattana the news quickly spread, “A group of Jain 

monks has come and they hold to the view that monks ought not to live in 
j special monastic establishments, but should reside temporarily in the homes of 

I lay devotees.” The monks in the big Jain monasteries heard the news. And they 

: knew that the arrival of these monks did not bode well for their own faction. 

! There is a well-known proverb to the effect that an illness must be crushed 

while it is still mild. Now these monks who lived in monasteries taught the sons 
of the wealthy and powerful in the city. And so they bribed these students of 
theirs with tasty delicacies and sweet candies and ordered them, “You must 
spread this rumour wherever you go, ‘These people who have come from abroad 
are really the King Durlabha's enemies who have merely disguised themselves 
as monks.’” 

1 And the rumour spread like wild fire among all the people in the city. And as 

it spread here and there it also came to be bandied about in the court of the 
king. The king asked, “If it is true that such vile creatures have entered our city, 
then tell me, who has dared to give them lodging?” Someone answered him, 
“My Lord, your own priest and teacher has quartered them in his home.” The 
, king then commanded, “Bring my priest here.” The priest was brought there and 

the king asked him, “If the strangers are really as people say, then why have 
you given them lodging in your home?” He replied, “Who accuses them in this 
way? I make this wager. Here is my sack of coins. If the strangers are in any 
way at fault, then let those who would accuse them take my purse.” But there 
was no one who accepted the challenge. Then the priest said before the king , 
“My Lord! Anyone who sees them can know at once that those men who are 
staying at my home ate the very embodiment of righteousness. They could never 
commit any foul deed.” 

When they realized what was happening in the king's assembly, then the false 
monks, Suracarya and the others, thought, “We shall defeat the newcomers in 
debate and see to it that they are driven out of here.” And so it was that they 
then said to the priest, “We are eager to discuss philosophical issues with those 
monks who are staying in your home.” He told them, “I shall ask them and give 
you their reply.” The priest then went home and said to them, “O Blessed Ones! 
Your rivals desire to discuss philosophy with Your Honors.” They replied, “That 
is fine with us. But you need not fear anything on our account You must go 
back and say this to them, ‘If you wish to debate with the newcomers, they 
agree on the condition that the debate be held in the presence of the King 
Durlabha.’” Now the false monks thought to themselves, “The king's ministers 
and courtiers are all firmly in our pockets. We need not fear any harm from 
them. Let us have our debate in the presence of the king.” 

A proclamation was released informing the populace that the debate would 
take place on a certain day and in a certain temple. In private, the priest told the 
king, “My Lord! The local monks wish to debate with the monks who have 
newly arrived. Such a debate is best when held in the presence of a just and fair 





king. I beg of you, Your Majesty, to grace the debate with your august persoa” 
The king replied, “Right you are. I shall do as you say.” 

And so on the appointed day in the stated temple, the Glorious Suracarya and 
his followers, numbering a total of eighty-four monks, assembled. Each monk 
sat on the seat that was commensurate with his particular status. The king was 
summoned there, along with his most important ministers and courtiers He too 
took a seat. The king said, “My priest! Call those monks whose side you have 
taken.” He went to them and informed Vardhamanasuri, “All the Lords Among 
the Monks and their followers have gathered and taken their seats. King 
Durlabharaja awaits your presence in the temple; he has already shown the other 
monks honour by offering them betel to chew.” When he heard these words of 
the pnest, the Glorious Vardhamanasuri, meditating upon the great former 
eaders of his group, the Glorious Sudharmasvamin, Jambusvamin, and the 
others, left his lodgings under auspicious signs, accompanied by a few learned 
monks, including the scholarly Jinesvara. He reached the temple and sat down 
at the place indicated for him by the king and on a seat that Jines'vara proffered. 
JineSvara himself sat down at his teacher’s feet, on a seat that the teacher 
indicated was appropriate for him. And when the king began to offer them all 
™L t0 chew> m ** Presence of that entire assembly, the teacher proclaimed, 
O King! It is not proper for holy men to take betel. As it is said, 

For those who observe the rules of celibacy and women whose husbands 
have died, eating betel, O Brahmins, is not different from paring beef.’” 

With this, those who were particularly astute in that company realized the 
greatness of the teacher. The teacher then said, “The scholarly Jinesvara will 
debate today. Everything he says you may consider to be my own views ” All 
those present replied, “So be it.” The leader of the group, Suracaiya, then spoke 
up. Those monks who lodge with lay followers are outside the accepted 
religious groups, which are six in number. Most people understand by these six 
groups the Buddhists, the Jains, the Saivas and so on.” And to prove his point 
he grabbed a book of philosophy which had only recently been written At this 
point in the debate, calling upon the dictum, “Present practices continue past 
customs,” the Glorious Jinesvara said, “O August King Durlabha! In your realm 
do you carry on affairs of state in keeping with the rules laid down and followed 
by your ancestors, or do you pursue some new-fangled course that somebody or 
other has thought up for you?” The king answered, “In our land I rule according 
to the ways of my ancestors and in no other way.” At this the Glorious Jinesvara 
said, “O Great King! We have come from afar. We did not bring with us the 
books that our forbearers wrote and that we consider to be authoritative. O 
King! Have someone bring from the monastery of these monks the ancient texts, - 
written by our forbearers, so that we may determine what is the right path and 
what is the false path.” v 

The king then said to Jinesvara’s rivals, “He is correct. I shall send my men. 
Give the order for your people to hand over the books to my men.” Now they 



knew full well that JineSvara’s side was going to win; that was why they did not 
say a word, either way. The king sent his men, saying, “Go quickly and fetch 
the bundle of authoritative texts.” They brought the bundle at once. And as soon 
as the bundle was carried into the assembly it came unwrapped. By the grace of 
God, the DaSavaikalika was exposed. This text had been written in times of old 
by a monk who was conversant with the fourteen scriptures. And from that text 
the first verse that they saw was this one, 

‘A monk should live in a dwelling that has not been made exclusively for his 
own use, that has a place for him to ease his bodily needs, and that is not 
frequented by women, eunuchs and beasts’ ( DaSavaikalika , 8.51). 

JineSvara explained that the meaning of the verse was that monks should live 
in an ordinary dwelling that has these characteristics and not in a special 
monastery or temple. The king thought to himself that this seemed correct. The 
courtiers realized, “Our teachers have been put to shame.” And so these officers 
of the court, from the chief minister on down, one by one, all proclaimed in the 
presence of the king, ‘The newcomers are our teachers.” In this way each of the 
king's officers accepted one of the newcomers as his teacher. Each one thought, 
“The king honors me; for my sake he will honour my teacher. The king is just” 
When things had proceeded this far, the Glorious JineSvara said, “Great King! 
The Chief Minister has this monk for his teacher, the lesser minister has chosen 
yet a different monk as his teacher, and so it is down through the ranks of your 
officers. Tell me, My Lord, in your kingdom, to whom does the orphan whom 
no one claims belong?” “To me,” said the king. “In that case all the other 
monks now belong to someone. I am like the orphan, I belong to no one.” And 
so the king made Jinesvara his personal teacher. And the king said, “Everyone 
has offered his teacher a jewel-studded throne to sit upon. How can it be that 
only my teacher sits on a plain, low seat? Do you mean to say I have no jewel- 
studded throne to offer my teacher?” At this Jinesvara replied, “Great King! It 
is not proper for holy men to sit on thrones. For it has been said, 

‘If a monk adorns his body he will surely break his vows, O Best of Kings! 
And he will be a laughing stock among the people. He will get attached to such 
things and too much accustomed to comfort. It is not right for someone who 
desires release to make use of thrones and such things.’” 

And he went on and explained this traditional verse. The king then said, 
“Where will you stay?” He replied, “Great King! How shall we find a place to 
stay, when our enemies are so strong?” Without even taking a minute to think 
the king gave them a place to dwell. He said, “There is a vacant house in 
Karadihatti; its owner has died without issue. You may stay there. But how will 
you eat?” And JineSvara explained to the king that, for the same reason, it was 
difficult for him and his fellow monks to obtain alms. “How many are you 
altogether?” “O Great King! We are eighteen.” “You need no more than what it 
takes to feed a single elephant!” At this Jinesvara said, “Great King! It is not 
permitted for a monk to accept food from a king. Our scriptures prohibit this.” 



In that case you will take one of my soldiers with you on your rounds; you will 
meet no opposition in that way and you will easily obtain alms.” 

Thus, having engaged their rivals in debate and bested them, they entered 
their lodgings, accompanied by the king and by the king's soldiers. This was the 
first time that the practice of Jain monks' dwelling in ordinary lodgings and not 
special temples was established in Gujarat. 

The day after the debate, realizing that two of their schemes had already 
failed, the monks who were hostile to JineSvara and his group got together and 
formulated yet another plaa The king was known to be devoted to his Chief 
Queen; he did whatever she told him to do. Now all the officers of the court, as 
if to celebrate their new choice of teachers, filled bowls with various fruits, 
including grapes, mangoes and bananas, and took fine cloth and jewels as 
presents to the queen. They set all these gifts before her, like so many offerings 
to the Lord Who is Without Passion, the Jina himself. The queen was pleased 
with this attention and willing to do their bidding. At that very moment it so 
happened that the king had some business with the queen. He sent a man, who 
was a native of Delhi, to her with a message, saying, “Tell the queen that this 
is what I need. The man, saying, “I shall tell the queen what you say,” 
hastened away. He told the queen what the king required. When he saw all the 
court officers there and all of the gifts that they had brought, he thought, 
Clearly this is another plot to get rid of the teachers who have come from my 
homeland. I must say something to the king that will help them.” He went back 
to the king. 

“My Lord! I have told the queen what you require. But Sire, I have seen the 
most curious thing there. The queen looks like the Jina himself, they have 
placed lavish offerings before her just like the offerings people place in front of 
the Jina in the temple.” The king thought, “Those monks are still after my 
teacher, the newcomer who spoke so wisely and whom I have accepted as my 
preceptor.” Then the king turned to that man and said, “Go back to the queen at 
once and tell her this. Say, ‘The king commands you. If you take even a single 
fruit from those gifts that are before you, then I am not your beloved and you 
are not mine.’” And when she heard those words the queen was frightened and 
she said, “Sirs! Each of you take back what he has brought. I do not need your 
gifts.” And so this stratagem too was foiled. 

They then hit upon a fourth plot. “If the king insists on honoring those foreign 
monks, then let us abandon all the temples and go elsewhere ourselves.” 
Someone told the king of their scheme. The king said, “If they do not like it 
here, then let them go elsewhere!” He hired some Brahmin boys to perform the 
ceremonies in the temples; they agreed to carry out the rituals in the Jain 
temples because they knew well, as do all people, that all of the Gods are to be 
worshipped without distinction. But those Jain monks who had abandoned their 
temples could not find anywhere else to stay and so they began trickling back. 



one by one, offering some lame excuse or another for their return. As might be 
guessed, eventually they all came back and resumed living in their monasteries. 

The Glorious Vardhamanasuri, for his part, was greatly honored by the king, 
and with his followers he travelled freely in the king’s realm. No one dared to 
say a word against him. On an auspicious day, he installed the Glorious 
JineSvara in his position as leader of the community of moftks. He made 
JineSvarasuri's brother, Buddhasagara, second in rank in the group. Their sister, 
Kalyanamati, was made head of the nuns. After that the Glorious JineSvara, in 
the course of his wanderings, gathered around him a number of disciples, 
including Jinacandra, Abhayadeva, DhaneSvara, Haribhadra, Prasannacandra, 
Dharmadeva, Sahadeva and Sumati. In time Varddhamanasuri, following the 
time honored practice of his faith, fasted to death on the holy mountain Arbuda 
and was reborn as a god. 

Later on the Glorious Jinegvarasuri, recognizing that both Jinacandra and 
Abhayadeva were virtuous and worthy, honored both these monks, who 
eventually became known as foremost in the monastic community. He honored 
two other monks, Dhanesvara and Jinabhadra, by name, and placed Haribhadra 
just below them in the hierarchy as Master. Dharmadeva, Sumati and Vimala 
were given the rank of instructor. Dharmadeva had the brothers Harisimha and 
Sarvadevagani as disciples, as well as the scholar Somacandra. Sahadevagani 
had Aiokacandra as his disciple. Everyone was extremely fond of him, in fact 
The Glorious Jinacandrasuri singled him out and took particular pains to teach 
him and eventually installed him in the high position of Head Master. He in turn 
took Harisimha as his successor. There were other monks to receive high 
honors; Prasannacandra and Devabhadra were their names. Devabhadra was the 
disciple of the teacher Sumati. Four of these monks, including Prasannacandra, 
studied logic under Abhayadevasuri. Thus it is said, 

“Even today they are like pillars commemorating his ever-spreading fame, the 
Glorious Prasannendusuri, the Glorious Varddhamanasuri, the King of Ascetics, 
Haribhadra, and the saint Devacandra, who are like vast oceans of le arnin g; their 
words are clever and well-chosen, from their long study of proper argumentation 
and logic, and they are devoted to the faith.” 

The Glorious JineSvarasuri came once to Aiapalll. There were many clever 
people who attended the lectures he gave there. This is where he composed his 
romance, Lilavatikatha, which is rich in meaning and can be read on so many 
levels. Then in Dindiya village he wrote his Kathanakako&a to use in one of his 
lectures. First he had asked the head of the local group of monks for a book to 
use in his talks; this group belonged to that faction that held it proper for Jain 
holy men to dwell in monasteries. The local monk would not lend him a book. 
And so, in the last two watches of every night, he composed part of the 
Kathanakako&a, which he then used the next morning in his lecture. In this way 
he wrote the whole of the text during the rainy season. 



Now it happened that the nun, Marudevigani, resolved upon a fast. She fasted 
for forty days. The Glorious JineSvarasuri was amazed by her resolve and filled 
with awe, he asked, “Please tell me where you are reborn.” She said, “I shall do 
that.” Now there was a lay devotee who could not decide if a true Leader of the 
Faith had been bom, and he went to the holy mountain ^atrunjaya, and in order 
to find out whether there was any such great man alive he began to undertake 
a series of fasts. It also happened that the demi-god BrahmaSanti went to the 
country Mahavideha in order to worship the Jina. The God that had formerly 
been the nun Marudevi gave him this message. 

“The nun who was called Marudevi and who led a small group of nuns in 
your community went to the first heaven and became a God with great 
supernatural powers. 

She has a life span of two divine aeons. Tell this to that Lord of Monks, the 
Glorious JineSvarasuri. 

This has been told by one who came to Takka in order to worship the Jina. 
Exert yourself for the faith. Forget everything else!” 

But the demi-god did not go and directly repeat these verses to Jine^vara. He 
told the lay man who was engaged in his fasts, “There are some letters written 
on the edge of your garment, ma,sa,ta,sa,ta,ca. Go to the city Pattan; the Master 
who can understand their significance, and who, by washing the garment with 
his own hands, can make the rest of the letters that go with them appear is the 
true Leader of the Faith.” The layman went everywhere the monks stay; he 
showed the letters to every monk he encountered, but no one could understand 
their significance. Finally he came to the lodgings of the Glorious JineSvarasuri. 
He showed him the letters. He thought about them for a moment and then he 
washed the garment Trie three verses appeared. The layman knew, “He is the 
true Leader of the Faith.” With deep reverence he accepted him as his teacher. 
The Glorious JineSvarasuri kept on performing acts like this in service of his 
Faith and then went to Heaven. 

Jine£varasun, from the Vrddhdcaryaprabandhavali, p.90. 

Now on one occasion, in the course of his monastic wanderings, the Glorious 
Varddhamanasuri happened to come to Sldhapura where the river Sarasvatr 
always flows. There were many Brahmins who bathed in that river. Amongst 
them was a certain Brahmin named Jagga from the Pukkharana gotra, learned in 
all the sciences. One day after his bath this Jagga chanced to meet the Jain 
monk who had gone out to relieve himself. He began to make fun of the 
doctrine of the Jains, saying, “These Svetambaras are like the lowest of the low 
in the Hindu caste system, for they are not permitted to study the Vedas and 
they are impure.” At this the teacher replied, “Sir, Jagga, the Brahmin! Tell me, 
what good has it done you just to clean your body on the outside? I say, your 
body did not get purified in the least, for you carry on your head an unclean and 



polluting corpse.” They decided to debate the issue, and Jagga offered this as the 
wager, “If there is a corpse on my head, then I shall be your student. But if 
there is not, then you must be my disciple.” The teacher said, “So be it.” Then 
that angry Brahmin unwrapped his turban. A dead fish fell out of it. He had lost 
the wager. He became the master's disciple. He was ordained as a monk and 
received instruction and became thoroughly knowledgeable in the Jain doctrine. 
He was given the name JineSvarasuri. After some time Vaddhamanasuri 
voluntarily stopped eating and went to the world of the Gods. Then JineSvara- 
suri, the leader of the community of monks, travelling from place to place, 
arrived in the city Anahillapura. There he saw many rich monks, members of the 
group called the CulasTgaccha, who were monks in appearance only, and who 
lived in richly appointed temples and controlled wealthy monastic establish¬ 
ments. And when he saw them behaving like that, in order to further the true 
Jain Faith, he had a debate with them in the court of the Glorious King 
Durlabharaja. In the year 1024 he defeated those arrogant teachers. The king, 
who was pleased with him, gave him the honorific title, “Kharatara,” “Fierce 
One.” From that time on the group became known as the Kharataragaccha. 



The Origins of a God and Goddess, from a 
medieval pilgrimage text, the Vividhatirthakalpa 
of Jinaprabhasuri, 1333 A.D. 

Translated by Phyllis Granoff 


The Vividhatirthakalpa is a collection of stories told of many of the holy 
places of medieval Jainism. The collection was made by a monk who travelled 
from place to place. He based his accounts on what he heard from other monks 
and local people, and occasionally on written sources as well. The text is written 
m both Sanskrit and Prakrit and occasionally shows striking resemblances to the 
medieval biography collections, selections of which were translated in Part n, 
chapter 1. The two stories I have translated here tell about the origins of a minor 
protecting god and goddess. They belong to a recognizable group of stories told 
of toe origins of clan deities, usually goddesses, among toe Svetambara Jains of 
Gujarat and Rajasthan. In the clan goddess stories a woman, often wronged 
commits suicide and returns as toe clan goddess. Such stories circulated in 
vernacular clan histories and were also occasionally incorporated into toe 
collections of biographies of famous monks. I have written about some of these 
stones in an article to appear in East and West. John Cort has given further 
information about the text and its author and toe institution of pilgrimage in 
medieval Jainism in toe introduction and appendices to his translations that 
follow as chapter 6. 



The Story of the Goddess Ambika, Vividhatirthakalpa, number 61, pp. 

Bowing down to toe holy mountain of Ujjayanta and to toe Jina Neminatha, 
I write toe. story of KohandidevI as I have heard it from toe elders. 

There is in the territory of Surastra a city named Kodlnagara, bustling with 
rich people who have plenty of gold and money. In that city dwelt a wealthy 
Brahmin named Soma, who was punctual in his performance of his religious 
duties and was knowledgeable in toe Vedic scriptures. His wife AmbinI wore 
costly ornaments on her person, but her greatest treasure was her purity of 
conduct As this couple enjoyed toe pleasures that life can bring they produced 
two sons. The first fras named Siddha and toe second was called Buddha. Now 
it happened that the time had come to perform a ceremony on behalf of toe 
family ancestors and the Brahmin Soma invited many Brahmins for a ritual meal 
to take place on toe day of toe memorial service. Some of toe Brahmins were 
engaged in reciting the Vedas; some made offerings to the ancestors; others 
performed sacrifices and made oblations into toe sacred fires. AmbinI prepared 
many foods for toe occasion; she made cakes of rice and lentils; she made 
spiced delicacies with the finest condiments and even sweet milk pudding. 

And then, when her mother-in-law went to take her bath, at that very moment 
a Jain monk came to their home looking for alms so that he might break his fast 
that had lasted one month. As soon as she saw him, AmbinI was filled with joy; 
as she rose to serve him she felt her body tingling with excitement. Her heart 
filled with devotion, she offered toe Jain monk toe first serving of toe foods that 
she had prepared. 

As soon as toe monk accepted these alms, the mother-in-law reappeared on 
toe scene, back in the kitchen after her bath. She could see that some of toe 
food was gone. Furious, she kept asking her daughter-in-law what had happened. 
AmbinI told her exactly what had taken place, and her mother-in-law began to 
scream at her and abuse her. “You slut! Now what have you done! You haven’t 
even worshipped our family deity, you haven't yet served the Brahmins, you 
haven't put out toe offerings for the ancestors. How dare you give toe first food 
to some Jain monk!” And toe mother-in-law told toe Br ahmin Soma what his 
wife had done. He was enraged and he threw her out of toe house, fearing that 
she would bring ill luck upon them all. 

Despondent at this humiliation, AmbinI took Siddha by the hand and carrying 
Buddha on her hip she left the city. As she walked on, the children became 
oppressed by thirst and begged her for water. Her eyes filled with tears, but 
then, lo and behold, a dried up lake that lay in their path became filled with 
water by the power of her pure conduct. She gave them both cool water to 
drink. Then toe children grew hungry and begged her for something to eat. A 
mango tree on the road at once burst into fruit She gave them ripe mangoes to 
eat. The children felt satisfied. 




Now hear what happened while she was sitting down to rest in the shade of 
that mango. When she was still at home she had fed the children and she had 
then taken the leaves that they had eaten from and thrown them away outside. 
A guiding Goddess of the Jain Faith took pity on her and was moved by the 
great power of her purity and turned all those leaves into gold platters and 
drshes. And the drops of children's saliva that had fallen from the leaves onto 
the ground were turned into cosdy pearls. Even the food that she had given to 
the Jam monk was magically restored to {he pot from which she had taken it. 
Her mother-in-law saw this miracle and told the Brahmin Soma. And she also 
told him, “Son, your wife will bring us good fortune and is a faithful and pure 
wife. You must bring her back, for she will be the support of this family.” Thus 
it was that the Brahmin Soma, obeying his mother's command, and burning with 
the painful fires of remorse, went to bring his wife back home. But when she 
saw that best of Brahmins coming after her Ambim was terrified. She looked 
this way and that in search of rescue. And then she saw an old well right in 
front of her eyes. Her mind fixed on the best of Jinas, her heart rejoicing in the 
gift feat she had made to the monk, she threw herself into fee well. Giving up 
her life wife her mind filled wife lofty thoughts she was reborn as the powerful 
Goddess AmbinI in fee sphere of fee Gods known as Kohanda, just four leagues 
from the heaven Sohamma. She is also known as Kohandi after the heavenly 
sphere in which she was reborn. For his part, the Brahmin Soma, seeing feat 
most faithful of wives jump into the well, threw himself in the well after her. 
He, too, died and became a god in fee very same heavenly sphere. By fee power 
of his magic he transformed himself into a lion and became her mount Others 
say feat AmbinT jumped off fee summit of Mt. Revaya and feat fee Brahmin 
Soma followed her and died in the same way. They relate all fee other details 
of the story in exactly the same way. 

This Blessed Goddess holds fee following attributes in her four arms: in her 
right arms she holds a sprout of mangoes and a noose and in her left arms she 
holds a child and an elephant goad. The colour of her skin is fee soft and gentle 
glow of liquid gold. She lives on fee peak of MtRevaya as fee protecting 
Goddess of the Jina Neminaha. Adorned wife every kind of ornament on every 
part of her body, sporting a crown, earrings, a pearl necklace, jewelled bracelets 
and anklets, she grants all fee wishes of faithful Jains and prevents any harm 
from coming to Jain believers. She shows to those who are devoted to Jainism 
all kinds of spells and magic diagrams and displays before them many a 
wondrous power. Through her power no evil spirit, ghost, goblin or witch can 
work its magic on a devotee and the faithful grow rich, become kings, and have 
fine wives and sons. 



The Story of the Yaksa Kapardin, Vividhatirthakalpa, number 30, p. 56. 

Offering a prayer to the image of fee Jina Rsabhanatha consecrated on fee 
summit of Ml Satrunjaya, I now relate the story of the demi-god Kapardin who 
is his devoted servant. 

There is in the land Valakka a city named Palittanaya. There dwelt a village 
headman by name Kavaddi. His thoughts were ever given over to wicked deeds; 
he drank liquor, ate meat, killed living creatures, lied, thieved and committed 
adultery. He had a wife named Anahi who was of like mind and wife her he 
indulged himself in sensual delights. So it was that he passed his time. Now one 
day when he was lolling about on his terrace it just so happened that two Jain 
monks came to his house. He lowered his eyes in respect to them and with his 
hands folded in humble greeting, he asked them, “O Blessed Ones! Tell me, 
why have you come here to my house? I have plenty of milk, yogurt, ghee and 
butter milk; we have all sorts of rich delicacies to eat here. Please, tell me what 
it is that you need.” The holy men replied, “We have not come to you looking 
for alms. Our teacher has arrived here wife many of his disciples in fee course 
of his pilgrimage to ML Satrunjaya. But the rains have come upon us and it is 
no longer fit for monks to travel. And so we have come to you to ask for a 
place to stay for our teacher and his disciples.” The village headman replied at 
once, “Consider your request meL I shall give you a place to stay. Tell your 
teacher to come and to remain here as long as he wishes. There is only one 
thing— you must tell him never to talk to me about religion; I prefer sin 
myself.” The monks answered, “So be iL” 

I The teacher came to the village and spent fee four months of fee rainy season 
there. He was always occupied wife his study of fee Jain scriptures and he 
constantly mortified his body with fasting. Eventually fee rainy season was over 
and fee teacher asked the village headman for permission to seek alms to break 
bis fast of the rainy season. The village headman was pleased wife the monk for 
\ having kept his promise not to bother him with matters of religion, and granted 

him leave to gather alms anywhere in his territory, up to the very borders of the 
f land under his control. The monk, having been given this permission to wander 

freely up to the very borders of fee headman's territory, then spoke to the 
headman, “O Headman! You have shown us many kindnesses, allowing us to 
spend fee rainy retreat here and now wife this great boon. Now I shall instruct 
\ you in my religion and feus repay this debt.” 

The headman at once spoke up, “Don't tell me anything about fasting or 
restraining my senses. That's not for me. Teach me some magic spell, if you 
musL” And so, out of great compassion, fee teacher instructed fee headman in 
the use of fee marvelous formula feat praises fee Jain worthies; he taught him 
how it could be used to cause water to appear, to make fire bum and to stop 
moving creatures in their tracks. The teacher then added, “Every day you must 
face Mt.Satrunjaya and recite this formula.” The village headman agreed to do 



as the monk said and bowed down to him in respect. He then returned home. 
The monk continued on his wanderings. 

In time the headman came to occupy himself more and more with reciting the 
sacred words and observing various religious practices. Now one day he had a 
fight with his wife and she chased him out of the house. He started to climb 
Mt.&atrunjaya. He sat down in the shade of a tree and was about to lift his wine 
cup to tak-p. a drink when he saw a vulture above him carrying a snake in its 
mouth; he saw, too, how a drop of the snake's poison fell into his cup. And 
when he saw all of this his mind was filled with disgust for the pleasures of the 
world. He put his wine cup down, and no longer interested in this world, he 
undertook a voluntary fast to death. At the moment that he left this life his 
thoughts were pure; his mind was fixed on the lotus feet of the first Jina and on 
the sacred words that the Jain monk had given him. Because of the great power 
of that holy mountain and the power of the sacred words that he had been given 
by the monk he was reborn as the demi-god Kavaddin. With his supernatural 
knowledge he was able to remember his previous existence and he worshipped 
the first Jina with all his heart. Now that wife of his, hearing what had happened 
to him, went to where he had died and rebuking herself she too undertook a 
voluntary fast to death and passed away. She was reborn as a magnificent 
elephant and became his mount. Kapardin holds in his four aims a noose, an 
elephant goad, a purse of money and a citron fruit. 

On another occasion Kapardin looked around the earth with his supernatural 
knowledge and, findin g his teacher from his previous existence, he appeared 
before him and prostrated himself at his feet Having greeted his teacher with 
devotion, he humbly folded his hands in supplication and announced to him, “O 
Blessed One! By your grace I have obtained these powers. Please instruct me. 
What may I do for you?” The teacher said, “You must always stay in this holy 
place, Satrunjaya; you must worship the first Jina each morning, noon and night; 
you must ward off all harm that might befall the faithful.” The demi-god knelt 
down again at the feet of the teacher and promised to obey his command. This 
iring of the demi-gods then went back to the summit of Ml Satrunjaya. He did 
exactly as the teacher instructed him. 

Jinaprabhasuri has written this story of the demi-god Kavaddi and the story of 
the Goddess AmbadevI that goes with it in accordance with what he heard the 
elders tell him. 

A Note on the Translations 

When I decided to translate a selection of Jain stories I had in mind a non-specialist 
audience. This led me to make certain choices. For all of the stories, instead of using 
footnotes, I have included right in the body of the story explanatory information about 
technical terms in Jainism where I felt such information could be given briefly and might 
be useful. So, for example, if a didactic story made passing reference to the “five divine 
signs” or the “three restraints” I spelled out there exactly what these terms meant. 



Each text presented its own challenges. I decided to try to retain as much of the 
double-entendre and word plays as I could from the original. Instead of explaining word 
1 „ footnotes though I explained double meanings m the translations themselves fo 
Slrr^ptn o7the ocean in the story of Devadhara. I also attempted to 
gloss riddles for the reader right in the text rather than in appended footnotes. 
Occasionally I went so far as to create dialogue when I could not render the original m 
English arulkeep the double meanings; my attempt was to provide a comparable English 
passage/Thua I tried to create a dialogue similar to the one Madan^tr and the princess 
excteLe in the biography of the Digambara monk Madanakirti. The princess has too 
ISTI, into thfli'a foot he "how salty." bo, the word can £ n*» 

“what great feminine charm.” I also resorted to supplying sentencesfOT^ngletenn 
when I felt a term in the original was too rich in meaning to be translated simply by 
single English word. As such a case I might cite my translation of the term banda m th 
slot ofrAryanandila from the Prabandhakosa. The snake has just had its tail cutoff and 
is shtherhj around pathetically. Vairothya affectionately calls him ibanda which take 
as the same as the Gujarati banda, meaning “tailless.” But the word also mean 
something like a jester or a buffoon. It seems to me that it is in all these meanings that 
Vairothya uses the term. The snake is banda, deprived of an essential 
around and performing antics like a jester or buffoon, and it is the naughty one, m th 
way a specify loved young child is. I tried to convey some of this m my translation, b 
I needed a sentence or two in which to do it. 

There were other times when after considerable thought I settled on a style of 
JSL L is close to the original, but might need somegChng 
English reader. I did this in an effort to convey sonethmg of rite Pa'«“ 1 “ “” or o 
story Anyone who reads the story of Devadinna, for example, is sure to notice the 
number of times the word “and” appears at the beginning of a sentence.^w^so 
connects almost every sentence with an “and”; to me it seeme o 
frequently that I felt that these “ands" constituted almost a mark ° f *'*“*“*^ at 
Each time I would remove them in the service of greater English readability, I felt tha 
Thi lost something of the flavor of the original and eventually decided topmost 
of them and leave a reader to decide whether the net result was a oss or^ gmmfa dmrt 
these translations represent a compromise in an effort to make 

accessible to an English audience. I hope that in the mam I to the 

spirit of the texts and yet provided translations that the general reader will enjoy. 

In conjunction with a research project on religious biographies in Ana earned cm 
under theTispices of the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada 
headed by Dr. Koichi Shinohara at McMaster University, I have wntten ab °* 
the biographies that I translate here. Readers are referred to the volume edited by 
Dr.Shinohara and me entitled. Monks and Magicians: Religious Biographies mAsta^ 
Oakville: Ontario, 1988, particularly for some indication of the b ^°g ra P h J a ^ a ^ 
this asnect of Jain narrative literature. I have two articles in that volume on the 
Wogm^S of NagStjuna and Aryakhapata and Mallavadin, primary a :ready 

of ”sonrees of more biogrephios and their possible Path. of *11 hZ 

some information on some of the Kharatare - several »melon to I tov. 
dono recently. Ono on biographio, and Jain dm wril soon bo ^btehod m to 
end Wes r another, on Siddh.rena is to appear in the Journal of Indian PMo.opfty 1 
have also'used material from the Khatami. biographies for a study of the role of wntt n 



texts in medieval India in a paper that will be published in the forthcoming festschrift for 
the veteran Jam scholar J. Deleu, whose work on the prabandhas was an invaluable aid 
to me. Finally I have translated and studied other portions of the Vivdhatirthakalpa in an 
article on Jain attitudes towards Muslim iconoclasm which will appear in East and West. 
I have used the edition of the Akhyanakamanikosa published by the Prakrit Text 
odety in 1962 and the edition of the Mulaiuddhiprakarana edited and published by 
Amntlal Mohanlal Bhojak in the Prakrit Text Society Series No. 15, Ahmedabad, 1971. 
All the other texts have been published by the Singhi Jain Series. There is a Gujarati 
translation of the Prabandhakosa done by Hiralal Rasikdas Kapadia in 1914 and 
published from the Forbes Gujarati Sahitya Sabha. Kapadia is one of the foremost 
Scholls of Jainism, and I benefitted greatly from having his translation available to me. 
Die Kharataragacchabrhadgurvavali was translated into Hindi by Mahopadhyaya 
Vinayasagara, with an introduction by Agarchand Nahta in the Kharataragaccha ka 
Brjmduihdsa, Ajmer: Dada Jinadattasuri Astamasatabdi Mahotsava Svagatakarini Samiti 
1959.1 have also benefitted greatly from consulting it in places where I was unsure of 
the use of a particular term. 

I :! 

Hemacandra's Parisistaparva 
The story of Canakya 

Translated by Rosalind Lefeber 


Hemacandra’s Parisistaparva tells in verse the lives of the early Jain teachers; 
so at first glance it seems odd that it should include a story-cycle about 
Canakya. This Brahman counsellor of the first Maury an king, Candragupta, was 
probably not a Jain, though the king himself may have been Moreover, Canakya 
is legendary not as a model of morality but as a shrewd and ruthless strategist 
to whom are ascribed the pragmatic doctrines of the Althaeas tra. 

But Hemacandra made use of popular stories from many sources, and in this 
case, Canakya has been given a pious Jain beginning and a pious Jain death, 
with unexpected twists. Though all the episodes are held together by the thread 
of Canakya's political career, these stories are in the folk-tale tradition. They are 
less about religion or politics than about quick wit and personal survival, the 
same themes celebrated in collections like the Pancatantra or Aesop's Fables. 
The listener or reader understands that he is not meant to emulate the expedient 
behaviour of the protagonist, but only to enjoy his exploits and perhaps to be 
wary of cunning adversaries in real life. 

Hemacandra’s Parisistaparva 

The story of Canakya 

Sarga 8, verses 194-469; Sarga 9, verses 1-13 

Sarga Eight 

194. In the Golla region, in a village called Canaka, there was once a 
Brahman named Canin, whose wife was Cane^van. 




195. Canin was known from his birth on as a Jain layman and learned Jain 
monks used to stay in his house. 

196. Now one day Canin had a son who was bom with a full set of teeth. As 

soon as he was bom, Canin presented him respectfully to those holy 
men. J 

197. Told by Canin that the baby was bom with teeth, the learned monks 
said: “This boy will be a king.” 

198. Camn thought that the violence required by kingship would doom his son 
to hell, so without regard for the pain he was causing, he had the baby's 
teeth knocked out. 

199. He reported this to the monks, but they replied: “Because his teeth have 
been knocked out, he will instead become the power behind the throne.” 

200. To this son of his, Canin gave the name Canakya, and in time Canakya 
became a Jain layman thoroughly versed in all branches of learning. 

201. He was always rich in happiness because he served the Jain ascetics, and 
later he obtained one of the daughters of a well-born Brahman as his 

202. Now one day Canakya’s wife returned to her maternal home where there 
was to be a great wedding celebration for her brother. 

203. Her sisters arrived for that great celebration wearing fine clothing and 
ornaments, for they had rich husbands. 


They all came in painted carriages, all were surrounded by maid-serv¬ 
ants, all had parasols and other signs of high rank, all wore garlands on 
their heads, all were annointed with the finest fragrant ointments, and all 
had betel-leaves in their hands. In feet, they were all like miraculous 
embodiments of the goddess of wealth 


As for Canakya's wife, day and night she wore the same clothing her 
only ornament a modest, plain necklace. Her bodice was old and she 
wore an old shawl dyed orange with safflower. Her mouth showed no 
sign of betel-leaf, her only unguent was the dust on her body, and her 
ear-rings were made of tin. Her hands were rough with the work she 
always did, and her hair was soiled. Her sisters, who had married 
wealthy men, made fan of her. 

209. All the other people assembled for the wedding laughed at her as well. 
She felt so ashamed that she hid in a comer and then left the wedding. 

210. Her face dark with despair, she reached Canakya's house and sat with her 
tears washing away the kohl from her eyes and spotting the ground 
around her. 

Hemacandra’s Pari&staparva: The story of Canakya 

211. When Canakya saw her face as faded as a water-lily in the morning, he 
was grieved by her pain and spoke these gentle words: 

212. “My dear, why are you so distressed? Have you been insulted in some 
way by me or by a neighbour or in your father's house?” 

213. But she was so tormented by her disgrace that she was unable to speak. 
Nevertheless, her husband persisted and so she finally explained. 

214. When Canakya learned the reason for his wife's suffering, he tried to 
find some infallible means of procuring money and be thought: 

215. “In the city of Patallputra is king Nanda, who bestows exceptional gifts 
on Brahmans. I shall go there for that purpose.” 

216. Having made this decision, he went there and entered the king's dwelling 
where he sat down in the first of.the seats that were placed in front. 

217. But that first seat taken by Canakya was always graced by Nanda 
himself, for it was his throne. 

218. Now when Nanda and his son entered, the latter remarked: “This 
Brahman has trampled on the king's shadow by sitting there.” 

219. So one of the king's maid-servants suggested to Canakya in a concilia¬ 
tory way: “O Brahman! Please sit here on this second seat.” 

220. “My water-jar can rest there,” said he, and put his water- jar on it. But 
he did not give up the first seat 

221. And as he was repeatedly asked to get up, he occupied in the same way 
a third seat with his staff, a fourth with his rosary and a fifth with his 
sacred thread. 


Finally the maid-servant declared: “Well! This impudent fellow won't 
give up the first seat, and what's even more outrageous, he's taken over 
the other seats as well. What's to be done with this impudent, crazy 
Brahman?” So with her foot she pushed him to make him get up. 

224. At once Canakya became furious, like a snake jabbed with a stick. With 
everyone looking on, he made this vow: 

225. “I shall uproot Nanda, together with his treasure and his attendants, his 
friends and his sons, his troops and his chariots, just as a mighty wind 
uproots a tree.” 

226. Angry as a blazing fire, his face red as heated copper, Canin's son left 
the city at once, scowling fiercely. 

227. Canakya, foremost of the wise, then recalled the prophecy of the 
wisemen that he himself would become the power behind the throne. 

228. And because he had been insulted, he wandered over the earth looking 
for some man worthy of kingship. For proud men never forget an insult 

229. One day this Brahman son of Canesvari came to the place where the 
breeders of king Nanda's peacocks lived. 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

230 ' Tf? 8 menllicaa ' s d01hin S. Canto's son entered the 

village to beg a little food. 

231 ' reoir P= acoct - breedeI ' s <tawh» was pregnant and had a 
morbid craving to drink the moon (candra). 

232 ‘ * er J“ re |°J ted her morbid to Canakya, and asked how it 

could be satisfied, to which he replied: 

233. “I will satisfy her craving to drink the moon, but only if you give me her 

son as soon as he is bom.” y ^ me oer 

234. The mother and father were afraid that if her craving were not satisfied 
she might lose the child anyway, so they agreed to his request. 

35. Then Canakya had a grass shed constructed with a hole in the roof, and 
for ° W “ “ ”" dn hi<Ue ” to*** dirab «* a cover 

236. Beneath the opening he placed a bowl of water in which at midnight 
dunng that autumn month the full moon was reflected 

237. When he showed die reflected full moon to the pregnant woman and told 
her to (tank, she began to do so, her face beaming with joy. 

■ And as she drank, the hidden man with the cover gradually closed the 
opening in the roof of the grass shed. 

239 ' T *** CTaVing W3S Satisfied) md “ due tone she gave birth to 

a son, who was given the name Candragupta by his parents 

240 ' fOT Wh ° m hC W3S named ’ Candragupta grew bigger day 

A y y ’ nghtemn g ^ lotus-beds of the peacock- breeder's family 

hC about ’ ^tormined to acquire gold, and 

began to seek out people skilled in alchemy. 

242. Meanwhile Candragupta played each day with the other boys, continuall y 
bestowing on them villages and other gifts, as if he were a king * 

« backs of "* toy*, heating them like elephants 

Tberc cariy indications like these of fiimre royal 

in his wanderings rettuned and was greatly 
astonished to see this child behaving as he did. 

U5 ' Bring 1 otTme^too!” ““ '° “ m: “° BesWw «»«- 

M6 ' 3 ” Pleases you ’ 0 ^tahman, take these village 

cattle. Who will dare object if I give them to you?” S 

M7 ' , asked: “ H<w ea” I take these cows? I am very much 

afraid of the cows owners, who will surely kill me” 

248. “Don't be afraid!" answered Candragupta “By all means, take the cattle 
I offer you. The earth is there to be enjoyed by heroes.” 


Hemacandra’s Pari&staparva: The story of Canakya 

249. Canakya said to himself: “Well, well, this boy is certainly worldly-wise,” 
and he asked the other boys nearby who he .was. 

250. The children explained: “He’s the son of a wandering mendicant. When 
he was already in the womb, his mother promised him to a mendicant,” 

251. Then Canakya recognized him as the boy he had arranged to take for 
himself, so he said to him: “I am the one to whom you belong. Come 
with me and I will give you a kingdom.” 

252. Eager to be king, Candragupta took hold of hi$ hand; and Canakya ran 
off with him at once, just like a thief. 

25^. Canakya was determined to destroy Nanda utterly, so with the wealth he 
had acquired by alchemy, he assembled an army complete with foot-sol¬ 

254. Then with all his assault troops, those forces complete with foot-soldiers, 
he attacked Patallputra from all sides. 

255. But the king made a sortie, and since Qtaakya's troops were relatively 
weak, Nanda was able to crush all of them as easily as a flock of goats. 

256. So Canakya fled with Candragupta, for he knew what was right for that 
moment. One should save one's life by escaping, if need be; for where 
there's life, there's hope. 

257. But a king does not tolerate those who covet his kingdom, so Nanda 
ordered his best horsemen to pursue Candragupta. 

258., Meanwhile, Nanda himself, proud of his victory, returned to, his city 
where the citizens held a celebration befitting their wealth. 

259. Not far away, one of the pursuing horsemen on his swift steed had 
nearly caught up with Candragupta. 

260. Seeing that rider approaching from afar, quick-witted Canakya gave the 
following orders to Candragupta: 

261. “Dive into this pond adorned with lotus-beds as if you were a water bird, 
and don’t come out until I call you." 

262. So Candragupta at once plunged into the deep water as calmly as if he 
knew the magic art of making water turn solid. 

263. As for himself, Canakya sat motionless on the bank of the pond and 
made believe he was a meditating yogin, indifferent to the world. 

264. Then Nanda's horseman arrived with the speed of the wind, his horse's 
hooves pounding on the ground like drum-sticks on a drum. 

265. And he questioned Canakya, saying: “Venerable father! Tell me quickly, 
did you see just now a very young man?” 

266. Canin's son, pretending to be afraid of breaking his me di t ati on , gave an 
irritable grunt and pointed towards the pond. 

267. The horseman meant to plunge into the water and catch Candragupta, so 
he began to remove his armour, as a dancing girl might remove her skirt. 



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some prodigious messenger of the GnH nf na,n, .. „ e ’ UKe 

horsemen on a steed swif Is ° f ^ “° to of N “^ 

274. Upon seeing him rushing towaids them 

Candragupta to ptange a, oL Hke a 

- There was a washerman on the shore, and Canakya said to him- “The 
£U?” W ” i ‘ 311 ^ ° f “* - * yo« <io no, wish ,„ S! 


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^ng behtod d,. clothes hs had £ wXg l '£2 
Carnns son himself began to launder those clothes 


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Hemacandra’s Pariiistaparva: The story of Canakya 

285. “Nanda's horsemen, whose valor is irresistible, may arrive. And if 
Candragupta is all alone, they will seize him as dogs seize a boar. 

286. “And if the boy Candragupta is seized by Nanda's troopers, then my 
hopes for kingship will fade like a dream. 

287. “So that his life may be preserved one way or another, I’ll give him the 
food I take from the stomach of this Brahman.” 

288. Thereupon Canakya at once slit open the Brahman's belly as a cook 
might split a pumpkin. 

289. And in a moment Canakya himself took the food from the Brahman's 
stomach as if from a pot, and he fed it to Candragupta. 

290. Then moving on with Candragupta, Canakya came in the evening to a 
village, as a partridge comes to its nest. 

291. As Canakya entered the village to beg for food, he happened upon the 
house of poor old woman. 


She was serving a dish of hot gruel to her children. One of them was 
exceedingly hungry and stuck his hand in it, and then began to cry 
because his fingers were burned. The old woman said to the boy: “You 
fool! You're just like Canakya: you don't know a thing.” 

294. When Canakya heard what the old woman said, he entered her house and 
questioned her: “Why are you using Canakya as a bad example for this 

295. The old woman replied: “Stupid Canakya made himself vulnerable by 
besieging Nanda's capital city without first conquering the outl ying 

296. “In the same way this boy burned his fingers on the hot food by sticking 
his hand right in the middle of it, instead of eating a little at a time from 
the edges.” 

297. Canakya said to himself: “My, my! She may be only a woman, but she 
certainly is wise.” So he went off to live in Himavatkuta. 

298. There Candragupta's teacher made friends with Parvataka, the king, 
because he wanted his assistance. 

299. One day Canakya said to him: ‘Together, let us drive kin g Nanda from 
his throne, seize his kingdom and share it like brothers.” 

300,. Parvataka agreed to his suggestion and became Canakya’s ally, like a lion 
ready to fight. 

301. Then Canakya, Candragupta and Parvataka set about conquering the 
outlying regions of Nanda's kingdom 

302. But there was one city they besieged that could not be taken by assault. 
So Canakya went there in mendicant's clothing as if to beg for food. 



303. And as Canakya walked around inside the city dressed as a wandering 
mendicant, he discovered the statues of all of the Seven Mothers, the 
eternal goddesses. 

304. Canakya said to himself: “All these goddesses must be guardians. Surely 
it is their power that keeps the city from being taken.” 

305. Just as Canakya was wondering how to get rid of the Mothers, the 
citizens, who were suffering from the siege of the city, came and asked 

306. “Holy one, when will the siege of our city be lifted? Tell us, please, for 
men like you usually know everything." 

307. Candraguptas teacher answered: “Listen, you townspeople! How can the 
siege be lifted while these Mothers are here?” 

308. At once the citizens removed the whole circle of Mothers; for there's 
nothing that a person in distress won't do, especially under the influence 
of a cheat 

309. Then at a signal from Canakya, Candragupta and Parvataka withdrew, to 
the great joy of the townspeople. 

310. But those two soon returned, as irresistible as the ocean's tide; and since 

they were unexpected, they were able to enter the city and destroy their 

311. After they had taken that city, those two great chariot warriors, guided 

by Canakya as if by a charioteer, went on to conquer the rest of Nanda's 

312. Finally, armed with Canakya's wisdom, that valiant pair besieged the city 
of Patalxputra from every side with unlimited forces. 

313. And because Nanda's religious merit was exhausted, he found himself 
with army, treasury, skill and prowess all exhausted; for good fortune 
lasts only as long as religious merit. 

314. On the verge of losing his life, Nanda begged from Canakya permission 

to leave safely. Is there anyone to whom life is not the dearest posses¬ 

315. Then Canakya announced to him: “Sir, you may leave, but with only one 

wagon. On it you should load as much as you can of whatever you value 

316. And don’t be afraid. No one will attack you if you leave with just one 
wagon. Rest assured that you will not be killed: you'll be as safe as if 
you were a Brahman.” 

317. So king Nanda loaded onto the wagon two wives, his only daughter, and 
as many valuables as possible and then left the city. 


Hemacandra’s Pari&staparva: The story of Canakya 

318. But once on the wagon, Nanda's daughter saw Candragupta coming 
along and immediately fell in love with him, staring at him with the 
unblinking eyes of a goddess. 

319. With her beaming moon-like face and sidelong glances, Nanda's daughter 
seemed to promise Candragupta all the pleasures of love. 

320. Nanda said to her: “My dear child, feel free to choose your own 
husband, for such a free choice is usually recommended for daughters of 
the warrior-caste. 

321., “Farewell and may you live long. Get down from the wagon and leave 
me. May the pain your marriage causes me leave with you.” 

322. When she heard this, she quickly got down from the wagon and began 
to climb up onto Candragupta's splendid chariot. 

323. * But as she was climbing up, nine spokes of Candragupta's chariot-wheel 

were broken like sugar-cane stalks crushed in a mill. 

324. Candragupta said to himself: “'Who is this unlucky woman climbing onto 
my chariot?,” and thinkin g that she might destroy- his chariot, he tried to 
stop her. 

325. But Canakya said: “Candragupta, don't stop her! This is a favourable 
omen, make no mistake about it. 

326. “What this omen means, my child, is that for'nine generations your 
descendants will enjoy continually increasing prosperity.” 

327. Then when Candragupta and Parvataka took over Nanda's palace, they 
set about dividing up Nanda's immense wealth. 

328. Now among his possessions there was one maiden who was guarded as 
if all his treasures were somehow united in her, for king Nanda had fed 
her from birth with poison. 

329. And Parvataka felt such love for her that he enshrined her in his heart as 
if she were to be meditated on like some deity. 

330. So Candragupta's teacher gave her to Parvataka alone, and the marriage 
ceremony was performed at once. 

331. But while Parvataka was holding her hand in the marriage ceremony, the 
heat of the sacrificial fire made her perspire, and the poison passed from 
her to him. 

332. Parvataka felt pain as the transferred poison began to work, and then all 
his limbs became weak. He cried out to Candragupta: 

333. “I feel as if I had drunk poison, and I can barely speak. Help me, my 
child, or I will surely die at once!” 

334. But as Candragupta was repeatedly calling for doctors and sorcerers, 
Canakya quickly whispered in his ear: 



n r aW3y ° D itS 0Wn ’ there ' s no Deed ^ medicine If this 

plague Parvataka goes away without your intervention, just let him so 
Keep quiet and wait, for youll be well off without him g 

““ awag *“» W* will 

SIS y °" “ “ * 

33? ' Sk^f* 8 "^ *?“ ya !igm,Ung t0 »» towns and 

3?* Th * < ^ ky !' foreI ” os ' of wuemen, stopped him from getting help. 

“ ^king of Himavatkata went to his death, and in this way Candra- 
gupta gained sovereignty over two kingdoms. 

339 ' ^ “ e k h “ ndr '? fi#y - five years after the death and liberation of 

glonous Mahavira, Candragupta became king. 

340. Now in Candragupta's kingdom, certain men who were still followers of 
Nanda stayed m the rugged «, and lived as rob“rs 

341. So CSnaqra went off in search of some man capable of protecting the 
city, and he came upon a man of low caste 

M2 ' S^asZT 1 *7 “ gaged “ eehing fie rn a mrmim nest When 
Lanakya asked him what he was doing, he replied- 

343. “I'm busy killing off these evil termites that hurt my children Fvii 

creatures don't deserve any better.” Y ^ EvJ 

344. Canakya thought to himself: “For a low caste man, he shows remarkable 

,. geDCe 311(1 encrgy ” ; 311(1111611 he returned to Candragupta. 

m^ S H S ° n ’ l Sidmi teaCh6r ’ had Candra S«Pta send for the low caste 
man and put him in charge of the city. 

346 ' oMoo d TT"* 1 Nanda ' S “ eving su PP orter s With gifts 

“* ““ ““ S ° <**»* PI- wafS 

34? ' S to ““ Mamy “' S teaCher tad to obtain 

, h J a PTOUlar vlIla « e ' so fro summoned the householders residing 

348. Still angry mto them. Canto's son with mahcious intent gave them the 
foUowmg order: “Make a bamboo mango fence.” 

349 ’ toe S °° ’ i T uaions ' “to viltagB householders cut down 

toe bamboos and made a fence for the mango trees 

I, toM you ,0 do was make a fence for toe bamboos out of the mango 

351 ' fc 44 If ?“ dtya “ ntnved 'o P" the householders at fault, and in 
toswrath he had toe village burned, complete with its cMhC 


Hemacandra’s PariSistaparva: The story of Canakya 

352. One day, concerned that Candragupta's treasury was empty, Canakya 
filled a bowl with gold coins and announced to the public: 

353. “Play at dice with me. Whoever beats me will win this bowl full of gold 
coins. That is my stake. 

354. “But anyone I beat will give me just one gold coin. Men, this offer is as 
firm as if it were carved in stone.” 

355. Then Candragupta's teacher began to gamble with people day and night, 
and since the dice were loaded, he beat them all. 

356. But that way of acquiring wealth was slow and produced very little, so 
to try a different scheme he sent for all the townsmen. 

357. First he fed them and then he gave them excellent wine to drink. And 
during the drinking bout, he had noisy dance music played. 

358. Now Canakya was skillful about ways of acquiring wealth, so laughing, 
dancing and singing, he pretended to be drunk, and he recited: 

359. “I’ve got two garments dyed red, the triple staff of a mendicant, a golden 
water-pot and a submissive king, so sound the lute!” 

360. And then, when the musicians had played the lute music, a drunken 
townsman, waving his arms, declared: 

361. “Ha! Every step an elephant takes on a journey of a thousand leagues I 
could honour with a thousand gold pieces — and I could do it every 


As before, after the lute was sounded, another man announced: “If you 
sow a bushel of sesame seeds and they all sprout and produce lots of 
sesame seeds, that's how many thousands of gold pieces there are in my 
house. Nobody could count them all.” 


As before, after the lute was sounded, someone else declared: “With the 
butter produced in a single day from my cows I could build a Ham to 
stop the flow of the rushing mountain streams swollen with water during 
the rainy season.” 


As before, after the lute was sounded, another said: “With the hair from 
the manes growing on my new colts of fine breed bom on a single day, 
I could wrap up the whole city of Patallputra as a spider might wrap a 
tree with a web.” 


As before, after the lute was sounded, someone else spoke: “In my house 
there is a single rice plant that, each time it is cut, generates grains of 
rice. Another plant, called donkey-rice, reproduces itself again and again 
whenever it is split. Such is this pair of gems, you people!” 




As before, after the lute was sounded, another man, excited by drunken¬ 
ness, said: “I am free of debt, and in my house there are valuables to be 
counted m the thousands. I smell nice because I'm smeared with 
excellent sandal paste. My wives are always obedient Nobody is as 
well-off as I am.” 

372. As before, the lute was sounded. In this way, Canin's son, that ocean of 
intelligence and learning, discovered the riches of all the rich men 


Then gold pieces equal to the number of footsteps of an elephant going 
just one league; as many thousands of gold pieces as the number of 
sesame seeds produced by a single plant; each month the clarified butter 
produced in a single day from the fresh butter of the cows' milt; the 
colts of fine breed bom on a single day; and as much rice as would fill 
the store-rooms -- all this had to be given by the wealthy to Canakya, for 
he had learned all their secrets. " 

376. With this wealth, the son of Canin made the Mauryan very powerful; for 

a minister who is an ocean of wisdom can be a veritable wishing-well 
for kings. 

377. Now during a time of terrible hardship lasting twelve years, a holy 
teacher named Susthita was dwelling in Candragupta's city. 

378. Because the shortage of food made it impossible to survive, he sent his 
own school of followers to another country while he remained behind. 

379. But two of the young monks turned around and went back to him. And 
when their teacher asked why they had returned, they de clar ed: 

380. “We are simply unable to bear separation from our venerable teacher. 
Therefore, if we can just be at your side, it will be fine with us if we 
live or die.” 

381. The teacher said: “What you have done here is not good. You two, fools 
will sink in a bottomless ocean of imperfections.” 

382. Yet after their teacher had said this, he gave them permission to stay; so 
they remained there serving him, like two bees at his lotus-like feet. 

383. Dpe to the severity of the famine, these two obtained very little by 
begging; and since they ate only after feeding their teacher, they began 
to waste away. 

384. These young monks, never satiated, perishing with hunger, at last took 
counsel together in secret: 

385. “Once we heard our teacher speaking to ascetics who had completed 
their studies, telling them about the divine, magic eve-o int m en t that 
makes people invisible. 


Hemacandra’s PariSistaparva: The story of Canakya 

386. “Therefore, let us make use of this magic spell to fill our bellies. For 
once our bellies are full, we will be able to serve our venerable teacher 
free of care.” 

387. So that very day those two made themselves invisible and went at 
mealtime to Candragupta's palace. 

388. Since nq one could see them, those young monks ate as much as they 
wished from Candragupta's own plate, as if they had been relatives as 
dear to him as his own life. 

389. And as those two fed themselves day after day, the king got up from his 
meal with an empty belly, like an ascetic practicing austerities. 

390. Since his food was being stolen by those two, king Candragupta 
gradually grew thinner, like the moon during the dark fortnight of the 

391. Nevertheless, he told no one that he was never satiated, even though 
hunger tormented him as if he were a rutting elephant. 

392. Then one day in private the Mauryan’s wise teacher questioned the 
Mauryan: “My child, why are you wasting away day by day, as if you 
had consumption?” 

393. The Mauryan replied: “It's not that they don’t serve me enough food, but 
it's as if some ghost is snatching it away from me. 

394. “Everyone near me believes that I am eating plenty of food, yet I don't 
consume even half of my meal. I really don't understand it at all.” 

395. Canakya said: “How can you still be so foolish that you have tortured 
yourself all this time, as if you were some ascetic who didn't know the 
true doctrine? 

396., “Well, at least now you have spoken up properly. Before long I will 
catch your food-thief.” 

397. With these words, he spread a powder even finer than barley-meal on the 
ground in the place where Candragupta took his meals. 

398. And when the king had sat down to eat, those two young monks also 
came to eat, leaving footprints on the powdered ground. 

399. After the monarch had eaten and risen, Canin's son saw the traces of 
their feet and said to himself: 

400. “Surely the person who is taking food from the king's dish with such 
, ease is a human who walks on the ground, but he must have a magic 

ointment that makes him invisible.” 

401. So on the following day right at mealtime, Canakya created in the dining 
hall a smoke so thick that you could cut it with a knife. 

402. And when, as before, those two came and ate from the king's dish, the 
penetrating cloud of smoke made their eyes water. 


403. All of the eye-ointment that made them invisible was immediately 
washed off by their streaming tears and carried away like so much mud. 

404. Once the ointment was gone from their eyes, they could be seen eating 
from the dish by the king's attendants, who all frowned angrily. 

405. Yet from fear of Canakya, nobody said anything to shame those two, and 

Canakya himself was afraid of showing disrespect for the monks so he 

406. “Worthy fathers, you are gods in the form of ascetics. Please be gracious 
to us and go back to your own abode.” 

407. When those two had gone, the king said in despair: “I have been 
polluted by eating food left on the plate by those two.” 

408. But Canakya replied: “Don't misinterpret an advantage as an offense. 
You have acquired merit by sharing your food with sages. 

409. Fortunate is he who gives food to a wandering ascetic! Will you not be 
spoken of even more highly now that you have shared your plate with 
guests who were sages?” 

410. Canakya instructed the Mauiyan with these words, but he also went to 
the worthy teacher and reproached him for the unseemly behaviour of the 
young monks. 

411. The holy teacher retorted: “What fault is it of these two young monks if 
people like you, the laymen of the religious community, care only for 
filling your own bellies?” 

412. Then Canakya apologized for his own misdeeds and bowing to that holy 
teacher, he replied: “You are right I have been thoughtless and you have 
instructed me. 

413. From now on, whatever benefits holy men - food, drink, and other 
means of subsistence -- will be made available in my house.” 

414. Canakya took this vow and remained firm in his decision from then on, 
fulfilling his responsibilities as a householder. 

415. It happened that Candragupta was devoted to the false ideas of the 

heretics, so Canakya, who loved him like a father, set about educating 
him: & 

416. “These wicked ones lack self-control and are by their very nature 
lecherous. They are not fit even to talk to, let alone revere. 

417. “They are like trees on which the birds of passion roost Any gift to 
these ungrateful, evil men produces no benefit, like rain showered on 
salty soil. 

418. If you rely on them, they will make you sink in the ocean of worldly 
existence as if you had boarded a boat made of iron. Therefore you must 
not put your faith in them.” 



















Hemacandra’s Pari&staparva: The story of Canakya 

The Mauryan replied: “Master, your words have complete authority for 
me. All the same, please prove to me that these men lack self-control.” 
So Canakya had a proclamation made throughout the city to this effect: 
“The king wishes to hear the doctrines of all heretics.” 

After they had all been summoned, the highly intelligent minister seated 
them in a secluded spot that was dose to the women's quarters of the 

But earlier, Canakya had sprinkled on the ground near the women's 
quarters a dust so fine that it was invisible. 

After he had brought the heretics in to be seated, they realized they were 
in a secluded spot and walked over towards the women's quarters. 

And since by their very nature they lusted after women, they could not 
control themselves and began looking at the king's women through the 
openings in the window lattice. 

These wicked men kept staring at the king's wives while they waited for 
the king. But as soon as he arrived, they returned to their seats. 

They expounded their doctrine to Candragupta and then departed, all the 
while wishing to come back again to look at the women in the harem. 
Now when they had gone, Canakya said to Candragupta: “Look, my 
child, at the signs of the heretics' lust for women. 

“For until your arrival, these men couldn't control their senses and were 
peeking through the window-openings into your harem. 

“Look at this set of footprints clearly visible beneath the window-open¬ 
ings and you will be convinced.” 

And when the king had been convinced, his teacher summoned for the 
following day the Jain sages who were also to expound their doctrine. 
These holy men sat down at once on the seats and awaited the king's 
arrival with the obligatory recitation of sacred texts to themselves. 

And then, when they had expounded their doctrine, they left to go home, 
looking only at the ground because they adhered to the careful behaviour 
required of Jain religious mendicants. 

Canakya then inspected the dust beneath the window-openings and 
showed Candragupta that it was undisturbed. 

He said: “These sages did not come over here as the heretics did. 
Otherwise, wouldn’t we see footprints here?” 

So the king was then confident that the Jain holy men were truly 
venerable, and he turned away from the heretics, as a yogin turns away 
from sense objects. 

And so, more than once, Canakya showed the efficacy of his wisdom, 
and proved to be an arbour on which flourished the vines of the 
Mauiyan's prosperity. One day he reflected: 





















by , Ut * 1 aCCUStom 10 eating poisoned food, so 

that it will become the same as an elixir of life for him. Then no 
poisoner can prevail over him.” 

So each day the Mauryan was fed more and more poison in his food by 
his teacher, who was like the wise teacher of the gods. 

Now one day the pregnant queen Durdhara, out of her great affection for 
Candragupta, started to share his food with him. 

When Canakya saw her eating the poisoned food, he rushed up at once 
and med out: "What haw y„ u dona?" for he was afraid the baby 

Atthe mere taste of die poisoned food, the queen died, but Canakya 
determined that the child should not die as well. 

So he quickly cut open the belly of the dead woman and removed the 
baby from it as one might take a pearl from an oyster-shell. 

And since a drop (bindu) of the poison had already reached the head of 
at infant, Canakya named him Bindusara, the “strength of the drop ” 
Now when Bindusara had reached the age most pleasing to the God of 
ove, Candragupta achieved death in meditation and went to heaven. 
Then Canakya, wise and competent, appointed Bindusara to the kingship 
And the new long became the executor of Canakya's commands, for Iris 
success depended on his chief minister. 

Now Canin’s son had earlier instructed the Mauiyan to name as one of 
ms ministers a clever man named Subandhu. 

But this man was envious of Canakya and wanted to become an 
m^pendent minister. So in order to ruin him, he spoke to Bindusara 

My lord, although I am not the final authority here, I shall tell you 
something that will be helpful in the end; for that is what well-bom 
people do. 

“Do not trust treacherous Canakya, for it is a fact that this wicked man 
cut open your mother’s belly,” 

Right away Bindusara summoned the nurses and questioned them And 
tom* they too said that it was so, he became very angry with 

Canakya noticed that the king was angry, and said to himself- “That 
mgrate Subandhu has turned the king against me. 

I myself made him a minister, and now to repay me he is using sianrW 
against me. 

my B de f ath '“ haod - “i I am through wonyfog about the 

donetom! eve ° "" tfmt of !ome -ay to avenge the wrong 

Hemacandra’s Pari&staparva: The story of Canakya 

454. “My devilish intellect will devour him so that he will never taste the 
pleasure of kingly rule. I'll do him some injury that really suits the 

455. And since he had dreadful ingenuity, he used magic mantras to give 
special powers to fragrant substances of the finest kind. These he placed 
in a box, along with a piece of birch-bark on which he inscribed certain 

456. Coating the box with lac, he placed it in a chest, which he then locked 
with a hundred locks. 

457. He placed the chest inside his house as if it contained all his treasures, 
and then he distributed his riches to the poor, to orphans and to other 
deserving people. 

458. Afterwards, he seated himself on top of a heap of dry cow- dung outside 
the city, where he began fasting to death, intent on destroying his karma. 

459. Meanwhile, Bindusara learned from the mouth of his own nurse the 
whole story of how his mother died. He was filled with remorse and 
went to where Canakya was. 

460. And Candragupta’s son begged his pardon, saying: “Please conduct the 
affairs of state for me again. I will be obedient to your commands.” 

461. But the Mauryan’s teacher declared: “Enough of this begging, O king! I 
am indifferent even to my own life, so what use are you to me now?” 

462. Bindusara realized that Canakya was as fixed in his vow as the ocean 
within its shores, so he returned to his palace. 

463. But barely had Bindusara reached home than he began to rage at 
Subandhu. Subandhu trembled as if he were freezing and said to him: 

464. “Your majesty, I accused Canakya falsely because I didn’t know the 
whole story. Please be merciful and let me go at once to ask his 

465. With these words, Subandhu went and asked forgiveness. But this was 
just deceit, for what he was thinking was: “He must never return to the 

466. So with a wicked ulterior motive, he told the king that he wanted to 
show proper honour to Canakya because he had wronged him. 

467. Subandhu received the king's permission and went to show honour to 
Canin's son, who was fasting to death. 

468. And Subandhu arranged this ceremony of honour so that its beauty 
concealed calamity, for unseen by anyone, he dropped a glowing ember 
of incense onto the cow-dung. 

469. Panned by the wind, the ember quickly set the dung-heap ablaze, and the 
Mauryan's holy teacher, motionless in spite of the fire, burned like a 




stick of wood. And when he was dead, he was transformed into a 

Sarga Nine 

1. The next day Subandhu asked Bindusara's permission to live in Canakya's 
house, for he assumed there were riches there which he wanted to obtain. 

2. With the king's permission, Subandhu went into the dwelling and found the 
chest locked with a hundred locks. 

3. And he thought: “Canakya's entire fortune must be here. Otherwise he 
would not have secured this with a hundred locks.” 

4. So Subandhu broke the locks on the chest as one might break the fetters of 
a prisoner released from jail. 

5. When he saw that there was a box inside, he said to himself: “This must 
surely be a jewel case, since it is so well- protected.” 

6. So he broke open the box as if it had been a coconut, and found inside 
those fragrant substances that surpassed the finest perfumes. 

7. Subandhu inhaled the sweet-smelling perfumes like a bee seeking nectar, 
shaking his head with growing amazement. 

8. Just then he saw the birch-bark with writing on it, and thinking it must be 
a list of C3nakya's valuables, he read it out loud: 

9. “Whoever smells these fragrances and then does not lead the life of a Jain 
monk will at once become a guest of the God of Death.” 

10. When be read these words, he was plunged into despair, for he knew that 
no magic spell of Canakya's would ever prove ineffective. 

11. Still, Subandhu wanted to test what was written on the birch-bark, so he 
made someone smell the perfumes and then eat luxurious food. 

12. The man died at once, whereupon Subandhu immediately began to lead the 
life of a wandering monk, not letting himself even think about enjoying 
sense objects. 

13. But he was not destined for salvation and could not free himself from his 
desires; and so foolish Subandhu wandered over the earth, dancing like a 
puppet on a string, still tugged by his attachment to life. 

Note on the Translation 

Hemacandra's verses here are disarmingly simple and swift- moving, but by no means 
artless: puns and similes abound, and there are a fair number of long compounds. And 
since the stories were no doubt familiar ones, the language is often so concise as to be 
elliptical. The translation does not do justice to the style; instead, similes, idioms and 
allusions are expanded or even altered without brackets in the hope that the stories may 
be readily understood by the non-specialist reader. 

Hemacanara s rau&i&iapaiv». 

The Sanskrit is heavily influenced by the vernacular, and some ^ 
rather obscure even when the general sense is not. I am indebted 

many helpful suggestions, but the following lexical problems remain, v. 282, lag ti, . 
359, jhumbari; v. 360, kolika ; and v. 369, gardabhikasali. 



The Story of Bharata and Bahubali 

Translated by Ralph Strohl 


The passage that follows comprises chapters 34-36 of the Adipurana of 
Jmasena, an early- to mid-ninth century A.D. Sanskrit account of the life of 

BahnSli %JTJ ir * thamkara ° f 3ge ’ md Ws chadren ’ Bharata ^ 

Bahubali. These chapters recount the story of Bharata's quest for dominion over 
brothers (of whom Bahubali is the youngest), his ignominious 
feat by Bahubali, and Bahubali's renunciation of the world he has just won in 
favor of the Jama mendicant's life. J 

The Adipurana is an important text in the Digambara tradition. It is unusual 
in that it rs written in formal Sanskrit, for the Digambaras preferred the various 
vemaculm for story telling. It also contains the earliest formal recounting of the 
Bharata-Bahubah saga extant. Within the next hundred and fifty years a cult of 
worship would develop around Bahubali and the retelling of his story would 
continue well into toe seventeenth century. The Adipurana 's importance lies, 
further, in toe significance of toe overall issues that toe text raises. To some 
extent toe text is a response to toe great Hindu epic, toe Mahdbhdrata. This 
seems clear in toe manner in which Jinasena addresses themes of karma and 
action dharma , and even sacrifice and worship in toe context of battle. The 
rssue for Jmasena is, “Where and how is toe truly meaningful battle fought?” 
“ ere 15 lssue more Poignantly handled than in story of Bharata and 



The Story of Bharata and Bahubali, from toe Adipurana 
Chapter 34 

Descending ML Kailasa, as toe King of toe Gods descends toe Lord of toe 
Mountains, the emperor, holder of toe discus weapon, set off on his march 
toward Ayodhya city. 

On toe march to bis capital city, Emperor Bharata, followed by his forces, 
resembled toe ocean; he was as irresistible as toe r ushing waters of toe Ganges 
River at flood tide. Only after several days’ march did the emperor's forces reach 
Ayodhya, toe elegant houses of which had gaily decorated archways. The city 
was resplendent at her Lord's arrival, sprinkled with sandal paste as if she had 
been anointed by an unguent. 

When the time to enter toe city was at hand, toe discus weapon lay down by 
toe encamped emperor, and did not approach the city gates. 

The city gleamed with a saffron color, tinted by toe rays emanating from toe 
discus encamped at its gate, and resembled the setting sun. Now, certainly, King 
Bharata was considered toe greatest among emperors, and toe city, before which 
toe shimmering discus stood, seemed to be swearing to that fact, touching the 
flames of toe discus as if in a divine trial by fire. 

Then some of toe gods who were guarding toe discus, toe emperor's great 
jewel* suddenly noticed that it was stopped, and they were amazed. Some of 
those gods rose up angrily, saying, “What?! What is this?!” and reeled about 
like firebrands, their hands clutching toe hilts of their swords. Others, in then- 
perplexity, asked, “Is there a reflected form of the sun suspended from toe sky? 
Why is a mode sun brought into being? The discus weapon's deviant behavior, 
like that of an inauspicious planet, suggests that untimely demise of an opposing 

Because toe discus wavered indecisively, some men of discernment began to 
wonder whether or not there yet remained an unconquered opponent When toe 
Commanders-in-Chief of toe army acquainted Bharata with this situation, he was 
greatly perplexed, and he reflected, “Why on earth does toe discus, which 
heretofore has been purposeful in its conduct, now falter, while I stand here with 
no rival to countermand my orders? Certainly this must be investigated!” 

The steadfast emperor summoned his royal c haplain and spoke to him in a 
very firm voice. The beautifully-adorned goddess of speech, Sarasvatl, whose 
meaning is always apparent, proceeded from toe lotus-like mouth of Bharata, as 
a lady messenger from toe Goddess of Victory: 

“The discus has trod toe entire earth, stuck fear into its enemies, and humbled 
toe sun's splendor. Why has it not approached toe gates of Our city? When its 
conduct had been unfaltering in toe conquest of the four cardinal directions 
within the bounds of toe eastern, southern and western oceans, and in the two 
well-known caves of Ml Vrjayarddha, on what account does the discus 'now 



C “" yaKl 0f 0ur ^ 1* an oppooen, who deanes ,o 

conquer Us. Is there someone among Our vassals who is as yet not conciliated 
and hates us still? Or could it be that a Jdnsman of evil intent de^ usns 

WfeST’ ““k r08 “n " h0 haKS US Wilh0ut “““ “• does «* welcome 
Minrk r>f 7 Spe3kmS ’ the of evil persons waver, even among the great 
Minds of great men are not envious of others' prosperity. The minds of the 

petty, on the other hand, are. Perhaps there is someone in Our own family who 
is drunken with foolish pride and is, therefore, disrespectful, and so the discus 
now waits to cm off his pride. Cmainly, such a person is no! to be overiooted 
Even an insignificant opponent must be destroyed quietly, for an overlooked 
enemy causes suffering like a small grain of sand in one's £e. And even a ^ 
any thorn must be extracted by force, for such a thorn in one's foot can cau2 
agonmn gpain if ,t » not removed. Indeed, this exalted, celestial discus is the 
greatest of an emperors jewels. Therefore, its hesitating is not without cause. So 

“a” ^ “ maD “ eSB “ “ 0t sufficienU )' understood, honorable Sir. 

IS n W aS1K “° n 00 iB pm “ ** uo inconsequential reason 

^ n defi3 aS ttat r aSOn * 10 be P ondeKd uuU youVe underatood its 
mtune Ill-defined actions do not meet with success, either in this world or the 

dre ifl a ? 8 ! of affairs rests in you, in your supernatural vision. What 

else is the dispelling of darkness than the arising of the sun?” 

ha ™g commu ™cated the needful to this man who knew the 
celesda^ realms, ceased his measured speech, for the mighty usually speak little 
en the chaplain replied with pleasing speech ornamented by woids of depth 
and clanty, mtended to enlighten the Lord of the Bharatas: P 

“Your speech manifests sweetness, splendor, well-chosen words, all of which 

SweT' IS t ? ere “ ythmg dSe that is S° od ^ lacking in Your 
speech. We know only the Sastras, the law-books, and are unlearned in the 

performance of deeds. Who, apart from Yourself, knows how to apply these law 
books to the affairs of state? You are the first king, the royal sage. Knowledge 

feel h KfiTS 15 made manifest for ** fesi time in You. How may we not 

extraor?^ 1, °T' 8 ** ** yet sttaa P^ to act? Nonetheless, the 

extraordinary regard m which you hold us lends us stature in the world- and it 
is for that reason that we are prepared to speak. 

O ^ t0 ^^"ti 011 “ ^ knowledge of the future, 

O Lord, mile the conquest of the world is incomplete, the discus may not rest 
from its labors’ For that reason, this flaming and terrible weapon of YoS 
tames at the gate of the city incomprehensibly, as if held in restraint. 

di^rrVT 7 ’ friend ’ enemy ' S Mend 311(1 friend's fiiend are simply 

yT subki °'V y m IiteratUre ’ 0 Lord ’ Since y0u g° vem them all as 

Your subjects. Even so, you must now subdue some opponent. One who would 

bZZ rf 0US °f P ° Slti0n “ one ' s own h° use ^ like a harsh disease in the 
reTni h ^ 7 CO “l uered ** outer re gion. The purification of the inner 

region has not, as yet, occurred. Though Your forces have conquered all there 



is to conquer, Your brothers remain unsubmissive to you. Your own family 
swerves from its duty, but certainly poses no obstacle for a Lord such as 

“One who is great and brilliant is stopped only by another who shares his 
nature. This is illustrated by the example of the sun in the presence of the 
special sun- crystal. Even weak relatives, having gained zealous followers, can 
overthrow a king, just as a staff, when fitted with an axe-blade, can overcome 
its mightier cousin, the tree. 

“These brothers of yours will not be conquered easily, for they are powerful 
and arrogant. The youngest among them is their leader — Bahubali, who is 
clever and strong. Those brothers, all full of vigor and heroism, number ninety- 
nine; they all insist, ‘We are committed to honoring none other than Rsabha, the 
foremost teacher, our Lord.’ 

“So You must resist Your remaining enemies, which are like fires or hidden 
tumors, O Lord. And You should be particularly careful not to overlook the 
clever one. O Lord, let this earth be blessed solely with your beneficent rule. Let 
not a bad king rise up among them, and make the earth fall into the evil state of 
having two kings. While you are king, O Lord, the word of another king holds 
sway nowhere. When a lion is present, how may fawns pay heed to the 
command of the king of the deer? O Lord, let Your brothers follow you, made 
rid of their jealousy, for the following of an elder brother who is also the 
foremost figure of his era is prescribed in the law books. 

“Therefore, let messengers be sent, and let them speak gently, but with a 
strategic puipose, and thus bring them into obedience to Your commands. If that 
fails, let them speak harshly. If a rival is inappropriately puffed up with pride 
and does not conform himself to Your will, then he, alas, will cause not only his 
own destruction, but also the destruction of those princes who have accepted 
him; isn't that so? He is merely a beast who shares two thin gs with a rival — 
his kingdom and his wife — for these are not generally shared. 

“What more, then, remains to be said? They must approach you and bend the 
knee, or they must go to the Jina Rsabha, the protector of the world for refuge. 
There is no third way. Let their path be one of these two. Either let them enter 
your audience hall, or take themselves to the forest to commune with the deer. 
Your own brothers, as all those not obedient to You, bum like firebrands. Only 
those who are obedient to You are an extraordinary pleasure to the eye. After 
your brothers have bowed their heads before You, their envy calmed and 
longing for Your favor, then let them prosper.” 

When the chaplain, learned in the law books, thus advised him, the Emperor, 
though he accepted his chaplain's opinion, yet immediately gave vent to his 
anger. Hurling a glance foul with fury, as if throwing the bali offering into the 
air, casting up a frown which resembled the flame of the fire of anger clouded 
in smoke, spewing forth a stream of poisonous anger directed at his brothers, 
and flaring up with untruthful speech, Bharata. enraged, spoke harshly: 



T f Tf T "" my evU -®" brother are qnsqbinis- 
'XXX qq tbera Pieces with the violent meteor of 

my staff, which will fly U p against them! Such hatred as they bear me withom 

cause, is totally without precedent; it has never been heard f noTs' nlfore 
No d 0ubt ^ * ey TO beyond ^ dufi to ^ ^--n before. 

Them pnde in their martial abilities is the consequence of the intoxication of 
youth. Its antidote is heat inflicted by the flaming discus weapon. 

wiZ?,? 6 WiCked , baSta 5 dS Wlsh t0 en i°y ^ earth, given to me by our father 
witoout paying tnbute. In that case, let them conquer my land with afl the pride 
of their soldiers. They must accomplish their fJty to me by faltog before mv 
royal couch, or on the field of battle, with their limbs fallen into tlufembrace of 
sharp arrows How little do they, who are given over to pleasesof le s^es 
compare to Us, who have conquered all there is to conquer! Nevertheless We 
shall give them their share if they submit to Us. ’ We 

T Wm *** t0 Cnj0y UDder other circumstances. 

Bauhal wh T Vi™ rCStS WMe *** Temmn conquered? And even 
Bahubali who is clever, knowledgeable and devoted to his kinsmen shares in 

this hostility of which even great men dare not speak! 

the^* “ ^ USC . 0f having obedient v assals when Bahubali is not among 

Sal^ttr 05 ™? an ° ther ^ PDiSOn Apodana, W? 

capital? mat is the use of turning my adveisaries into allies by my terrifvinv 

weapons if Bahubali remains unsubmissive to my orders? What is tbe^sHf 

se warriors among the gods, for whom extraordinary boldness is their very 

Me-jm^ when that haughty Bahubali is engaged ^paralleled com^tS 

Wh ° welded the discus spoke in such a rage for undertaking battle 
the chaplain again approached in order to speak with him: 

“Though you declare that you have conquered the world yet are vou 

“* t0,ce of y° m anger! Why? Surely it is lo be conquered by one 
o has first conquered his passions! Quit this immature behavior Let Lose 
youths travel there fruitless path. My Lord, darkness cannot reside to one X 
h “ comi “' rcd “"“S. #» Sbt.fold enemy. He who would not rescue himself 

S 2Z ^ ^ k "*> “ able “ -ape tom“nXX“ 

abmit whether or not to act Is a king who is ignorant of his own soul any more 
able to re.vest.gtue what re needfhl or what is to he avoided? Is he no. mZ 
king who, having his own dominion, yet fails to undertake the conquest of his 
enmmes? Just so, he self-subdued, who desire to conquer he eX^o in fart 
conquer it. becreree drey put an end re he wmh of Lse who woild ZZm 
harm. For people who have vanquished the different senses, learned well he 
wealth contamed in he sacred teas, and who desire to atX hTX wX 
forbearance re he best means to victory. When his task may be acXpS 
by writing, excessive exertion is fiuitless. Who would take a hatchet toLounc 
grass, when it may be split by a fingernail? Just so, you should subdue you? 



numerous brothers in a respectful manner by the employment, in a deferential 
manner, of a number of ambassadors. 

“This very day, let messengers bearing letters be sent out simultaneously, and 
having gone, let them say to your brothers, ‘Come to the Emperor. Look to your 
oldest brother! Service to him, which consists of giving what is desired, is like 
service to the wish-granting tree of heaven. The emperor, your elder brother, 
deserves your veneration and should be honored by you in every way! His 
sovereignty does not shine in glory with you so far from him, just as the orb of 
the moon does not look so radiant without the host of starts nearby. Universal 
dominion exercised in the presence of his virtuous kinsmen is surely a cause for 
joy; in the absence of them, however, it causes no pleasure.’ 

“This is the message. But another message must filter through the sense of the 
letter. Clever messengers must be entrusted with these letters and the requisite 
gifts. Noble king, such an action causes fame and is conducive to prosperity. If 
your brothers do not, as a consequence, become obedient, then a further step 
will be considered. 

“You must do this in order to prevent any ill-report of You. For surely, while 
fame is lasting in this world, acquisitions are not.” 

With that talk, Bharata, the holder of the discus, calmed down and left off his 
anger. Surely, the emotions of great men are to be steered into submission. 

“Let Bahubali, who is strong of arm, and whose will is not to be subjugated, 
be for now. I will examine his two-faced behavior by means of the other 

Bharata's mind was dear when engaged in activity. Having made this 
determination, he charged responsible emissaries with his message and sent them 
to his brothers. The ambassadors went to the princes, as they had been 
instructed, saw them each in accordance with propriety, and delivered their 
Lord’s message to them as circumstances dictated. 

The princes, hardened due to their heightened intoxication with sovereignty, 
addressed the messengers together in order to declare their independence: 

“We esteem the King's statement as true. In the absence of our father, we, the 
younger brothers, are to honor our older brother. But our father and teacher, 
who perceives all things, is still visible and present. He is our authority. Indeed, 
this sovereignty of ours is granted us by him. Consequently, we are not 
independent, but hold as paramount the guidance received at the feet of our 
father. There is nothing that Lord Bharata can either give or withhold from us. 

“Nevertheless, we are delighted and well-pleased by this invitation to share 
the wealth with the holder of the discus.” 

The princes treated the messengers well, in accordance with the respect due 
to Lord Bharata, presented gifts to them, and sent them off with their replies. 
Having honored the messengers with their gifts, and handin g over to them a 
verbal message for the emperor, the princes went to their teacher and father and 



conveyed to him Bharata's machinations. And having gone to him with a retinue 
appropriately limited so that they could approach him, they saw their father, 
lofty as a great mountain, rising up on the peak of Mt Kailasa. Throwing 
themselves down in order before him in a proper manner, the princes reported 
this command to him who hated killin g: 

We have obtained our birth and the highest prosperity from you. We strive 
only after your favor, 0 Lord, and seek nothing else from you. This man only 
speaks of the favor of his father with a loud voice. But we have obtained 
prosperity on account of your favor, and are conversant with its very essence. 
We are fond of honoring you, long for your favor, and are servants of your 
words; let happen to us what will, we desire nothing else. 

Even so, Bharata desires to elicit from us our reverence on a permanent 
basis, whether out of arrogance or jealousy, we do not know. Our beads, spoiled 
by the pleasure of repeatedly bowing before you, are most certainly not resolved 
upon another object of reverence, O Lord. 

“Does the royal swan, who enjoys the waters of Lake Manasa, that are 
colored gold with the pollen of lotuses, take delight in the waters of any other 
lake? Does a bee, even at the point of death, betake itself to the tumbi plant, 
when he has been caressed by the fragrant flower on the hair of a celestial 
nymph? Does the cataka bird, drinking up from a new cloud the water of the 
sky, clear as a pearl, also desire to drink water from a dry lake? 

Our heads are tinted with dust from bowing to your lotus-like feet, and we 
are unable to bow before wicked people, either in this world or the next. We 
have come to you to undertake the consecration due to heroes, which is free 
from fear, and which is firmly opposed to any act of reverence to any other 
person. Tell us the path which is proper and salutary for us, that we may be fit 
to abide in houses firm in devotion to you. O Lord, let us attain to a path like 
yours, by which we may overcome the fear of loss of honor caused by 
subjection in existence after existence. For ascetics thrive happily in the forest 
along with lions, and have overcome the fear of humiliation which arises in the 
loss of honor.” 

The noble Rsabha then instructed them sternly, rebuking them, and with a 
loud voice, causing them to stand on the eternal path: 

How are you to be made subject to another? For you are proud, are comely 
in body, and endowed with virtues, courage and youth, resembling the finest of 
elephants. What use is a transient empire and of what value is this worldly life 
that must pass? And what, pray tell, is the value of the power of lordship, that 
corruption which is nothing more than the insanity of youthfulness? What is the 
use of armies that can be subjugated by others with their own strong forces, and 
what use are riches and livestock which will, in turn, be carried off by another? 
What point is there in exciting the fire of desire, kindling it, so to speak, with 
riches? Leave off the pleasures of the senses, the enjoyment of which is likp 



enjoying food laced with poison. Even when you have enjoyed them for a very 
long time, they eventually cease to give pleasure and become wearisome 
burdens. Moreover, my sons, is there any sensual pleasure that you have not 
tasted? And the taste of the pleasure of the senses, has it left you satisfied? Fie! 
upon such a kingdom, where friends are weapons, sons and relations are 
enemies, and the earth is a wife common to all! Let Bharata, that tiger among 
princes, enjoy the soil of the Land of the BbSratas. So long as it is blessed with 
good fortune, you have no grounds for impatience. When this ephemeral 
kingdom is to be abandoned in due course even by him, why, then, do you fight 
over this impermanent thing? Abandon your rivalry, then. Resolve yourselves, 
instead, upon the great fruit of liberation, the unwithering flower of compassion 
on the great tree of dharma. 

“You possess great self-respect, and your asceticism is the protection of that 
self-respect It is only honored by others, and does not require the humiliation 
of according honor to others. The undertaking of religious mendicancy is the 
guards, virtues are the servants, and compassion is the beloved queen. This 
excellent dominion of austerity has indeed a commendable retinue.” 

Having heard the Lord's elegant discourse on disregard for the world, the 
princes, who had come to him, left their homes and went to the forest, and there 
sought refuge in the life of wandering religious mendicancy. Immediately those 
youthful princes took on the appearance of new bridegrooms, having, as it were, 
the new bride, Dflcsa (Initiation), shown them by their father. And they made 
this bride their own, just as a groom takes possession of his newly wedded wife, 
in ceremonies of love making, pulling at each other's hair, for as these princes 
married her, and thus attained to the steadfast, proper pleasures of that state, 
they began by uprooting the hairs on their heads in five handfuls, as the sign of 
becoming true monks. 

Having undertaken severe ascetic penances, those princely sages shone like 
the rays of the sun during the hot season, occupying all the quarters of the sky 
with their own brilliance. They made their bodies, which were, so to speak, shot 
through with the external marks of asceticism and aflame with its inner qualities, 
emaciated through the practice of very arduous asceticism. Firm in conduct 
which looks on all thin gs in the universe with equanimity, which is characteristic 
of the conduct of the Jinas, they engaged in intense asceticism which was 
embraced by knowledge and purity. 

Those lords of that era ascended the supreme summit of indifference to the 
world. Not concerned with the marks of royalty, they made the marks of 
asceticism their own. Embraced by the mistress of asceticism, and longing for 
the mistress of liberation, they forgot about the mistress of earthly dominion, 
and became devoted to complete knowledge. 

Having studied the collection of the twelve ahgas and the agamas, the sacred 
texts, these highly intelligent princes ornamented themselves with abundant 
subjects for meditation. T hinkin g, “By the study of religious texts the mind is 



focussed, and that, in turn, leads to the conquest of the senses, those steadfast 
brothers attained to the wisdom of these religious texts. They became thoroughly 
famili ar with right conduct by means of the Acarahga. On its account, they 
came to rule over purity of conduct, free from transgressions. Having learned the 
well-written Sutrakrtahga in its entirety, both with respect to its style and 
meaning, they attained to the state of preachers and guides in their intentness on 
religious activity. They immersed themselves in the oceanic depths of the 100 
chapters of the Sthdndhga, and immediately were able to distinguish among the 
seven jewels of reality. They studied the Samavayahga, which is a complete 
collection dealing with various matters such as the categories of substance, etc., 
and developed great wisdom. Those steadfast ascetics correctly ascertained the 
various answers to questions contained in the fifth ahga, entitled Vyakhyd- 
prajnapti. In accordance with what Rsabha taught, they first learned thoroughly 
the JMtddharmakathd, which is a collection of religious tales, and then taught 
it flawlessly to those who desired to know it. Having studied the entirety of the 
seventh ahga , the Sravakacara, they instructed hearers in the conduct of 
householders. They next acquired knowledge about the ten sorts of ascetic sages 
who attain liberation during the span of years between the nirvanas of 
successive Tirthamkaras. These sages must weather horrible afflictions nearly 
impossible to endure. These tranquil and eminently learned ascetics learned 
about such things as the ten classes of Opapadika gods and their five sorts of 
unexcelled mansions from the ninth ahga. Having taken up a question for 
consideration from the “Topics of Controversy,” they all together expounded the 
arising of pleasure, pain, and so forth, among embodied beings. They bound 
themselves with an oath to eradicate the fruition of good and bad karma, which 
they understood well from the Vipakasutra, and performed asceticism tirelessly. 
They acquired knowledge of differing religious systems through the drstivdda, 
and, rooted in the deepest love for the teachings of the Jina, extended the 
highest order of devotion to the Jaina texts. Having understood the essence of all 
the religious texts, which is located in the drstivdda, they then gradually studied 
the contents of the older fourteen Purvas. Consequently, having understood the 
meaning of all the texts, so that they literally perceived matters through the eyes 
of these texts, they gained purity in the conduct of their asceticism through the 
excellence of their understanding of the meaning of those texts. 

The action of asceticism produced pain among them, as if she were jealous 
that they were silent with her and, at the same time, conversational with the 
Goddess of Learning. Those wise conquerors of the senses undertook powerful 
extended and unbearable asceticism, both of an external and an internal nature. 
Ascending to the summits of mountains, those victorious ascetics bore the 
burning hot rays of the summer sun, which are very difficult to endure. They 
stood in rocky areas on the tops of mountains, their feet planted on scorching 
hot slabs of rock, with their arms suspended at their sides. The earth, at this 
time, was covered over with hot dust The forests were burnt by fire. The river 


. - , m ^ ctdes were darkened by smoke. They resided in burned 

rr 0 «vesT^ — 

scorching heat by means of their harsh duap * baSeS q{ m at ^ 

These practitioners of yoga passed their clouds, 

approach of the monsoon season, -^h tokened foe ^ ^ ^ ^ 

wrapped in the flick outer garment of fomtude ^ ^ o( ^ toy 

In winter, lying down m open s P aces ’ . destroye d, they did not take to 
gained thinness of body. Naked, then ^““8^ ^ ^ te ir limbs fully 
fire for warmth, but prevailed o ^ of the right during the winter 

they pleased, covered over by amass of 

seasons of the year, the steadfast as ■ d con duct of an intensity 
discipline for a long Ambled die ocean in their 

unheard of, with an mteno movements of their bodily limbs. Those 

profound depth, and with the wave- material things that they had once 

honored and wise princes di no t0 be as worthless as a garland once 

enjoyed and abandoned, considering be ^ ephemeral as 

worn and now wilted. devotion to foe 

clouds, evening, dew, waves or o , deatb rebirth, and gone out 

eternal path. Disgusted wifo the realm o Jaina pathi 

no,hi!18,0 * 

superior to that. _ Glared bv Jina Rsabha, they 

When the eternal dharma ha ^ bb ®^ on> ^ rded themselves and strove for 
were thrilled, and desiring to a ’ ^ ecdo n for the dharma and its 

that goal. Their faith was bom * ^at vows of mendicancy, 

fruit, and they embodied the urity of conduct. Tfoey 

which are difficult to o sav , ^tbfulness, refraining from theft, 

practiced these six vows . L, fasting Resolute in their conduct 

celibacy, avoidance of possessions, and v#*,****^ ^ confessing toeir 
of combat against the senses Mdtennw ^ obtaine d the highest 

transgressions with respect to y, Uberat e d from all activity that 

purity for the length of h ' without defilement or property 

did honor to the Mna path. Liberated 



from aH kinds of possessions, and firmly-rooted in the dharma arisen from the 
Jma, they did not desire property, which is said to be of two kinds, even to the 
smahest extent. They passed their time free from illusion, rooted in the conduct 
of the dharma even while in their own bodies, abandoning aU desires in favor 
of the proper understanding of contentment 

Houseless and wandering, they remained in whatever place they happened to 
be when the sun set, and there cultivated the highest level of non-attachment. 
Due to their preference for dwelling in solitary places, they stayed in villages for 
only one day at a time, and not beyond five days in larger cities. With then- 
abodes in isolated dwellings, such as abandoned houses, cremation grounds, and 
so forth, they shared the dwelling of true heroes, abandoned by the seven kinds 
of fear. Courageous and governed by a mental disposition of simplicity, they 
resorted to dwellings on mountain tops, or in natural caves or forests, on a daily 
basis. They dwelt on the edge of the forest, inhabited by lions, bears, wolves, 
tigers, hyenas, and other such animals, all possessed of terrifying roars. 
Unperturbed, they dwelt on the table-lands of mountains, which were alive with 
the echoes of the harsh, reverberating roars of the tigers. Having cast off fear, 
they sojourned in the forest, where they encountered the harsh-sounding roars 
which emanated from the throats of young lions. These brothers, rich in 
austerities, lived in forests pervaded by the low murmurs of the owl, over which 
hosts of flesh-eating Dakinls roamed in the vicinity of dancing clouds. All the 
directions were besieged by the ominous sounds of jackals. They also inhabited 
the great cremation grounds of the ancestors. Those man-lions, whose refuges 
were mountain caves, stood like lions, assembled together with hearts free from 
all apprehension, in accordance with the teaching of the Jina. They inhabited the 
forbidding forest regions, which teemed with injurious animals, and practiced 
meditation in the dark of night. They frequented the forest haunts of the 
elephants, whose tusks broke the trees there and left the terrain uneven. In those 
forests, they inhabited caves where fierce lions dwelt, and which reverberated 
with the great sound of the wild elephants. 

United in the practice of yoga and study, and zealously seeking the right 
understanding of the sacred texts, they never slept at night, but were ever awake. 
Fond of the Virasana yogic posture, they passed the nights either in that posture 
or in the palyahka posture. Having abandoned all attributes, renounced the body 
and been completely purified by poverty, the resolute, nude princes strove to 
attain the path to liberation. 

They were indifferent and without any expectations. Following the path of the 
wind, they roamed this earth, which is studded by a multitude of towns and 
villages. They wandered over the entire earth and showed malice to no one. In 
showing pity to all living beings, they showed the compassionate feelings of 
others towards their sons. They were knowledgeable of the distinctions between 
animate and inanimate things, and discerned the concrete manifestations of the 


objects of knowledge. They gave up all censurable activity; their eating and 
dwelling places were blameless. 

For the sake of purity of the three jewels — right knowledge, faith and 
conduct — they renounced whatever was censurable in body, speech and 
thought, for the remainder of their lives. With great diligence, they protected 
living beings, plant-, earth-, water-, wind- and fire-bodies, from all calamities. 
They were tranquil, their minds were not depressed, and they were graced with 
supreme indifference. They undertook the means to liberation, protected by the 
three jewels of right faith, knowledge and conduct, and did not crave the 
gratification of mundane desires. They followed the commands of the Jina Their 
minds were terrified by the thought of going through the cycle of birth, death 
and rebirth, the eternal cycle of samsara. They were radiant, and grasped the 
knowledge of the sacred literature, by which one perceives the highest truth. 
While yet in the body, they attained an eternal state by means of the light of 

They ate completely pure food given to them by another, measuring a single 
handful in a day. Thus they caused the true path, the means to liberation, to be 
manifest for a long time. Even though it might result in bodily death, they did 
not desire food prohibited in the scriptures, which is categorized in the following 
ways: of doubtful purity, acquired through exchange, prepared specifically for an 
ascetic, purchased, etc. Joined together in the ascetic life, the resolute princes 
undertook to beg in a limited area. This begging activity was pure due to the 
moderate number of houses visited. Taking no pleasure in food, they accepted 
food which was neither cold nor hot, nor astringent, nor oily, nor salty, with the 
sole intention of m aintaining the body. They ate only for the sake of supporting 
the body. They held onto life only for the sake of dharma. The stain of sin was 
removed from them who valued highly the extraordinary acquisition of penance. 
They were not pleased to acquire food, nor distressed at the lack of it. Always 
regarding all things impartially, they perceived praise and blame, happiness and 
misery, and honor and contempt with equanimity. Maintaining their silence, they 
wandered about for food as a cow wanders a field, eating the tops of grass in 
the fields; even if they obtained nothing, they did not break their vow of silence. 
Their limbs were withered by great acts of abstinence, yet they strove to 
maintain the body. Even so they were not led to desire impure food. Those 
heroes went forth to beg for food and, having eaten appropriate food quickly and 
retraced their actions mentally to undo any errors of conduct, returned to pass 
the time in the ascetic groves. 

Their bodies became emaciated due to the heat generated by religious 
austerities. Those lords of ascetics had a vow of constancy, and they did not 
falter in their attachment to the practice of those austerities. The undertaking of 
severe austerities caused languidness in their limbs; that languidness, however, 
was merely an assertion of their firmness in perfecting their meditation on the 
truth. There was no breach of their fasting by disruptions for a long time. Any 




disruptions simply went away frustrated, unable to overcome the princes. Their 
superior splendor, resulting from the heat bom of the fire of asceticism 
surpassed the brightness of refined gold. 

They obtained the highest interior purity, their bodies brilliant and heated by 
the fire of asceticism. From the blazing fire that was their asceticism they 
obtained the highest radiance. True it is that the shine of gold when it is heated 
is bnghtest of all. And those princes, their bodies ablaze from the fire of their 
ascetic acts, obtained the greatest inner purity. For when the body, like a 
crucible, is heated with asceticism, the soul, like gold, becomes pure. Their 
bodies nothing but skin and bones, the princes kindled purity of meditation. 
Surely every external act of penance, and asceticism is for the purification of the 
inner and outer self. 

In them the siddhis, which are the virtues and spiritual accomplishments bom 
of yoga (such as the ability to become of atomic size, etc.), became manifest. 
Certainly completely pure asceticism brings forth great fruits. 

Delight in asceticism was the well-made fire. The actions were the oblations. 
They who acted according to the proper rules of conduct for monks were the 
proper sacnficers. The ritual verses were the words of the Self-Existent Rsabha. 
Lord Rsabha is the lord of the great sacrifice. Compassion is the gift for the 
petitioner. Hie fulfillment of the desired objective is the fruit. The end is the 
cessation of action. 

Rightly having in mind this oblation derived from Rsabha, they, being well- 
versed in the sacred texts, performed the unexcelled worship of asceticism. 
Thus, being in mutual agreement, they brought to pass that superior action of the 
homeless ascetics. This is the natural state of the very great 

What more remains to be said? As long as they observed their duties without 
transgression, they, who had abandoned the unnatural condition of royalty mad e 
the realm of asceticism entirely their own. Thus, having gained wisdom from 
ord Rsabha, the primeval male, those superior royal princes, plunged into the 
waters of his words as royal swans plunge into Lake Manasa, and had their 
delusion dispersed. No longer desiring to do obeisance to King Bharata, they 
abandoned sovereignty and became religious mendicants. Those most excellent 
sages of the POru clan, whose steadfastness was deep and abundant, were 
attentive in the practices of those dedicated to the houseless state. May they 
who pursued the path taken by Rsabha, lord of ascetics, their minds fixed on the 
sole object which is salutary for the entire world, give us peace. 

They bowed to the arranger of the world, Rsabha, lord of the anim^ and 
inanimate, and clinging to the supreme religious state, thought that they were 
obedient to no one less than he who was honored by the heavens. May they be 
worthy examples for us, for their asceticism was abundant and satisfying, they 
made the treasure of liberation their own, they were bom of the soul of the self- 
restrained Rsabha, and are the foremost of those devoted to the Jina. Lord 


Bharata was neither able to lead them into submission, nor to enjoy the earth by 
s haring it with them, for they resorted to the powerful conqueror, Rsabha, their 
father and teacher, for the better condition of liberation. May they, who are rich 
in honor, be the kindling wood which bums up our karma, and cany away evil 
for us. 

Chapter 35 

Now when the youthful Bahubali, abounding in the pride of his strength of 
arm, was to be conciliated. Emperor Bharata's mind was somewhat agitated. 
“So,” he thought, “Our brothers do not welcome Our joy. They think their 
inviolability is due to their blood relationship. At the moment, Our brothers 
think that there is safety in numbers, and have, therefore, opposed Us, turning 
away from obeisance. The affliction of an external enemy who does not 
acknowledge Us is not so great by far as an extremely haughty group of 
kinsmen within Our very family. They smolder, their faces inflamed with the 
fire of evil speech, and, fanned by the winds of opposition, bum like firebrands. 

“Let the other princes, whom We have spoiled and let rim wild since 
boyhood, be in opposition to Us, if that is their wish. But young Bahubali — 
intelligent, knowledgeable in custom, courteous and clever — pray! Has even 
he, benevolent though he is, gone into opposition to Us? And how is he now to 
be conciliated? For he is powerful, and rich in self-respect, and bis own arm, 
when upraised in the field of battle, is always the means to victory. 

“Certainly, he possesses great power in his arms. Drunken with pride, he is 
like a great maddened elephant, and is difficult to catch without conciliations. 
That proud one is not brought into obeisance by the usual means of communica¬ 
tion. It is as if he were an evil spirit that has taken over with no one learned in 
the science of magical utterances to exorcise it. 

“The distinction between him and the remainder of the young warrior princes 
is great. And can a lion be held down by nets after the fashion of common 
animals? He cannot be split off from the others — he is too politically adroit for 
that. Nor is he to be subdued by force. Nor can he be bought off. And this is 
cer tainly not a matter for peaceful negotiation. Bahubali’s splendor is even 
enhanced by Our affection, and flames just like the sacrificial fire, whose flames 
are kindled by the dripping oblation of clarified butter. A peace mission directed 
at one who is violent by nature is as useless as applying skin cream to the hide 
of an elephant 

“His disposition is, by and large, to be inferred from the behavior of the other 
princes, who have turned away from my commands, abandoned the delights of 
kingship, and set their faces toward the forest Let us, still, examine further his 
intentions by means of conciliatory approaches. If, however, he should prove 
intractable, We shall consider what else to do later. Concealing incurable 
hostility within a kinsman's deceit, he may engulf the entire clan like a digestive 



fire arising and seizing the bowels. Anger bom in one's own inner circle is an 
obstacle for a king, as the fire produced from the rubbing together of two sticks 
is for the mountain. Therefore, We must respond quickly to this strong prince, 
who clings to his contrary behavior. There is peace for Us only when he, like an 
inauspicious planet, is quieted.” 

Having resolved matters along these lines, Bharata despatched a skilled and 
trustworthy ambassador, fully apprised of the situation, to Bahubali. The 
ambassador was followed by a coterie of his own dependents, as if by a second 
affectionate self, which brought along its own provisions. The ambassador 
reflected, “If Bahubali speaks in a manner favorably disposed, I shall then speak 
without boasting. If he speaks of waging war, I shall attempt to ward off 
conflict. Should he make a treaty and offer tribute, well, such is only our inner 
desire. If he remains unreconciled and desirous of conquest, I shall make a 
display of bravado and depart quickly.” 

Calculating the well-being of his own side and the ruin of the other, he took 
care not to be made of two minds by the divisive effect of other advice, and 
kept his own counsel. He slept alone and secretly on the journey, for fear of 
breaching counsel, and observed land appropriate for undertaking battle while he 
traveled the long distance. He crossed over several countries, rivers, and 
territorial boundaries in the course of his journey, and, after many nights' travel, 
be reached the city of Podanapura. Then, having come to lands outside the city 
that bore a rich and beautiful crop, he beheld a spot which bore a veritable 
forest of fully grown rice, and became very happy. 

He beheld tufts of rice that had sprouted up bearing abundant fruit, carefully 
maintained by the common people. Seeing this, the ambassador considered the 
populace to be unhostile, and intent on their own concerns. He heard the sound 
of the scythes clashing with one another as the farmers were reaping in the 
fields. The sound of the scythes resembled the sounds of the turya drum, and 
were enjoyed by the tillers and their families as they danced, their scythes 
upraised. In one spot he saw parrots extracting with their beaks the seeds from 
the ears of rice, which lay in clusters on the retaining mounds of the paddies; 
and those ears of rice looked to him like so many women who had been enjoyed 
by their lovers. He saw the women who guarded the rice fields against bird and 
animal predators, shooing off the parrots with inarticulate sounds, flapping their 
breast coverings, which were as beautiful as the parrots’ wings. The entire sky, 
garlanded with rice grains, was perfumed by these women, whose exhaled breath 
rivalled the fragrance of the sweet-smelling rice. With the droplets of perspira¬ 
tion falling from their large breasts, the women looked as if they were making 
themselves beautiful by putting ornaments of pearls on their chests. Their hair 
partings were flecked with particles of lotus pollen, and they made for 
themselves fancy chignons, bound with casually crafted garlands of blue lotuses. 
Beads of perspiration, caused by their toil, beauteous as the rice grains, flowed 
down the sides of their faces, which were fatigued by the heat. 


He beheld sugar cane plantations^from^h ^ ^ ongh the 

cane-crushing machines an e down . And in a neighboring field he 

cane was crying out in fear ofbcwg Qf ^ large udder s. They were 

fondlT^otogXrd of calves, toeffJo 


viewing this scene. imagination. Water flowed from 

The environs of toe city captur bearing millet, sugar cane 

irrigation channels, and watere g with their ponds, wells, tanks, 

and nee. He beheld teouflyjns l^U^. £ e dty with 

pleasure gardens and abundant lotos_ ® g t0 be a hoard of precious 

reverence, he considered the ° umer admired the royal courtyard which, 

stones heaped and saliva of horses gifted by other kings, 

filled with the turgid rut of elephants 

was as though sprinkled with water ‘ . ^ keepers 0 f the main 

The ambassador's presence was wbo waS seated on his 

door, and he was ushered in to see ^ d ®^ blazing ma ss of splendor. With 
throne. Beheld from afar, Bahubah appe ^ ^ a single pleasure- 

a broad chest and a high-pe^edprom t ^ ^ ^ & very broad turban 

mountain for his mistress, e surface of his brow, as if he had, 

bound round his head, elevated above meflats^a ^ ^ He 

with a great LclaU received the ^ accumalated fame of noble 

sported a long, balancing stick which supported the burden 

warriors was equalled. It was like an * the lustre of the 

of the earth. He wore the ^ in his vicinity. He 

blue lotus in his eyes. He te^no ^ ^ # ^ wfaich were both very 
possessed an undulled min accommodate the Goddesses of 

broad, both of which wereever av mb lage of virtues, the fruit of 

Learning and Fortune. He had °a«sed ® enter into his own limbs 

which is great and which acts as a pr ^ sky with a bright outer 

and into the minds of *e noWe^H ^ not insignificant lustre of his 

covering of shimmering ornaments, as tn ^by-colored pleasing feet, and 
valor. His faca sbone Hkea —pfflar brou^t 
a diamond-like upper body. H stability Brilliance permeated his 

forth by ft. Creator to SSS* — » * 

entire body, as did strength befitting& 1 ^ emissary moved a 

of atomic particles made only of apta abode of such radiance, 

httle ways off out of respect °r ^ and bowing his head which had 

- - hade enter by B-ahuhali with aU due 





a rJ?-TjT y L° beying Baharata ’ s command, sat down in an appropriate chair 
and Bahubah addressed him, scattering the rays of his smile in all directions: ’ 

“Now, after so long a time, we have come to the Emperor's mind. Tell me 
sir, is the world of Our Lord the Emperor well or not? For he has many 
cares. Is the right arm of the Lord of Princes skillful? For he has not completed 

^dhrn C nT e t 0fhlS eDemieS-1115 S3id 1bat 116 has ac ^ uired & dearth 
gdtamght all the kmgs into subjection. Is there anything left to do or not? 

Prince Bahubali spoke calmly let forcefully and briefly. Then he granted the 
messenger leave to speak. ^ 

J!TI lhe meSSenger> bringin - together, so to speak, both sound and meaning 
^ fee rays emanating from his teeth, commenced to speak in a stylish 

Your retention is easily discerned in your speech, which is like a mirror for 
the meaning in it is clear even to an unpolished person such as myself. We’are 

win 3 ?' a r e !f? ger ° f ^ Bharata ’ m<i move at his pleasure. We are dull- 
witted in the dilation upon matters of virtue and vice. 

“Nobie Prince the emperor has declared what is proper for those whom he 
chenshes^Ifrerefore, judge the worth of that pronouncement, not according to 
the quality of the messenger, but, rather, according to the stature of the declarer 

f T r teacher and father should 56 accepted. What he says is 
yond dispute. Because of its authority, you must now conform to Bharata’s 
command. ■** 

“Bharata is the foremost among kings, the first of the Solar Race. He has trod 
over the entire earth, and made the gods bow before him. Leaping all alone 
beyond the town of Gangadvara in his chariot, he made the sea a wounded and 

^ h n l e ?? y ‘ m T' S bUtDipg fire blazes 111 ** ocean ’ s water s and has 
^ oth the wealth and pnde of the gods in heaven. He pulled the gods into 

u jecnon by fastening a noose of arrows around their necks. How can they fail 
to bow before him m a great multitude? His arrow's flight covered a distance of 
twelve leagues, and made the ocean-bound abode of the deity Magadha the 

v^ -°L? T nCe ' Bharata ' s triumph was proclaimed by the gods on Mount 
\^ayarddha, for he conquered their Lord by his arrow's unerring flight The 
gods, led by Krtamala, submitted to him. But enough about how theaerTd 
deities on both sides of Mt Vijayarddha praised his victories. 

“Having conquered the gaping darkness, he entered the northern face of that 

^n? 3 ? hzS f yictolious forces - Wlth ^ aid of his general, he gained 

c^ZnZ H° Se - u SUIT0Unding even ** fotoigners who resisted his 
commands and seizing their wealth. He was anointed by the most excellent gods 

at once, and his fame became like lotus flowers which grow on the peaks of the 
highest mountains. 


“Those twin deities, the Rivers of Heaven, attended him with respect and with 
riches, for he had carved his fame into the peak of Mount Vrsabhadri. Laksmi 
was made a servant, and the gods were bound in servitude by Bharata, under 
whose command all the jewels were gathered together. Indeed, the 14 jewels of 
the emperor yield wealth. 

“He whose armies of conquest have conquered the entire earth roams over all 
countries, forests, borders and ocean shores. He is worthy of honor, and now 
celebrates possession of the discus. Honoring you with a proper blessing, he 
appoints you a king. He rules over our realm, which is comprised of all the 
oceans and continents which he traverses — over everything and everyone 
except his beloved brother Bahubali. 

“Behold his accomplishments; behold his dominion; behold the enjoyments 
and the insignia of royalty, which all the brothers will savor equally, with the 
resulting pleasure distributed among them. Though its men, demons, gods and 
flying creatures are all submissive to him, the realm does not shine in its full 
splendor while you are averse to bowing before him. When a relation does not 
honor the King out of foolish pride, that intransigent rogue sears the King’s heart 

“Approach the impatient King and honor him with your prostration. Obeisance 
to the King who desires it brings forth concord, does it not? The discus is 
subject to no orders but his alone, and it chastises the enmity of those who 
ignore his commands, which always bear authority. Behold the sovereigns of 
several districts, cut down to size by his thundering staff, lacking the nerve to 
transgress his commands. Approach him and make complete his heart's desire, 
O Valiant Prince. Let all the world be united through your reconciliation.” 

When the messenger had finished speaking, the clear-sighted young prince 
smiled gently, and replied with strong words pregnant with meaning: 

“You have described well the noble deeds of your Lord. For that is considered 
true eloquence which well serves the speaker's purpose. And you have shown 
your originality in accomplishing your chosen task by displaying conciliation 
and at the same time inciting to division and war. You truly are the intimate of 
a Lord who is like no other, otherwise how could you display so cleverly his 
inne r thoughts? Your Lord sent you to me because you have so often proven 
yourself. You are unusual, but that is wasted on me. For it villainy to behave 

“The display of force, the proclaiming of one's own virtues, and the 
highlighting of others' faults characterize the conduct of a scoundrel. A 
malicious person willingly points out his own virtues and others' faults, and 
covers up his own faults and even others' virtues. 

“An ignorant man abides in the evil of the barren behavior of the scoundrel. 
The wise man abandons this evil, for it is like a vine which attempts to support 
itself by clinging to the air. Such a vine is despicable; it abounds in tasteless 




fruits, and sears the world with pain. I consider it a vine of suffering. Concilia- 
ory words spoken first and accompanied by gifts are brought to nought by 
words of division and war that follow, for a person is justly made angiy by such 
talk of division and war. Proper employment of these strategies leadfto success 
m ones arms. Improper use of them leads to utter failure, Lely, when even a 
friendly man is heated in anger, the conciliatory approach of wMch you speak 

££ Si T A« of water cTdS 

CO f ** SOrt 0f t0 a powerful man; how can you 
3 T Whe \ y0U d0 DOthing but 0ffer * more “d “<« sticks 

Ler aZL , 6ated ^ but DOt ” heated in 

k £ nf t 0D “ Phant that 0311 be P acified > but not on a lion It 
is the man who is incompetent in the use of these stratagems and mixes them up 

who fails because of the defectiveness of his diplomacy, and not someone £e 
me. You must have thought that We could not be subjugated by peaceful means 
and so you decided to be insolent What a fool you are! 

King Bharata is not to be praised merely because he is older. Is an aging 
elephant a fit match for the young of the lion? Affection and respect SJt 
among siblings who axe on friendly terms with one another; but among those 
where tins is not the case, this peaceful condition between them is destroyed 
The adage that the eldest is to be reverenced may hold in other places or at 
another time. What recourse other than reverence is there for a man with a 

Zh ?Z ** head? ° meSSCD ^ our hea « burns at the ^Symg of 
another s pride. There is but one blazing sun. Is there another more Sem£ Ln 

“Our father divided kingship between Bharata and me by proclamation 
Bharataus called King of Kings. Now he is like a pimple on a goiter' Lefffiat 
King of Kings wallow greedily in his riches, as he wLs. We reJupS om 

ZtLftoZZZh ^ T merely UP ° D *** ldng - He ^ summoned Us 
d make Us bow to him under some pretext or other, as though We 

were a child; but that portion of the earth he offers Us appears to Us tot no 
larger than a clump of aSoka trees. 

“Wise men prize any fruit that is the result of the efforts of their own tree-like 
arms, but despise the firm condescendingly dropped from another’s look of 
favor, even though it were world dominion. A maTeven if he is a prLcTw£ 
desires wealth attached to the strings of another's commands, brings the title 
king into disrepute, like the lizard which calls itself a snake! Are not the 

bZmfd h Z!? 3 bUrd6D t0 ** bCStial priDCe Wh0 prosperity^ 

£££ afa “f e f r . S COnten ;f ° ne wh0 dfagB eagerly to life and posLsTons 
acquired at a loss of honor is like a two-tusked elephant whose tusks are broken 

veZZ V 7 0ther f ^ maD Wb ° b0WS Ms head 111 loss of:honor, may 
yet retain his royal parasol, but he forfeits its splendor and its shade Sages are 

of equal status because they have abandoned outer trappings and pleasures- but 

what man on earth, if he would be a king, would give up his pride? A man who 



is proud of his descent is not fit to be governed by another’s commands. Loss of 
life, or even the hermit's life in the forest, is preferable. Let those who are 
steadfast protect their honor by destroying their enemies. Glory always adorns 
the man who has earned respect 

“You have exaggerated nicely the Emperor's prowess. And how do I know 
that? Because your words are like any other description that means to praise or 
blame. Skillful speakers make even a quite lifeless thing flourish by means of 
their rhetoric. Does not even a domestic animal become a lion when its praises 
are sufficiently sung? All that you have spoken seems to Us to be mere words. 
There is no similarity between setting forth to conquer the world and the mere 
gathering of grains of wealth. Thar Lord parades around in circles collecting 
taxes, as if he were begging alms. Yet you have elevated him to the highest 
eminence from a state of beggarliness. 

“Now, that the Emperor did conquer the gods when he conquered the world, 
you must take on faith. But consider this well: did he not sleep on darbha grass, 
and fast, and rain his arrows down while the water was stilled by magical 
utterances when he conquered Magadha? And making his discus wander about 
by means of his long staff of rule, and drawing the princes under his sway, alas, 
he does mere potter's work! 

“The dust of his offense soils himself, his family, and past and future 
generations, and it has been taintin g the members of his own party, and even 
their families, for a long time. What is the point of praising so immodestly the 
unmanliness of one who, by using spells and magical utterances, endeavors to 
draw the princes into his orbit? O messenger, it galls us greatly that you praise 
his martial abilities, when the foreigners’ forces made his army waver uncertain¬ 
ly in water. Let that warrior's son have a care for his incorruptible wealth of 
fame, for strong men who bury their wealth in the earth have gone to ruin. 

“What is the use of jewels which don't cover even the amount of earth 
measured by a fist? Yet princes have gone straight to destruction for such things. 
This man is the sort who is weighed in a balance against a heap of jewels piled 
on by his vassals. Sovereignty, alas, is not of such a quality. 

“Clearly he desires to possess the land Our father granted Us. Would it satiate 
his greed if We acquiesced? O messenger, that respected Lord has no shame, for 
he desires to take from Us the family land Our father bequeathed Us. Will he 
next desire his brother's wife? A man who is free and desires unhindered 
conquest should offer something other than his wife and family and the land 
conquered by the strength of his own arm. 

“We have spoken enough. Either he or We, with valor in our arms, must 
enjoy the earth, which is marked by a single royal parasol. We have had Our fill 
of leisurely but pointless conversations with servants. His valor and Ours will be 
revealed in the touchstone of battle. Therefore, let the matter be resolved 
between us in violent combat Convey this. Our single certain message, 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

wI!' e .r baS :f° r L dlSrn,SSed by Prince Bahubali ’ wb ° had revealed his pride 

preparatiom^nR 3 ?t l0rd t0 for battle > making all due 

peparauons. Then Bahubali arose, along with his vassals, heaps of jewels falling 

off his crown, resembling hundreds of hurled firebrands, thoughts of battle tZ 

. h ? wc . ex Pmssions of the warriors in Bahubali's army were heard bv 
many, indicating that battle was immin ent: y 

■ ‘ul , 1 “ t :, thiS batde . now come f or our Lord. And are we able to be 
the earth t0 h™’ SmCC he has 1)6611 so beneficent to us? Lords who protect 
seiz^ rif ^ Pr0tCCt ^ dep6ndentS - *** what if ^se men of strawfoil to 
"ST' We °P body. We procu^te 

^ ° f ~ Ml 

1 with evei y tab pierced by arrows, obtain repose on the field 

, nen “ e elephants flappmg ears drive away mv battle fatigue-? with 
my speech «-«*, and my bowels coring 5ELJS 

° f ““ - * ta * **“• ° f - 

Of my bowels han^n, Z 2ZS? *— 1 

In battalion after battalion the valiant warriors, delighting in war spoke in this 
manner, and donned their helmets and seized their wfapoL ^ 

as If™ TTf’ 30X101,8 3011 ,0 iK somewhere, 

-* - °° 

ray?« IffeSulrf f w “ 1,0 '“"S** 10 lte mountaintops with its 


Webern Monnmin? 

its tad the h no T mal taimess and held the mountain fast with 

njitt Now. wrthout lusne, at day's end, i, seemed to fall Actually 

simif ^ Pk Wh ° $aW 11 ^^P 631 unde ^tood it to be falling when it w£ 
simply roarmng eternally on its horizontal circular path around Mo^nt Meru 


The Virgin Quarters of the sky were besieged by darkness and bore colorless 
countenances, as if tormented by the sadness of the sun in this predicament. The 
lotus plant, its flowers withered, and afflicted with pain from separation from the 
sun, seemed to be grieving because of the mournful buzzing of the bees about 
it The forests of the Western mountain, spread over by the heat of twilight, 
were as if encompassed by the jagged flames of a forest fire. 

Lady Twilight, who was fond of the sun, was nevertheless abandoned by it, 
and was seen in the sky as reddish in color, as though she had cast herself into 
a fire in despair. With the lustre of vermilion, she glowed softly in the Western 
region, like rows of coral gardens floating on a sea of sky. Her color, red as the 
China Rose flower, spread out along the Western horizon, resembling the fire 
that kindles the mental anguish of female cakra birds. She shimmered red in the 
West, and was, for an instant, perceived as the concentration of all the passion 
of ladies hearts in a single spot. The world highly esteemed the Twilight, who 
bore aloft her red rays, and followed after the Lord of the Day as if into death. 

The male cakra birds abandoned the female cakras, who followed after their 
mates in an agitated state of mind. Now, then, who may avoid destiny? Was it 
the sun's transgression? Or was it more a matter of the destined time which 
caused the pairs of cakra birds to become separated? 

Without the sun, darkness quickly pervaded the sky; generally speaking, in the 
absence of the sun's brilliance, daikness prevails. The night, covered by 
darkness, was clothed in dark blue and bedecked with stars, and appeared as a 
woman wearing luminous pearls set off to meet her lover. 

In a world covered with thick daikness, people with opened eyes did not see 
the city at all. It was as if they were defiled with delusion. The people were 
thoroughly shrouded in darkness and were inwardly bewildered. Consequently, 
they were greatly inclined to go to bed, since it was impossible to see. Lamps 
were prepared and shone in every house with trembling brilliance, their flames 
like needles to pierce the thick darkness. 

Then the moon arose, as if purifying the world with milk, and its rays drove 
off the daikness, causing the world to rejoice. Promoting the fulfillment of joy, 
it rose up like a good king, governing with affection all its territory. Just as a 
heard of elephants seeing the lion dragging off a deer's carcass in its mouth, 
flees, so the massive darkness, seeing the deer in the maw of the moon, fled. 
The multitude of stars spread across the sky and sparkled around the moon, as 
though a rapid flow of bubbling water had been made to stream forth. As the 
young swan, seeking for grasses to nibble, plunges deep into a pond, so the 
moon traversed the sky with its companions, the stars, nibbling away at the 
daikness. Having dispelled the daikness and bathed the world with its beams, 
the frosty-rayed moon spread over everything, as if coating it with ambrosia. But 
even having driven the daikness a long way off, the solitary moon was 
possessed of a stain, for innate daikness is very difficult to overcome, even for 
the noble- mind ed 



lustre, with gentle visages as it l, . with a cool 

«» « —i «* * « 

ornaments. They were live vines that fulfilled one's eveiy wish. AM af bytoj 

rays of the moon, the ocean rose ud to hi^h u- * ^ 

m * n j. r t tiue with crashing waves so in th/* 

minds of the lovers arose the desire for sexual union ’ “ 

Oamtog lovers, the most exceUeot rays of the moot, and sandal paste 
Jhe honses of *e be ,^ 

xsss ra rr£ trsr w “ 

women experience longing simply because passion possesses them’ 

a^^r^h^ttd" n< ~a r 31 “ 

lodgings, made bold by the Boffless gZ SET ***£ ^ ^ 
wotds of her hiend J go-betw^s^^v^TeTemSUd 
hereyes bathed tn tears, when he who is dear as Ufe has no, c!^ ’ 

-2 sxssssszz ri“~ or 2,1 r iov “ by 

mutmuring hum of his bow suing of bees Nor h™’ ccom P al “=J by the low, 
married woman, who was enraged that her husband • / ne glected the newly- 
name of his mistress whenXL^o ^ 

potter bemtyed lady is no. calmed down by the nj .^w^thT.^ 
of the uSm plant, nor by wet breezes, for within her nun a tenible fiTS 

“atfs r- a ® aed by God ° f 

jady makes a tiva, en^t^S £ ttZg&'ZZ 
lover to a place suitable for making love “Oueen wt t n , S 1 d by he 
now call me your beloved; the womTo 1,2“™ yt '^TttT " 
of your sense of shame as well as your hean to you now dare to mlT^e to 

you ahoCtua^g^^fateZt ^^ “* love 

Utese wonts in the pJeS^hetSe^o™ Z5 £“ * W ° Ved 
come and tow htoelf at the angry datnsel'/feet’ e y°“ng man doesn t 

up by the fans. Havmg conciliated him, bring him to me or lead me to ^ 


Since the lord of my life has many lovers, my life is dependent upon you for 
support.” The woman, suffering in this way at the hands of the God of Desire, 
was reconciled to her lover through the offices of her female companion, and 
though recently separated from her lord, was again embraced by him, restrained 
in the tight embrace of his strong arms. 

The bell-covered girdles of the women lovers, with their soft tones, pro¬ 
claimed “Let everyone delight as he pleases in the realm of the Mind-Bom 
God,” as if making a general public pronouncement Did the God of Desire, 
perhaps, whisper at the base of the woman's ears, or was it merely the confused 
uproar of a swam of bees buzzing around the lotus flowers tucked behind their 
ears? Among the multitude of lovers, there was an outbreak of violent embraces, 
rubbing of the decorative coloring on the women's breasts, and impetuous hair¬ 
pulling. After intercourse, the eyes of the lovers were of an impure reddish hue, 
and the lower lip was a little bit reddened from having repeatedly uttered moans 
of ecstasy. At the end of love-making couples lay on beds fragrant with flowers, 
the covers fallen away from and exposing the pubic regions. 

A few of the warriors made a feast of the love-making, even though their 
desire was sluggish due to having feasted heartily in honor of the impending 
battle. Some of the more determined warriors did not succumb to the embrace 
of their lovers, for their desires could only be fulfilled by the joy of union with 
Lady Glory. Some soldiers, whose lives were committed to conquest, did not 
even take to the bed, thinking that they could only enjoy their lovers after 
conquering the enemy's army. The foremost among the warriors, though their 
desire was great, forsook the beds of their lovers because of their greater desire 
for the joy of lying on a bed of arrows. Yet other warriors engaged in heroic 
speech with their lovers, and, with their faces already turned toward battle, did 
not even notice the shimmering starry night. Some soldiers were of two minds 

— though their minds were zealously desiring battle, they, nevertheless, also 
experienced a strong taste for union with their ladies. So they enjoyed the 
commencement of love-play, harsh with the biting of lips, and looked forward 
to the commencement of battle, harsh with the clash of swords. 

The love-sick women carried away the minds of their lovers, gratifying them 
in love-play with kisses and eager embraces. Even at the end of the lovers' 
intercourse, the artifices usually undertaken at the beginning of it were satisfying 

— glances from the comer of the eye, suppressed lau ghin g, whispered talking, 
becoming fiercely angry without reason, ardent passion and expressively-arched 
eyebrows, and feigned deceptions which ill-concealed true love. 

The night turned away, as if blushing to see them falling to earth, hungry for 
sexual union. The Lady of the Western region stood with a face like a pendulous 
moon, as if cautioning the lovers, “Enough, now! You two, lords of your house, 
have dallied for quite some time and are exhausted!” The sun, having separated 
the cakra birds from one another when it set, now rose up all around with its 
heat, as if anguished at what it had done. 




sanemh rare d t JStOT I ^ 1 “ th 0 i“tan(Be e or i ““ ““ many - ra >' e<i 

was driven off by the fresh, newlv ari^n ^ noctumaI darkness 

to embrace rhe 8^0“^"°'" *“ " - *» - - 


light from the moon. The hot sun onen^rtT?* bl ? S ’ made ° ff with *** 
heavens, opening the eves of th? 6 °° r daricness ^d revealed the 

arisen v^ariyin 4 momfn^ 7 ’ “ 11 Were ’ with * rays. Thus, having 
® Sowing heat, emnlated the soldi^^aTt^u ^^ “* ^ ^ 

° f j0Ung ,heir 

own, chanted a hymn. ^ ad ’ fact ’ alread y awakened on his 

Chapter 36 

hea^’an^eXi^Z^dala^T *“ “• obscuring 

speech, like the ocean stnrck by the^inS of a^rZV* 1 ° f T ‘" eSSenge, ' s 
war reverberated with sounds so strong th*t 7 1116 great kettle -drums of 
the use of the sword p J££ £SS "“I *** tate » « 
cavahy and elepham corps set 0^72^ ,^ 8 d,V ' ded b® Wautry, 

chariots moved about in front of and h h a & ° f the aty ' plat °om 'of 
aerial gods we^e^d “ "* *“■= of «* anny, and the 

King Bharata, possessed of this full <?;■* 
his vassal princes, desirous of vanquishing his vounZht 7“ 7* “* ° Ut wilh 
great war elephants, with their battle Jc*r y ger brotfaer - The gathering of 
mountains roaming about and en™ ■ a P peared to be a collection of 

elephants stood oraU sidls^cSL 111 “Z* ^ ^ ^ Ru ^ 

the earth; indeed the earth resembled * s of juice from their temples onto 
lofty war elephants, their limbs Th * 

covered over by the soft heat of morning’ M l7d^ mountauis 
the elephant divisions canarisnned in 7 j d Bharata reviewed his forces, 
of victory, gave the impression that T ^ s P ortin g the auspicious marks 
scene. Tte deph^t ZeT 7 ,td T* T^. **» ^ved on the 

mounted on elephants’ shoulders, aM appearZtoZl^ 88 ° f her0eS) Were 
itself. appeared to be the amassmg of Pride 

and teir°m™s SW0Id '*‘ ps “ ct »g their shoulders 


with their standard weapons, stood in numerous chariots like helmsmen on their 
boats in the ocean of battle. 

Helmeted and armed warriors guarded the feet of the lead elephant with 
drawn swords, their blades razor-sharp. Other warriors, armed with a multitude 
of quivering weapons, trembled like a portentous wind attended by meteors and 
gathering clouds. Still another warrior, taking up in his hand a sword with a 
dreadfully sharp point, and seeing the heroism in his own countenance, observed 
his own valor reflected in the sword blade. One warrior was waving a sword 
held firmly in his hand, and appeared as if he desired to measure out with it the 
extent of regard his master would have for him this day. The forces of those 
attached to the King Bharata set out, in divisions of infantry, elephants, cavalry 
and chariots. 

The vassal princes had their heads turned towards the jewel-like beams of the 
sun. It was as if the Lokapalas, the protectors of the world, had descended to 
earth. The princes gathered around Bharata, the Lord of the Earth, indicated to 
him in a proper manner the collected might of their armies in the distance, and 
then set out 

The warriors calmed their wives, whose hearts were distressed at hearing of 
the undertaking of this new battle, and set off with words of prayer on their lips. 
Then the dust of the earth, kicked up by the horses' hooves and leaping into the 
air, momentarily obstructed the view of the ladies of the heavenly realms. When 
the dust was thrown up into the sky, causing it to be covered over by thick 
darkness, light emanated from the emperor's discus, causing the warriors to 
focus on it as their proper object of concentration. 

The Lords of the Earth fortified their resolve on the march by means of the 
speech of the soldiers, which was full of bravado, and even by means of the 
gossip of the common folk, which was of a similar flavor. Prince Bahubali stood 
close at hand, ornamenting the battlefield with his presence; and Bharata, that 
tiger among princes, approached unhindered. 

People spoke in this vein: “How can we possibly know what may befall these 
two brothers? Generally speaking, for their partisans, the battle is not for 
peaceful ends. This monstrous battle is begun by Bharata. True it is that princes 
in their lust for empire will behave according to their own whims. They who are 
joined to the crown are unable to hold these two brothers in check, for are they 
not the very ones who have come fully-armed to make war? So this Prince 
Bahubali, great in dignity and valorous of arm, stands face to face with battle 
because he has, assuredly, provoked his brother, who bears the discus weapon. 
Nevertheless, a wise man realizes that possession of a mightier army is not the 
surety of victory. Can not a single lion conquer even an entire herd of 
elephants? And the emperor is not generally taken for an ordinary man, for he 
receives the protection of thousands of bowing deities, who feed on the nectar 
of immortality. Therefore, let there not be war between these two, for its sole 




S2 ° f Pe ° Ple ' Rate ‘* «**■. if toy to dose a, 

TTms some people, in an impartial manner, lauded both sides. Others tainted 
by favoritism, praised the excellence of their own side. 

Thus, the Lords of the Earth, diverted by the considerable gossip of the 

heroes°Bahubah’ ****? ** pl3CC where stood the foremost among 

heroes, Bahubah Opposmg warriors in Bharata's presence usually esteemed hjf 

pnde m his martial abilities, and trembled, for they could not suWue Wm ^ 

m the presence of Emperor Bharata's army, the army of Lord Bahubah ^demons 

2S S ed “■ - ocean ‘ s —- ~ foe £Z S 

Now, the resolute commanders in both armies, their energy rivalling that of 
armored elephant, deployed their forces, intent on combat Meanwhile the 
ZZ i> d T 18 ** 8 deliberated on ^ situation and said, “War between 
daSh ? g °l tW ° P la -*> - « conduce to 

‘ T u ° Ut smeU of deatfa about them. There will be no 

injury whatever to either of them. But the likelihood of the tes of W 

asTm ofteT ^ great ” HaViDg dedd£d this ’ fo ese ministers obtained the 
T^e J md eXh ° rted ^ t0 a righteous battle: 

hnZm TAZrJV V ith ° Ut CaUS6 ’ yet Causes ^struction of 
ofZi't t f C ^ th£re 15 much unrighteousness and a great loss 

thiT , A t k f ° r SUpRimaCy 15 possible “ a completely different way And in 
toat contest between you, you must both bear defeat without anger or victory 
without pnde. This is the correct way between brothers.” 

had^fr PI ? CCS ’ **“ addreSSed by 311 ^ vas sals and ministers who 
ad f^ SSed ^ ob Jecnons, determined, with heavy hearts, to undertake the 

” rrrii'rr one ° f you «■* 

or water, eye and arm, let him, reliant on his own abilities be lord of th* 
S'ta f .' r,a0Iy '” deep-sounding dnuns 

851 WhlCh ms P lred ** ““d summoned ail to army 
commanders together in one place. The princes who adhered to Bharata's nartv 

ST 6mselves 0D one Slde ’ md those belonging to Bahubali's on the 

In the midst of these princes stood the two princely brothers, shining as if for 
some reason or another, the two mountains Nlsadha and STL ! 
together. Of the two. Lord Bahubali, dark-haired I^sembW a lot Z 

GanfdfT Wlth bUZZiDg 3101111(1 ^ shone ^ the lustre of the £y-blue 
Ganida stone; while Bharata, the King of Kings, shone with the lustofLaled 

Mounto m SeParatXOD fr ° m MS CT0Wn ’ ^ reSembled * e high-peaked King of 

nh^ V f° T ° US B . ahubali s P° rted the steadier, unblinking, calm eye and ouicklv 
obtained victory in the battle of glance. Checking <£ agitation’ oTbSs 


irresistible, ocean-like army, the princes respectfully granted the victory to the 
younger prince. 

Then the two arrogant princes, like two of the elephants that support the sky, 
entered into the water of the lake, and splashed one another with their long 
arms. Like the streams of water clinging to the lap of Himavat, Lord of 
Mountains, clear columns of water rained down on the broad manly chest of 
Bharata, desirous of conquest. A large quantity of water loosed by Lord Bharata 
toward the towering Bahubah did not reach his face at that distance, and 
descended harmlessly near him. Lord Bharata was also unable to obtain that 
victory, and his defeat was proclaimed loudly by Prince Bahubali's forces. 

Then the two firm princes, courageous as lions, assented to close combat, and 
ascended into the arena. Great was the battle of their arms, for each possessed 
great pride in his arms' strength. There were many tight embraces and holds, and 
there was much flapping of arms and bounding around. 

The Emperor Bharata, whose splendor was like his blazing crown, was lifted 
up with ease by his younger brother. The staggering ruler instantly felt what it 
was like to be spun around like a fire-brand. 

The younger lord conquered the older, the tiger who had conquered the land 
of the Bharatas. But Bahubah did not throw Bharata to the ground on account 
of the respect due him. Just as if Nila Mountain were to carry Hima Mountain, 
with its great s hinin g slopes, so Bahubah placed his arms around Bharata and 
lifted him up. 

Then, the favored Bahubah, along with his allies, let out a loud cry. But the 
princes allied with Bharata bowed their heads in shame. Suffering a state of 
highest humiliation, the emperor became visibly bewildered in the very sight of 
his princely allies. Contracting his eyebrows, brightening like the reddish sun at 
its arising, and blazing with anger, the Emperor instantly became terrible to 

Then the Lord of Treasure, blind with anger, remembered the discus weapon, 
which had cut off the entire world of his enemies, for the purpose of defeating 
his brother. Simply being called to mind, the discus leaped immediately toward 
Bahubali, circumambulated him and, making dull the brightness of the sun, came 
to rest before that prince who could not be killed. Then the Emperor was very 
repentant, and was chastised by the nobles, who scolded him, saying, “For 
shame! Enough of this violence!” 

The resolute Bahubah, having lifted up Bharata with his hand as if weighing 
him, proclaimed the greatness of his deed with a loud voice, and brought him 
down to a debased status on the undebased earth. Then Bahubah was ap¬ 
proached by the princes and was honored by them with shouts of victory, and he 
thought to himself how great he was. But then he reflected, “What shameful 
things my elder brother does for the sake of this kingdom which will perish! Fie 
on this sovereignty which tastes bitter when it is gained and which disappears in 




an instant It is difficult to be rid of, though it deserts one, just like an unfai thful 
wife. People, attached to the pleasures of the senses, never stop to consider how 
grotesque are the sense objects, how harmful, transient and tasteless. What wise 
man would hanker after the poisonous pleasures of the senses, for once caught 
by them a person goes from one misfortune to another. Preferable is poison 
which may or may not kill you in this very life; the pleasures of the senses kill 
you forever. Even the wise man needlessly goes to disasters on account of the 
sense objects, which give momentary pleasure, but whose essence is astringent 
at the time of ripeness. Who would partake of the objects of sense? For they are 
like the astringent ripe kancheera fruit, of extraordinary taste at first, yet taking 
away one's life in the end. Slashing swords, blazing fires, Indra's thunderbolt, 
and great snakes are in no way the causes of affliction that sense objects are. 
Ignorant men whose object is sensual enjoyment, and who long for the 
acquisition of wealth, obtain possession of oceans, violent armies, fearful forests, 
rivers and mountains. Those whose goals are the objects of the senses traverse 
an ocean of sea monsters, and are buffeted by the noisy thunderbolt in the form 
of the blows of the monsters’ long arms. Those who are allured by sensual 
pleasures enter the field of battle without fear, where the sky is covered by a 
hailstorm of arrows, to obtain them. Such insensate people roam in wildernesses, 
where even the forest-dwellers roam with fear in their eyes, afflicted by the 
hope for sensual enjoyments. Alas, those tormented by the dangerous graspings 
after sense objects cross over rivers with formidable whirlpools stirred up by 
aquine predators. Fearless people, bewildered by the speech of deceivers who 
claim the knowledge of the science of medicine that cures aging, would climb 
even the most difficult mountains to find the cave that holds that supposed cure. 

This old age, violently seizing the hair and turning it white under the pretext 
of aging, embraces us like an unwanted mistress. In general, those eager for 
transient enjoyments do not know the distinction between good and evil. How 
great a difference can there be between sensual indulgence and death among 
aged men? Man's falling into old age is like the arising of a severe feverish 
chill, with the body's limbs trembling, causing him to topple to the ground. 
Among men, aging and the enjoyment of spirituous liquor quickly accomplish 
decay of the body and slipping of the mind, as well as slurring of speech. This 
hitching post of life, which, when it is strong, sustains the lives of men, is 
uprooted violently by the malevolent elephant. Time. The strength of this body 
is unstable, like the elephant’s ear, and this tottered hut of a body is destroyed by 
disease as a real hut is by rats. 

Alas! Lord Bharato's mind is obstructed by delusion, and he think-s constantly 
about ephemeral matters such as the kingdom.” 

Then Bahubali, that destroyer of deceit, having observed the debased 
condition of his elder brother for a bit, expressed these sharp words to him: 

“Hear me, O tiger among men! Leave off your astonishment! You have 
resorted to this ill-intentioned and excessive violence in your delusion. The 


discus, which you ordered against my invisible, mountainous body, fell like a 
thunderbolt against an unpierceable diamond mountain. 

‘•You have certainly obtained virtue and worthy fame by this empire you have 
coveted, for you have shattered the vassals which are your brothers. You were 
praised as ‘Son of the Creator, most excellent, bearer of the discus, uplifter 
your family.’ For that reason you think this wealth of princes, which you have 
Just now conquered, is indestructible and not to be enjoyed by others, but it is, 

in fact, afflicted by sin. . 

“Never mind this mistress of yours, the Glory of Dominion, which you so 
highly honor. She is not proper for me. O vigorous Lord, no bondage ever 
causes delight to good men. What wise man would touch this 
is like some thorny vine, bearing fruit, yet also defile yy 
must avoid this completely, as if it were a cluster of poisonous thorny Let us 
two, rather, desire to engage in the wealth of asceticism and penance, free from 
thorns, dependent only upon ourselves. 

“Let us forgive any transgressions that have been committed. For my part, I 
havtltemSLed my lienee, and have unedy fallen away fan, good 

“^cascade of words, issoing from the mouth of Bahubali like fao-tefrom 
a cloud gladdened the fevered mind of Bharata, the King eager or conq . 
Bharata Sviled himself, saying “Alas! I have committed an outrage, and 

repented of his own evil deed. t 

Bahubali did not retreat from his determination, but actedBharatof; pk*s 
to stay and become emperor. Oh! How steadfast are the mindM! Rqwang. 
Bahubali threw down the treasure of the territorial dominion at the feet of his 
£££ Ser, and hononng the fee, of his teacher and fate, took upon 
himself initiation into the ascetic life of the Jainas. 

Embraced by the vine of initiation, all his clothing cast aside, he was like a 
J^ded ofTtt leaves, embraced by vines. With his fair's consent, the 
learned and restrained Bahubali wandered about alone and performed yoga in a 
^g pos“ul me rains came. Maintaining a prafaeworfay vowing 
amid the forest's spreading vines, standing among snakes slinking 

of anthiS, he was a fearful sight His feet were covered by the 
expanded hoods of young, hissing cobras, as though covered wito P™>onous 
Scouts With Vines descending through his hair down to hrs shoulders, he 
SSSd the paradisal sandal tree with its multitude of black snakes. The 
flower-covered vine of spring embraced him tightly, envel ^| * d 

branch-like arms, as though it were a laughing companion The 
off that vine by the hand of the Vidyadharis withered, and resembled beautifid 
1* fe« of ‘Off paging fa the most shenuous tKOenc 

activity, Bahubali seemed to be a lover emaciated by longing for his nusness. 




Asceticism withered not only his body, aflame as it was by the heat of self¬ 
generated austerities, but also his karma, which does not confer happiness. He 
was overcome by no affliction whatever, even though he engaged in excessive 
ascetic penances. The steadfastness of the veiy great, because of which they are 
not shaken from their purpose, is beyond conceiving by ordinary men. 

Bearing all things patiently, composed, detached, and shinin g, he overcame 
the burdens of the earth, and afflictions of cold water, wind and fire. He 
prevailed over the pairs of afflictions — hunger and thirst, cold and heat, 
gadflies and gnats — for the sake of success in his movement along the Jaina 
ascetic path. He undertook the excellent vow of nakedness, and was not 
overwhelmed by the mischievous senses. The restraint of the state of chastity, 
which is nakedness, is the highest ascetic activity. Bahubali endured both 
discomfort and pleasure patiently. For those not attached to desires, pleasure and 
pain surely do not represent obstacles. He was not tempted by women, for he 
had attained the state of being totally indifferent to pleasures, and he looked 
upon the impure body of a woman as no more inviting than a leather doll. He 
paid no heed to footwear, a bed or a chair, but bore easily the afflictions 
resulting from walking, lying down and sitting. This foremost among men who 
knew the highest truth was free from desire and forsook happiness, and bore 
physical and verbal abuse to his person, since he was to give up the body. He 
did not desire to maintain the body by eating and gathering food on begging 
rounds. In this manner did he endure, silently, the afflictions of m endicanc y. 
Making no discrimination between pleasure and pain, undertaking the purificato¬ 
ry activity of abandoning the body, and exhibiting supreme patience, he put up 
with dirt and the touch of thorns all over his body. His intellect firm, he endured 
the torment bom of these diverse bodily afflictions, which is difficult to endure, 
and meditated on the body, that abode of diseases. Steeped in wisdom, he cast 
away the pride that comes from mundane knowledge and which is an affliction 
to true wisdom, and boldly bore the afflictions rising from that knowledge until 
he attained omniscience. 

He was not eager either for honor or precedence. He took no pleasure in 
honor, nor any delight in deferential treatment. Contented as he was, he did not 
succumb to any of these afflictions, and suffered neither from ignorance nor lack 
of perception. On account of his conquest of these afflictions, extensive damage 
was visited on the karmas which imprisoned his body. Indeed, the destruction of 
the karmas is the consequence of the supreme victory over these afflictions. 

He easily overcame anger with forbearance, pride by abs taining from 
haughtiness, and deceit with sincerity. Having put amorous passions to fli ght, he 
easily conquered the five senses. Asceticism and penance are the cal min g of 
desire's fire, which flames up when kindled by sensual enjoyments. Conquering 
desire, he eradicated in himself the characteristics of a liv ing being bound by 
karma — eating, fearing, copulating, and desiring possessions. Thus, breaking 


the story of bharata and bahubau 

the courage of .be imerior enemies aR 

lowing Si .ha, .here was ,o know, conquemd self by m ^ ^ 

That steadfast, great and wise mendicant ^ m emmealed as follows: 
observance of the fundamental ^ caU ed samtis; the proper 

the vow of me mendicant; the^es; ^ staB o£ nudity: 

curbing and obstruction of the senses from one . $ head; and, among 

acquiescence to periodic ™ scarC ely-frequented places, lying down 

the essential religious duties, bathing siQgle meal of 

only on the earth, refraining from cleaningtoe^ conduCt . 

boiled rice daily. He «*«-«»£ of light 1ft. die 

Clinging to supreme puntyof vow, encumbrances of speech, wealth and 

sun by its fiery rays. He laid aside th wherein stability was 

passion, and attained the **enorpath to liberation. Clinging to 
increased by the ten dharmas, thu speech, thought and action; 

the fortress of the three restraints (gup ), knowledge fully-armed with the 

rules of proper conduct (samiti) f conque ring his enemies, 

abandoning materral objects, he became fcnrons^ of ^ 

Since he was ever awake and locreasihgly conduct _ w as not in danger 
jewels — right knowledge, right befae restrained his speech by 

of being taken from him by dull-w from him. His stronghold of 

taking the vow of sHenc^no^e ctan^ The light of knowledge 

the mind was well-guarded torn amcK y ^ ^ Sght of tto, lamp 

was made manifest in the great object for his contemplation, 

of knowledge every object in the work !Z 0 f ^ and M 
He reflected upon the true nano* as a small seed held in 

consciousness, and the universe .... enhanced by the conquest of the 
the palm of his hand. With his bnlhan ^ ^ J nquered , and with his 

afflictions, hostile to the senses wta graced Lcetidsm as his dominion. 

enemies, the passions, destroy , r p bom of meditational discipline. 

His supernatural spiritual c ^ endeav0IS , and his power was 

were manifest through the force of his ^ emin£nce m ^ four-fold 

clearly capable of shaking the -tore^ subsiding and destruction of each 
knowledge, which was expande Jj. 0 f the soul, became manifest. On 
of the karmas which obstruct the qu ]gd ^ there ^se a storehouse 

account of the manifestation o P p . e knowledge of all the 

of knowledge. By means. ° to the highest 

religious texts, commentanal hteia “f; ied of ^material forms. And then 
level of avadhi knowledge, e derstand ing of the thoughts of all others, 

bis expansive mind engaged m th J was preeminent on account 

C of£ is the root of the great tree of 

asceticism and penance. 


THE clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

blazed forth like thflun w'ifo 'bSe h ^ “ ore fo ™ id *lc asceticism, he 
aiages of asceticism to toe Mna ^ f Underwe “ *** « <*the 

order of increasing severity. This sunerior S’ ? u “ g each stage in *e 

ST“ e f0rth by means 0f ^ perfe « -dtvoifasT^ 

Who engaged in thirs n h4 V pena P n S ^ W3S manifest “ tan. 

brought about by the forcTof his asceticism' ° f dght modifi «tions ! 

to the whole world, and even his hpich' Veiy presence was beneficial 
supernatural quality of a powerful medicine I’ 30(1 sweating had the 

on account of the power of his fasting the' ^ th ° Ugh he fasted > there arose, 
to lifejuices in hiij. P ° wer "*** 

power of his asceticism. He was then hnth 0 strength arose though the 
very presence kept other peoples' houses mT refuge ’ 311(1 0De whose 

of indifference to oppositcZ^^T^ ** ^ 

who was supreme among those knowledgeable in thTa ’ ^ “ nqueiing acetic, 
his mind and directed it in the constant exerri^ f S< ^ UC <bsa P Iine > subdued 
undertook these specific activities derived fr ° f med *tation. Indeed, he now 
forbearance, supreme gentleness, highest sinceritv^^ meditation: su Preme 
asceticism, complete poverty, restraint of rhp e ^ 1016 punty ’ abandonment, 

Sr* - =3Err z 

pure and twelve ^numterTe^^S^fd COmplete, y 

permanent; on how there is nothing h nothmg “ the world is 

the world of birth, death and rebirth- on how l PeTS ° n \ 0n the Pataul nature of 
soul is different from material ^ alone; 011 h °w *e 
attachment to the senses feads to^e^ux ^ * ™ PUre; on how . 

prevent the influx of karma- on how ^ ^ 0Q h ° W good action can 

the real nature of the world; on how difficTi^? 68 ^.° f fannic bondage -' 011 
special greatness of the doctrine of flf jJas He ^e ^ *** and 00 ** 
meditation called Dharmadhyana or rithi^ ! undertook the level of 
meditated upon the authority of the Jina’f t S medltation: m this stage he 
actions into fruits, the structure of eitend t*** npening ofka imic 

that lamp, which is the light of mediation h^ ™ ° Ut oikarma - 

matter instantly shattered like so 0uId see ^ P iec es of karmic 

from his body and was diffused in aBdS ° f lampblack ' Light emanated 
which appeared as though it were nerm^TV* q ” Bad through forest, 

AH the species of cordon ' ! y ** a * to,dor of 311 emerald, 

at bis feet; they were not oppressed by ofli^ 0ti0nleSS ** “ 3 State of re P ose 
had become extremely gentle in his presen^a^ 



by nature sat down, free from hostility. Elephants, lions and other animals sat 
near the feet of Bahubali and praised his might. The tigress, who had only 
recently given birth, kissed the aged jackal on the head, and even bade all the 
jackal's offspring to share the milk that flowed from her teat. Elephants, in the 
company of their leaders, sat next to the lions, their natural enemies. The young 
of lions, eager to drink from a breast, resorted to the female elephants. The lions 
caressed the throats of the young elephants with their sharp claws; the elephants 
emitted low, melodious sounds of contentment, and the lions were encouraged 
in this activity by the elephant leaders. The female elephants, desiring to cleanse 
the ground in Bahubali’s vicinity, carried water by means of cups made from 
folded-over lotus leaves held in their trunks. The elephants placed at his feet the 
lotuses that they brought in their tranks, and honored the sage Bahubali. Oh, is 
not asceticism peace-inducing? 

The sage was radiant with the dark blue bodies of snakes at his feet, as if he 
were garlanded with blue lotus blossoms placed down by worshippers. The dark- 
blue serpents arose from the anthills, their hoods entirely expanded, and emitted 
a b rillian ce that resembled an offering of dark pearls made at the sage's feet. 

The vines of the forest, brilliant with blossoms hanging from the tips of then- 
branches, resembled devotees bowing before Bahubali and honoring him with an 
offering of flowers. The trees of the forest, the tips of their branches stirred by 
the wind and their flowers blossoming repeatedly, appeared to want to dance 
constantly because of their joy. Certainly the serpents danced, emitting an 
inarticulate singing which sounded like a swarm of bees, with their hoods 
expanded, their bodies contorted, and radiant with the beams emanating from 
their pearl-like hoods. And the peacocks, the haters of snakes, danced for a 
while as the serpents watched, to the beat of the Dindima drum, which made a 
sweet sound resembling the male cuckoo. And that forest became a place of 
tranquility by means of the majesty of the tranquil Bahubali. Indeed, diligence 
among the great begets tranquility even among those not tranquil by nature. 

Birds chirped with placid sounds at the edge of that forest, as though they were 
proclaiming that this ascetic grove was an exceedingly tranquil place. 

And as that forest abode became tranquil through the power of his asceticism, 
no harm of any kind befell any creature. Even the wild beasts had the darkness 
in their hearts removed by the great power that was bom of his asceticism, and 
they became freed from any feelings of aggression or hostility. 

Those beings who travel among the clouds perceived the presence of this lord 
of sages, absorbed in his meditation, because their movement became unstable; 
so they descended to him and caused him to be worshipped over and over again. 

At once, there was a trembling in the place of the gods, the eaters of immortal 
nectar, who had bowed their heads; this trembling arose on account of his great 
majesty, which was bom of the heroic energy of asceticism. The Vidyadharfs, 
approaching at some point in order to frolic in the area, caused the vines 
clinging to all of Bahubali's limbs to be removed. 



r XiTV 

With a force 0 f MONK 

"XntSa HonS'b EiUl 'to B 

'xptmnceh toe by „ Lon! B to™> at th7 j d „ f to fece “P ta p® 

*«cb is imperishable Tbftlri‘ ^ ° f “tod "feral* ?*“ faStbl *' be 
Lord Bharata, for Rah h. Smg of ^ omniscient ’ ° r omn Lcience 
he foouSt ° 0 nt * *** Action d ^fo h T* the W «P of 

»■* w ^rr* of, r^, s b tT ffi forWs ^ 

Practitioner of ° t0 ^ cJear light of nwr. set b B difficulties." Lord 
?*. “ B ^bS a ^l'°. pre *”P B o»,bob to. 

®»^2;tsr d aca .^ rrxw «-* 

re gard to the arising , devotlo fr exceeding the form away of 

describe the g^, 4*^pledge ta Ba * ™ P“% <m of 

Lad attained the state n f? L rf Bharata did to his own ZZ com Petent to 
J «d to p JZ^l™***** 7 Any 01K o7a^TJ 3 r g s ^ 
younger brother the fact / ev ° h0Dal activity; the f act “ by Itself would 

■tatotwota^tl ba,Btoraa »«^ yd “S‘ t Ba ;“baIi was bis 
bore each other great In S a,ed throu Sh previous^hrhc d ? reIlgion « dte fact 

by ail of them taken togethef^T? 611, ^ 80od acti °n caTfril to hT ,hey 
that India among yog K ? e Su P rem o emperor BharatT^ f ^ Dourish ed 

“■5™.“?“' “**"—“*»■' C1S2S; 

* *- - 

^ I* 2 *- The oblation w« of "Pooled S S™® 11 '®' K 

nnmortal nectar the int ade ^ die pinda ball nf was “ade 

*"« to »“ ">ade With ^Z of 7 a "' CMs ’ 

fr om the trees of the f^ erS Was d °ne by means nf i ° f *** red sandal tree 
to reMp,a c i ffi fffled ‘S, 0 * P^gly-colored coral 4T5 flowere tat “ 
Ptoed. lie l^loae^r*- TCre P^d <*"■ All 

° JSToflaSS u 80dS “ mbfe4 A ‘ 

aiong the path of the cfo a ?°^ es ' ^d thunder sounder! f . ^ ^ m * sts from 
fed from L 4 ta^S- A ^ of fiowem from “ a Jow nimble 

of the gods, and his celecZZ^^ ^brella was fashion a k tr ^ e of heaven 
shone forth. On either m ^ Seat> c °mposed of the m Cd by dle artificers 
Then the osZhwZu ^^ ^whisks watdT ° f jewels - 



Yogins, who possessed the spiritual gift of omniscience, was served by numerous 
sages, who were like stars dependent upon the moon. Bearing a superiority 
which arose through the destruction of karmas, he who was honored by the 
nectar-eating gods roamed over the entire, earth as a preacher of the Jaina 
dharma. Thus did that omniscient sage, who pleased the world with the nectar 
of his own speech, attain to the clear, unmoving Mount Kailasa, which was 
sanctified by the presence of Rsabha, his teacher and father. 

Bahubali is renowned for his conquest of Bharata by means of a battle with 
water, wrestling and a battle of glances, in the assembly of all the princes. Yet 
he set forth to become a monk, regarding the burden of lofty empire as though 
it were nothing more than grass. May that foremost among those who endure the 
last body protect you. 

The Goddess of Victory abandoned Bharata, who was accompanied by the 
blazing discus weapon, and approached the self-restrained Bahubali before the 
eyes of all the warrior princes. And she became a receptacle of shame, discarded 
by Bahubali forever. May that mighty-armed prince, who took to the path of the 
teacher, his father, protect us. 

Desiring an encounter with the Goddess of Victory, who is not to be tied 
down to one man, Bahubali was victorious in the presence of all the princes of 
the earth by means of a greater strength and majesty. Yet, that son of the first 
orderer, whose renown is spread through all the houses of the world, undertook, 
instead, asceticism for the sake of glory. 

Glorious is Lord Bahubali, the strength of whose arms was formerly revealed 
in his fight with King Bharata in the presence of the warriors. Merely thinking 
on the syllables of Bahubali's name purifies all living beings. 

The venomous, fiery poison vomited forth firom the mouths of cobras always 
becomes ineffective when it reaches the feet of Lord Bahubali, who is 
surrounded with creepers loosened by the finger tips of the Vidyadharis. Lord 
Bahubali, respected by the entire world, is victorious. 

His toenails appeared to glitter because of the lustre of the gems in King 
Bfcarata s lofty crown, which was placed before them when the emperor bowed 
to the sage. Though he was surrounded by anthills foil of snakes, Bahubali was 
not shaken in the conduct of his meditational discipline, but was driven along by 
the force of his steadfastness. 

The hair of his head, curly at the tips and black like a swarm of bees, hung 
down on his arms, covering the top of his arms; the splendor of this sight 
rivalled that of a mountain with its peak covered by a thick raincloud. May this 
Bahubali protect us! 

A Note on the Translation 

Due to the length of the passage, I have foregone footnotes and attempted to 
concentrate on making the narrative as readable as possible. This does not allow me to 




d “T te 35 for ^ “ !*» ‘Vnbh iUm , or moinin ’ t ’"”"'' 1 

7V h >« ** i-n abk t ; ^”J h t “' ly «4k S 

I would be,™,, „ h >™ dnuud, my ^ ^ 

Sansknt professor at The TT„- ™ my thanks to Professor ^ 

“ u “: V “ amha R*j. reccml,^ov2 « a“ S °' “ ®** d C °“«g=; »dS ” y 

s ““' -*-*" - £~ - 5 iSr 


Twelve Chapters from The Guidebook to Various 
Pilgrimage Places, the VividhatTrthakalpa 
of Jinaprabhasuri 

Translated by John E. Coit 


The Vividhatirthakalpa (“Guidebook to Various Pilgrimage Places”) has been 
rightly hailed as an important source for both medieval Indian history and 
geography. In the 63 chapters of this compendium the author gives us valuable 
information about nearly four dozen Jaina pilgrimage places in the early 14th 

I have translated 12 chapters of the text These chapters fall into two groups. 
The first nine chapters cover four of the five panca tirthis, or five major places 
of Jain pilgrimage, and the continent of NandlSvara, which is the seventh of the 
many continents that the Jains believe circle Ml Meru, the mountain that serves 
as a kind of cosmic fulcrum. I have given further information about these sites 
and about the institution of pilgrimage in Jainism in my appendix to my 
translation. I have also included a biographical note about Jinaprabhasuri. 
Several of these chapters, especially those on Giranara, exhibit a fascination with 
alchemy, reminding us that in medieval times Jaina holy men were renowned as 
magicians and wizards. In some instances, Jinaprabhasuri seems to indicate that 
the gold and other wealth derived from alchemical practices are to be used for 
the benefit of the Jaina congregation, but for the most part the descriptions and 
treasure maps are presented with no attempt at justification within the context of 
Jaina practice or ethics. These passages also indicate that as interesting and 
diverse a collection of ascetics were to be found at holy sites in the 14th century 
as are to be found there today. 



Tb«e provide example of the daaifed d« P “ Nonh G "» 

contemponny Jaim center They were So cto?T J “ PIabhaS “ P v « of 

reasons: I lived m Patan for 21 ^ ° r mC '" sion for sentimental 

contemporary Svetambara Muitipfijaka S ^ COnductin S fieldwork on 
toe I visited Saiikhesvar half-a-doLsn times. PmChCe 311(1 beUef - duri ng which 

Chapter 1 

Satrunjaya mha; it was fonraly told bv tte 1 8Ka[ness °‘ “* ““sed 
Nareda, so foa. I and otters to tte seer 

the destruction of sin should listen. 1-3 ? Those pious Pec** who desire 

oS rfwS^rS'S £*»—*■ 

21 names by which it is known andwhich & 1S kn ° Wn as ^darika. The 
are. Siddhaksetra, TTrtharaja, Marudeva, Bh S “ ng by gods ’ men . and seers, 
SahasrakamalarTaladhvajarKadam^^atan^ S- attla ’ VmiaJ adri, Bahubali, 
Sahasrapatra, Dhahka, Lauhitya, Kanardd— Nagadhira J a ’ Astottara&takuta, 
Mohttnlaya.Siddhipan.att.Tp^S’tr 3 ' SM «*^ Safottjaya, 

Jheir qoiisilver^^®^^J^^e deities, and m distinguished by 
Laohitya,T ffl adhv^andiSX^I^ m “ d Mahka, Kadamb* 
accepted by people over time. 9 - 10 . whlch have 1x5613 ra istakenly 

h f igbt ^ is 80 y°J ana s in the first SDoke 7n i n, 

50 m the fourth, 12 in the fifth L 7 ,J, S8C0nd ’ 60 311 third, 

authorities explain its height in the descent of** “ laSt spoke - the 
base, 10 at the top, and 8 tall when YugadKa Dra at H W “ 5 ° yoJanas at the 
Rsabha and countless others - kinsHfn ff austeI3d es. 11 - 13 . 
preached here in former times The future T ^ i S ’ siddha ^ and great seers — 
bha^ will preach here in order to praise Staiting with PadmanS- 

N^heya through Mahavfra, excepting only vS 23 **"*’ &0m 

Earlier in the present descent « 1 y ’ preached here - 14-16. 
purifying emperor Bharata commissioned kernel Snlightenraen ^ the 

° f ^ abha made ^nroon-stone ^ y ° jana ' with 

gold and silver. Here shines a row ofTemnt! temples ^ ™ages of 

22 Jina-kings, each with his own footprint^ a “" taimng P Iaster images of the 
temple of Marudeva, which included? * ^ B2hubaIi budt a tall 

In this descent ttj « samavasarana. 17-21. 

Emperor attained lilLStm “ d ** 61X1 s °* of the 

“* ^ att ained liberation here along^f 



kings Dravida, Valikhilya, etc., attained liberation here along with 100 million 
sadhus. 30 million royal seers — Jaya, Rama, and others, — and 100,090 munis 
— Narada, and others, — attained liberation here. And here princes — Prad- 
yumna, 3amba, etc. — attained liberation along with 85 million sadhus. The 
kings bom in Rsabha's lineage from Adityayasas through Sagara attained 
liberation here, along with hosts of followers, uncountable numbers of them such 
as 1.4 million, etc. The descendants of Bharata — his son Sailaka, £uka, etc. — 
attained liberation here along with innumerable millions of millions. The five 
Pandavas, who established an image of the Arhat [Rsabha], attained liberation 
here along with KuntI and 200 million munis. The second and sixteenth Jina- 
lords [of the present descent], Ajita and Sand, each stayed here for a four-month 
rainy season, fixed in one place. After coming on a pilgrimage at the command 
of Nemi, the ganadhara composed here the Ajita&antistava, which removes all 
ills. 22-32. 

Countless images and countless temples have been energetically established 
here at this great tirtha. 33. 

By the devotion of bowing down to images commissioned by Bharata at small 
tanks and in caves, one will enjoy only one more rebirth. 34. 

Samprati, Vikramaditya, Satavahana, Vagbhata, Padalipta, Ama, and Datta are 
remembered as those who restored its temples. 35. 

Even the faithful residents of Videha remember it, or so it is said that Indra 
told Kalikacarya. 36. 

The tank Anupama used to be here, where the tank of Ajita is; Javada 
installed an image here. The wise king Meghaghosa, grandson of Kalki, will 
build the temples of Marudeva and Santi here. King Vimalavahana, at the 
preaching of Dusprasahasuri, will arrange for the last rebuilding of it. Even 
when the congregation is destroyed, this, praised by the gods as Rsabha Peak, 
will last until Padmanabha's congregation. 37-40. 

Even plants and animals dwell here free from sin. They are pure-minded due 
to the glory of the tirtha, and go to a good birth. Thinking upon it destroys 
men's fear of lions, fire, oceans, vicious animals, kings, poison, war, thieves, 
enemies, and death. Meditating as though one were in the lap of the plaster 
image of Adyajine&tr commissioned by Bharata conquers all fears. 41-43. 

The merit gained by fierce asceticism and celibacy is attained by living on 
Satrunjaya. The merit attained by spending bullions for feedings of desired foods 
at other tirthas is attained by performing one fast at Vimalacala. All the tirthas 
in the triple world, the earth, midspace, and heaven, are praised as being seen at 
Pundanka. 44-46. 

Birds of ill-omen never gather here, even though there is food and places to 
roost and gather. 47. 

Giving food to a pilgrim here earns millions of auspicious merits, and there 
is infini te merit for the pilgrim who returns home after doing the pilgrimage. 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

a—= iSAtx itisti: 


a pilgrimage to all of them 50-54 “ in makm g 

SS £ £££■. of “-*—^£lE £^ f ”• 

montn fast, and gifting five tunes equals the fruit of a twelve-month fast- th P 

2STS-ST T* iS ta “" 1 -SSE ££ 

^SSSTSTS ' 3 Ji “ T* 61 " “ ^ ‘■-r.Has 
** 1115 
the fruit of the Karttifcn mnn th fo^ « \. ^ ’ etc -’ t0 sadhus here attains 

^=~SSSS 5 ?S 

»r <■ ~=: - .t=ss~‘; 

Jf ge 'tSd 1 L° ! £ t n ^ Spe “ -«* -aid. .o have a. 



by him to make [the image], Seth Javadi, who lived in Madhumatl town, heard 
of the glory of Satrunjaya from Vajrasvaml. He was distressed that there was 
only a plaster image, since he was fond of offering scented water. So he thought 
upon CakreSvan and went to the mine on Mount Mammana. He commissioned 
a stone image, placed it on a cart, and set out along with his wife by a pleasant 
footpath for Vimala Mountain. But no matter how far the cart travelled along the 
road during the day, at night it would return to the starting place. He became 
distressed and thought upon KaparddI; discerning the reason for the occurrence, 
the pious man and his wife fell prostrate in the path of the cart The god was 
pleased by his rashness, and so placed the cart and the image atop the mountain. 
What is difficult to accomplish for the pure? At the same time that the main 
image was set up there, the image on the altar was cast down. With a cry from 
the plaster image, the mountain burst in pieces. Lightning flashed from the 
former image; it was deflected by the image installed by the Seth, and after 
cleaving the staircase and splitting the mountain, it departed. Javadi was pleased 
at having thus established the image on the temple peak, and so he danced 
wildly with his wife, his hair erect with pleasure and jangling like armor. 
F ight^pn ships returning from foreign lands arrived at the coast, and the Seth by 
spending their money made a donation here. Thus Javadi, who caused the 
installation of the first Arhat, Pundarika, and KaparddI, is known as one who 
enjoys the state of being a guest in heaven. 71-83. 

The ori ginal image of Pundarika is here on the right hand of the Lord; the 
other one, established by Javadi, shines on the left hand. 84. 

Countless millions of millions in the Iksvaku and Vnsni lineages attained 
liberation here; thus it is known as “the forehead ornament of millions of 
millions.” The five Pandavas and their mother Kunti attained liberation here, so 
plaster images of the six teach here on the tirtha. The caitya -tree Rajadana rains 
milk- here by the wondrous merit of the Blessed Congregation, just as a bundle 
of moonrays rains nectar. Animals, with tigresses and peacocks foremost, attain 
the world of the gods by abandoning food and bowing to the footprints of 
AdKa. 85-88. 

The incarnation of Satyapura is to the left of the temple of the Mulajina. The 
Astapada temple is located to the right behind the SakunI temple. The incarna¬ 
tions of NandlSvara, Stambhanaka, and Ujjayanta, which increase the merit of 
those in the future, are found without difficulty. Nabheya, worshipped by 
Vinami and Nami, shines in the temple which rises up to heaven. 89-91. 

Sreyamsa, Santi, Nemi, Rsabha, Mahavlra, and other Jinas adorn the second 
peak. Worshippers believe that [the evil fruits of] their own past and future 
deeds are cut off by doing namaskara here in the temple of the blessed 
MarudevI who cuts off rebirth. The yaksa king KaparddI, a wishing tree to 
those who bow down, erases the manifold obstacles of troupes of pilgrims. 92- 



Krsna propitiated KaparddI yaksa at the instruction of Nemi in a cave in die 
mountain and Listed for eight days, for the protection of the three images. It is 
said that even today Sakra goes there. 95-96. 

There is a cave to the north of the image of Rsabha established by the 
Pandavas, and even today there is a small pond there. Images are seen there due 
to the instructions of the yaksa, and Ajita and Santi also each stayed there for a 
rainy season. To the east are their two temples, and near the Ajita temple is the 
tank Anupama. 97-99. 

The temple of Santi, cooling to the eyes and which is a thunderbolt to the 
delusions of rebirth, is near Marudevl. Two mines of gold and silver are thirty 
cubits and seven fathoms to the east of the Santi temple. One hundred cubits to 
the east is a well, which is filled with quicksilver at a depth of eight cubits. 
Gems and gold are located near it, placed there by Padalipta Acarya for the 
renovation of the tirtha. 100-103. 

One should perform three fasts to the east of the image of Vrsabha, and thirty 
bow-lengths down from Rsabha Peak. If the offerings are done correctly, 
Vairotya will manifest herself. In the middle of the night lift the slab at her 
command, and enter it. As a result of fasting all the magical powers will be 
attained there. From attending to the worship of Rsabha, there one will become 
the enjoyer of just one more rebirth. 104-106. 

A stone cistern sits five hundred bow-lengths to the east A wise man should 
perform offerings correctly. From the merit of two fasts, he will find a 
quicksilver well by pulling up a slab. 107-108. 

Dharmadatta, the son of Kalki, will be an Arhat. He will enjoy [the fruit] of 
establishing a Jina image every day. He will restore Satrunjaya, and his son 
Jitasatru will be blessed by the prosperity of a rule of 32 years. Jita^atru s son 
Meghaghosa will restore the temple of Santi and Marudevl here at the command 
of KaparddI yaksa. Nandisuri, Arya Sriprabha, Manibhadra, YaSomitra, 
Dhanamitra, Vikatadharmma, Sumahgala, and Surasena will restore it, then 
Dusprasaha, and finally Vimalavahana. 109-113. 

Whoever oppresses pilgrims to this place, or steals goods, will from the 
weight of his sin fall into a fierce hell along with his descendants. One who 
performs pilgrimage, puja, protection of wealth, praise of pilgrims, or hospitality 
here is praised along with his lineage even in heaven. 114-115. 

One cannot omit to praise the religious buildings undertaken by Vastupala, 
and made by Plthada and others. The wise minister Vastupala, elder brother of 
Tejahpala, foresaw the destruction by the barbarian minister, and so after 
arranging for the making of extremely immaculate images with Mammana gems, 
established images of the first Arhat and Pundarika in the main building. In 
1369 of the Vikrama era the image established by Javadi was thrown down by 
the barbarians, due to the strength of Kali. In 1371 of the Vikrama era, the good 
blessed Samara restored the main image. 116-120. 






Blessed be .hose who have been, axe, or will be leaders of congestions. May 
they be blessed with wealth for a long time. 121. 

Following the Kalpaprabhrta, first a Kalpa was composed by blessed 
Bhacfrabahu then by Vajra, and finally by Acarya Padalipta. This Satrunjaya 
oT liiaprabhasuri, which gives what is desired, is abridged from then, 
££ who s^ak, meditate upon, reate, or hear this Kalpa with devohon will be 

liberated in their third rebirth. 122-124. . 

O lord of peaks Satrunjaya! How can even wise people describe in bnefyo 
oudiS Due to the influence of this tirtha, there is auspicious menUd 
modification of men who come on pilgrimage. A pious man eliminates s y 
SSngrL limbs das, from the cads and the fee, of me horses, earned and 
P ° , nil orimaee to vou Domg nanutskara, etc., to 

foSmonm fasfeisewhem. O abode 

of Nabbeya! O you whose glory is paused by! todra! You sho praise 
land of perfection, with mind, speech, and body. 125-129. 

May me merit acquired by ignoran, me from compoang lbs Kalpa be for 
universal joy. Whoever honors mis Kalpa, or has „ set 
completely achieves bis desired success and magteal powers. 130-13 _ 

The king of kings has been pleased by [my] begmmng tins, and so tins Kalpa 
will always be victorious as the Grace of the King. 13 . 

This is completed in 1375 of me Vtkmma era, on me seventh day of me 
bright half of Jyestha month, a Friday. 133. 

iL me Blessed SatruSjaya Kalpa of Blessed JinaprabhasOn is concluded. 

Chapter 2 

An abbreviated account of Raivatagin 

After bowing my head to Blessed Nemijina, 

[I will tell] the Kalpa of the Lord Raivata Mountain, 

just as was told by the pupil of blessed Vajra and by Padahpta^l. 

Nemi took his initiation on the stone seat near the Chatra^a. 
memoccurred in Thousand Mango Grove. His teaching 
Thousand Garden. His liberation occurred on the lofty peak Aval , 

Ironed three temples in the vicinity of 
jewelled images, for the three beneficial events of the Living Lo , 
tAmnifO of Ambadevi Indra carved the mountain by means of his thu 
‘^^"rwim a golden altar, a^ matte a jeweled 
color in the ornamented pavilion on Amba PeaL Siva did the same 
paSlion of Avalokana Peak. The doorkeeper is Siddha Vinay^A; 

Neminatha] was established by Krsna immediately after P^eirn s] 
rS learnt the location of the liberation from Nemi him:adf- ^ ^ 
Yadavas — Kamamegha, Meghanada, Ginvidarana, Kapaa, 




Khodika, and Raivata — became ksetrapalas due to their fierce asceticism, 
which was like play for them. Meghanada has correct faith, and stands firm in 
devotion to Nemi’s feet Girividarana arranged for the restoration of five golden 

There is a cave 107 paces north of Amba. Perform three fasts along with 
proper offerings, and a slab will lift up; and in the middle there is an image of 
Girividarana. Go fifty paces, bow to the eternal image of the Jina commissioned 
by Baladeva, and then go fifty paces to the north, where there are three gates. 
Enter the first gate by crouching down, and go 300 paces. Perform five fasts, 
and the fearful form of a black bee will appear. Crawl seven paces face 
downwards into the seat-pavilion made by Kubera yaksa at the command of 
India. Worship AmbadevT, and establish her in a golden net. Stand there, and 
praise the Main Lord Nemi Jinendra Perform worship with just one verse, and 
go in the second gate. Go forty paces below the well Svayamvara, and then 700 
paces beyond the middle gate where there is a well. There again praise the Main 
Lord, who is established there as a most excellent swan. Enter the main door of 
the third gate at the command of Amba, and of no one else. Take the road of 
the golden bench, and there is a cave twenty hands in front of Amba. Do three 
fasts at the command of Amba. Uncover a slab which is twenty hands away, 
where there are seven holes. There is a quicksilver well five box-lengths down! 
which opens on every new moon. Do three fasts there along with worship and 
the correct offerings, at the command of Amba; then it can be grasped. 

Perform three fasts on Old Peak, along with worship of offerings by the easy 
path, to attain Siddha Vinayaka. Then you will attain the powers which you 
desire. Stay there for one day and they will become manifest. 

Crouch down and go one hundred paces from the Rajamatl cave: there are a 
quicksilver well, a black-spotted creeper, a jewelled image of Rajlmatl, Amba, 
and various herbs. Three slabs are known to be there, Chatra&la, Ghantarila, and 
Kodirila. ChatraSila is in the middle, with a golden creeper in the middle. 

There are 24 [Jina images] made of silver and gold in the middle of Thousand ' 
Mango Grove, and 72 [Jina images] in the Hundred-Thousand Garden, where 
there is also known to be a cave with 24 Jinas. 

Go ahead from Kalamegha 308 paces to the north from the Suvamavaluki 
River, and enter a mountain cave. After bathing in the water and performing a 
fast, the seeker can open the door. Inside the first door is a gold trove. Inside 
the second door is a jewel trove, made by Amba for the sake of the congrega¬ 

There are five Krsna storehouses. Another is near Damodara. There is known 
to be silver and gold dust 20 fathoms down in the lower part of the collyrium 

For the one who knows the lore of this, 



there is an auspiciousness-giving pumpkin, and the mastery of the power of 

This description by Blessed Vajra 
is for the restoration of the congregation. 1. 

Place the powder from Ghanta&la 

in the middle of a frying pan of vegetables, 
mixed with millions of seeds, 

then use it as eyeblack 
to attain powers. 2. 

The Abbreviated Raivata Kalpa, based on the explanation given in the 
Vidyaprabhrta , is concluded. 

Chapter 3 

Blessed Ujjayanta Stava 

I praise Girinara, Lord of mountains; it is purified by Blessed Nemi, and 
famous by the names Raivata, Ujjayanta, etc. This country is known in the 
worlds as Surastra; this mountain is the ornament on the forehead of the 
beautiful woman who is the earth. 1-2. 

Rsabha, etc., adorn the Kharigara fort. ParSva adorns the lowland area known 
as Tejalapura. On the peak of the two yojana high mountain a row of Jina 
temples shines like a white mass, like a stainless autumn moon beam. A 
beautiful temple of Lord Nemi shines on top, beautified by a pure lake and 
golden pillars and offering pots. 3-5. 

Here the footprints of the God, son of Siva, when seen, touched, or 
worshipped, drive away the host of sins of the wise. 6. 

The Lord, after renouncing great kingship like an old straw, shook off dear 
friends and undertook the great vow. He attained enlightenment here, and 
desiring the welfare of the people of the world discovered liberation. 7-8. 

The minister blessed Vastupala made a temple of the three beneficial 
moments here, which produces amazing and good thin gs. People who do the 
bathing of Nemi in the best of pavilions which is full of Jina images shine like 
Indras. 9-10. 

The tank Gajendrapada adorns the peak. It is full of water for bathing the 
Aihat, like nectar, fit for bathing. 11. 

Images of Rsabha, Pundarika, Astapada, and Nandisvara were commissioned 
by Vastupala here in the Satrunjaya-incamation [temple]. Amba is here, riding 
a lion, golden colored, with her sons Siddha and Buddha, her hands holding 
lovely mangoes and a drum; she removes the obstacles of the congregation. 12- 




Good people who see the peak Avalokana, which purifies the lotus feet of 
Nemi, attain the fulfillment of their deeds. 14. 

Samba, the son of Jambavatl and Krsna, and the glorious Pradyumna 
performed difficult penance atop the mountain. 15. 

Various sorts of herbs blaze up brightly here at night, and on top shine 
Ghantaksara and Chatrasila. Thousand Mangoes, Hundred-Thousand Garden, and 
other dense groves are graced by the songs of peacocks, koil-birds, and bees. 
There is no tree, creeper, flower, or fruit which is not seen here by the experts. 
Thus [say] those who know the tradition. 16-18. 

Who does not exclaim praise inside the cave Rajlmatl, where Ralhanemi, 
having descended, went from the wrong path to the good path? Performing puja, 
bathing, gifting, and performing asceticism here are causes of the pleasure of 
liberation for good people. People, even from being lost, or going off the road 
onto this mountain, see the worshipped Jina who dwells in the temple being 
bathed and worshipped. Ratna came here from Kasmira at the order of 
Kusmandl, and installed a stone image in place of the plaster one. 19-22. 

What mathematician can count the number of streams, waterfalls, tanks, 
mines, and even plants? 23. 

Hail to the great tirtha, appearing as though anointed [by milk], the savior, 
the peak adorned with temples. Mount Raivata. 24. 

May Girinara, the land which shines with gold and silver, which has been 
praised by Jinaprabha, the praiser of the gods, be joyful to you. 25. 

Thus is the Blessed Ujjayanta Stava. 

Chapter 4 

In Surastra there is a beautiful mountain named Ujjayanta. Climb its peak and 
praise Nemijina. After performing puja with bathing, adoration, scent, incense, 
lamps, etc., and prostrating, the person who desires wealth will see Ambika 
Devi. The ksetrapala is seen at mountain tops, tunnels, caves, springs, 
doorways, manifestations, wells, etc., as was said by the former teachers. 1-3. 

The place of Neminatha, the destroyer of the pride of lust and the destroyer 
of bad rebirth, is known in the world by the name of Nirvana&la, There is a 
downward-facing cave on its northern slope, at ten bowlengths. There is a lihga 
in a section [of the cave] four bowlengths inside its door. There is a liquid there 
which smells like animal urine. After forty minutes it splits a copper plate and 
makes it into silver, flashing white like the moon and blossoms of jasmine. 4-6. 

To the east, within a bowlength, there is a stone cow. Twelve bowlengths 
straight to the south is seen a divine superior elixir, vermilion colored, manifest. 
By contact with fire it splits all iron. 7-8. 

On Ujjayanta there is a river named Vihala, and an image of Parvatl. If 
touched by elixir, its fingers show the gate to Parvatl. 3akra-incamation is on 
the northern slope of Ujjayanta Mountain. There is a row of stairs, and the earth 
is pigeon colored. At five gavyas, bind up and bum rice balls to get the best 
silver which destroys the disease of poverty, and rescues one from the forest of 
suffering. 9-11. 

A tiled floor is seen on the peak ViSalaSmga. There is silver near it on the 
peak Kawadahadha. The monkey Suddara is in the Ujjayanta Raivata Forest. 
Pull on his left ear, and he will open the door to the best cave. Go inside 100 
cubits, where a golden colored tree is seen, oozing blue sap, which certainly is 
king. After takin g that, the liberated one should touch the left foot of Hanuman, 
who shows the best door by which no human can go. 12-15. 

The temple known as Kohandi is seen atop Ujjayanta Peak. Behind that is a 
peak, on both slopes of which there is salty earth. Placing that along with 
linseed oil on a deformed limb purifies a deformed limb. Ambika when 
propitiated takes away both bad birth and disease. 16-17. 

Vegavatl is the name of the red colored river which flows there. Excellent 
silver is obtained from it by mixing purified and heated rice balls [with the 
water]. 18. 

Jnana&la is on Ujjayanta; it has golden colored earth. Gold is obtained by 
[mixing it] in the embers of khair -wood with rice balls and goat urine. At five 
gavyas, bind up some myrobalan with a ball made of earth and clay from 
Jnana&la, and king will become gold. 19-20. 

The peak named Tilavisarana is located near the best of mountains. Press 
strongly on a bound-up slab there to find 200,000 gold coins. 21. 

The river which is full of laddus in the golden tirtha is known as Sena. It 
purifies copper and turns it into gold; there is no doubt about this. 22. 

There is a divine peak named Mayukagriia situated in the middle of Billak- 
khaya city, and above it is the elixir well Ganapati. Perform a fast to cause the 
worshipped Ganapati to move, and find the superior elixir sdmasevi, which 
makes a deformed limb firm. On this there is no doubt 23-24. 

The tirtha Sahasrasrava is beautiful and true because a karahja medicinal tree 
is located there. It is in the shape of stones, with two sections. One section is 
mercury. Grind [it with] mine in a small crucible, heat it, and it becomes silver, 
which saves one from the forest of sorrows. 25-26. 

The best elixir arises behind the peak of the mountain Avalokana. It turns 
brass the color of a parrot's wing into gold. 27. 

Atop Pradyumna Mountain is the place named Ambikasrama. There also the 
golden yellow earth becomes the finest gold. 28. 

On Ujjayanta is Jnana^ila, at the base of which is yellow clay. Say a 
sahamiya prayer to obtain bright white gold. Climb the first peak of Ujjayanta, 
descend 300 bow lengths to the south, and you will come to a cave named 





Puikara. Uncover the cave, look about, and enter it carefully. Twelve fathoms 
inside there is divine elixir, like rose-apple fruit Mix a 100th part of it in a dish 
with lac, and let it penetrate into silver, suddenly it makes a lovely bazaar gold 

There is a place of asceticism to the east from the Kohandi temple, going 
toward the north. A stone image of Vasudeva is there. Ten cubits to the north of 
that is seen an image of Parvatl. She shows the cave with her fingers which 
chastise transgressions. Enter nine bowlengths to the north, and a well is seen on 
the right, which is essentially musk sap, the color of yellow fool's gold. 33-35. 

Jnana&la on Ujjayanta is famous. There is a stone there. On its northern slope 
is a cave, facing down to the south. Ten bowlengths into its southern portion 
there is vermilion colored earth. There is a Satavedhi elixir which dissolves 
copper, without a doubt. 36-37. 

On the peak of Vrsabha, Rsabha, etc., is a gathering of stones. When they are 
smeared with the dung of a bull elephant, there is a penetrating elixir in the 
middle. 38. 

Ninety bowlengths to the south of the Jina temple is jalukacari earth. [Mixed 
with] animal blood, it pierces copper to make gold. 39. 

Vegavati is the name of the river in which are stones the color of red arsenic. 
When heated, they instantly exude a fivefold penetrating substance which pierces 
copper. 40. 

Thus is the Kalpa of Ujjayanta, for certain. The one who does bhakti to the 
Jina, and prostrates his body to Kohandi, should attain his desired pleasures. 41. 

The Kalpa of the Great Tirtha of Blessed Ujjayanta is concluded. 

Chapter 5 


In the west, in Surastra, on the king of peaks Raivata Mountain, there is the 
temple of blessed Neminatha with its high tower. It is said that formerly a 
plaster image of blessed Neminatha was there. Once the two brothers named 
Ajita and Ratna from the country of Kasmira which adorns the northern 
direction became congregation leaders and came to Girinara. In an excess of zeal 
they bathed the image with pitchers full of saffron juice. The plaster image of 
blessed Neminatha melted away. They grieved at what they had done and 
renounced food. 

After they had fasted for 21 days, the blessed goddess Ambika came to them. 
The congregation leader was raised up. When he saw the goddess, he said, 
Victory! Then the goddess said, “Grab ahold of this image, but do not look at 
its backside.” The congregation leader Ajita towed the jewelled image of blessed 
Nemi with a single rope, and led it to a golden bench. On the threshold of the 
first temple the congregation leader raised it up and in the fullness of his great 


joy he saw its backside. It stayed right there and could not be moved. The 
goddess rained down flowers. He said, “Victory!” This image was established by 
the congregation leader on the full moon of VaiSakha in the newly made temple 
which faces west. Ajita performed a great festival with bathing, etc., and 
returned to his own country with his relative. In this age of Kali, recognizing 
that people have sinful thoughts, Ambika Devi has covered over the lustre of 
the shimmering jewelled image. 

Formerly, in Gujarat, Jayasimhadeva killed King Khangara and installed 
Sajjana as chief magistrate. A new temple to Nemi Jinendra was commissioned 
in 1185 Vikrama by him [Sajjana]. The golden mango lake was commissioned 
by the good Bhavada, the chief ornament of the Malava country. The footpath 
was commissioned in 1220 Vikrama by the magistrate of Saurastra who arose 
from the blessed Srimala clan and was established in his position by the 
Calukya Emperor Kumarapala, that lord of men. Dhavala in the meantime from 
his sentiment expanded the drinking station. Hundred-Thousand Garden is seen 
on the right side by people climbing the steps. 

In Anahillavada Pattana, those adornments of the Poravada lineage, the sons 
of Asaraja and KumaradevI, the supports of the kingship of blessed Vlradhavala 
the lord of the country of Gujarat, the two brothers whb bear the names 
Vastupala and Tejahpala, were ministers. Tejahpala commissioned on Girinara 
an excellent fort, monastery, drinking station, temple, and a beautiful garden, 
named Tejalapura after himself. He commissioned a temple to ParSvanatha, 
named the Asaraja Vih5ra after his father. He commissioned a tank, named 
Kumarasara after his toother. To the east of Tejalapura is the fort Ugrasenaga- 
dha; the temple of the chief Jina, Yugadinatha, shines there. It is famous by 
three names: Ugrasenagadha, Khahgaragadha, and Junagadha. Behind the fort to 
the south are the places Cauria, VedI, Laddu Sarovara, PaSuvataka, etc. To the 
north is the pavilion Da£a-da$ara; it shines with a hall of great pillars, at the gate 
of the mountain, where are the fifth Visnu and Damodara on the shore of the 
river Suvamarekha. After a long time, the minister Tejahpala convened the 
congregation on Mount Ujjayanta near Kalamegha and addressed it. The minister 
Vastupala commissioned the Satrunjaya-incamation temple, the Astapada- 
Sammeta pavilion, and the temple of Kaparddl yaksa and Marudevl. The 
temple to the three beneficial events was commissioned by Tejahpala. The Indra 
pavilion was renovated by the minister Depala. The tank Gajendrapada is there, 
adorned by the mark of the elephant footprint of Airavata. People come there 
and perform the funeral libations to sorrow by cleansing their limbs. The 
Thousand Mango Grove is near Chatraftla. There occurred the beneficial events 
of renunciation, enlightenment, and liberation of the lord, the lamp of the 
Yadava clan and the joy of 6iva and Samudravijaya. By climbing to the 
mountain peak, the temple of Ambikadevi is seen. From there is Avalokana 
Peak. It is said that NemisvamI seated there can be seen from the ten directions. 
Then [there are images] on the first peak Sambakumara and the second peak 





Pradyumna. Jina images made of gold and jewels are seen in temples in various 
places on the mountain, and are bathed and worshipped daily. Golden earth and 
various elixirs which split metals are visible there, s hinin g At night herbs are 
seen glowing, as if by day. Various trees, creepers, leaves, flowers, and fruits 
are found at every step. The sound of continuously fallin g waterfalls, the 
khalahala of intoxicated koil birds, and the buzzing of bees are heard. 

Thus is expounded the remainder of the Kalpa of the great tirtha of 
Ujjayanta. It was written by the muni Jinaprabha, just as it was heard. 

The blessed Raivataka Kalpa is concluded. 

Chapter 8 

Mt. Arbuda 

After bowing to the Arhats Nabheya and Nemi, I will briefly tell the Kalpa of 
the great mountain Arbuda. First I will tell of the arising of the goddess, the 
blessed mother, from whose residence tins mountain is famous on earth, just as 
it was heard. 1-2. 

RatnaSekhara was king in blessed Ratnamala city. He was distressed because 
he was childless, and sent out his soothsayers. They saw a poor woman carrying 
wood atop her head, in a pile that looked like the king's fort. They told the king 
that her son would take his place. The king ordered this woman along with her 
foetus to be killed at night by the men. She was thrown into a pit, but she came 
out of it, pretending that she needs must attend to bodily matters. She gave birth, 
and, frightened for her son, set him free in a grove. She was led back to the pit 
and killed by the men, who were ignorant of what had occurred. A doe, 
impelled by merit [from a previous life], fed milk to the boy at dawn and dusk. 
While he was growing up in this way, a new coin appeared in the mint due to 
[the power of] MahalaksmI. The coin showed the four feet of the doe and the 
child. A rumor of the child’s birth spread among the people: “Someone is a new 
king.” The king heard this, and sent his warriors to kill the child. They saw him 
one evening at the town gate. They were afraid to kill him, so they set him free 
in the path of an oncoming herd of cows. As he was sitting there, by chance a 
bull was in the front [of the herd]. He dispersed the herd, and placed the child 
between his four legs. The king was told of this, and on the advice of his 
minister, joyously considered the child as his own. In time, he became king with 
the name Sripunja. 3-12a 

Sripunja's daughter was Srimata. She was endowed with beauty, but had the 
face of a monkey. She remembered her former life: “Formerly I was a female 
monkey, running on the branch of a tree on Arbuda. Someone struck me on the 
jaw, and — pardon my language — my headless body fell into a well at the 
base of the tree. My present body is human because of the greatness of that 
desire-granting tirtha. But since my head is still the same, today I am monkey¬ 
faced.” Sripunja sent his men to throw her former head into the well, and she 

became human-faced. She practiced austerities on Mt. Arbuda. One day, a yogi 
who was travelling through the air saw her, and became infatuated with her 
beauty. He descended from the sky, and smitten with love, he said, “O Beautiful 
One, what would it take for you to choose me?” She said, “If by any magic 
between now and the cry of the morning cock you can make twelve beautiful 
steps here on the mountain, then you will be my choice.” He had that done by 
his servants within two watches. By her own power, however, she made an 
artificial cock crow, and thus prevented the marriage. But he did not desist, even 
though he knew of her deceit He was prepared for marriage by his sister. On 
the riverbank she said to him, “Put aside your trident, and approach to marry 
| me.” He did so, and she set horrible dogs on him to immobilize his legs, and 

then killed him by stabbing him through the heart with his own trident. In this 
way she maintained her virginity, and in her next birth attained heaven. Sripunja 
had a temple built there on the mountain. Six months later, the snake named 
Arbuda moved beneath the mountain. From this shaking of the mountain, all the 
temples lost their spires. 12b-24. 

But more popularly it is said: 

Formerly this mountain was Nandivardhana, the son of Himadri. Due to the 
resistance here of the snake Arbuda, it became known as Arbuda. 25. 

There are twelve villages atop it, known for their wealth. The ascetics are 
known as Goggalika-s, and there are thousands of Rasttika-s. 26. 

There is no tree, vine, flower, fruit, cave, or mine which is not found here. 
Fluorescent herbs shine here at night, and there are both fragrant and sap-filled 
trees. The Mandakml River shines here, bringing bliss to the thirsty; its pure 
waves splash spontaneously, and it is adorned by the blossoms of trees on its 
bank. [The mountain's] thousands of high peaks shine, over which even the 
chariot horses of the sun stumble a bit Caves such as Candall, Vajra, and 
Tailebha are seen here; they accomplish all ends. Places are adorned with 
wonderous tanks, metal troves, and waterfalls with ambrosial waters. When the 
high sound of a koil bird is heard, a stream is visible from the tank Kokuyita 
which makes a “khalahala” sound. 26-33. 

Here are the worldly tirthas of Srimata, AcaleSvara, Vasistha's Aframa, 
MandakinI, etc. 34. 

The rulers of this great mountain are the Paramara kings. They live in the city 
of Candravatl, an abode of Sri. 35. 

The pure-minded magistrate Vim ala made here the temple of Rsabha with a 
brass image. He worshipped the divine Amba, not out of any desire for a wealth 
of sons, but in order to establish the tirtha. The general saw a sprout made of 
cowdung garlanded with flowers near a campaka tree, and so he took this land 
near the Srimata temple. He appeased the anger of the Gurjara king at the 
feudatory lord Dhanduka by his devotion, and at his command brought the latter 
from Citrakuta Mountain. In Vikrama 1088 he expended much wealth to build 




the Vimalavasati temple. Here Ambika Devi, worshipped by many rites 
destroys unrestrained the obstacles of a congregation coming on pilgrimage. In 
one night a stonemason made a fine horse from stone in front of the temple of 
Yugadideva. 36-42. 

In Vikrama 1288 the Nemi temple Lunigavasati was built by the moon-like 
minister. Blessed Tejahpala the royal minister installed an image of touchstone 
at Stambhatirtha, which became the collyrium of immortality for the eyes. At 
the order of blessed King Soma he installed images of his own ancestors and 
built an elephant stable. 43-45. 

O! From the lustrous craftsmanship of the temple, the name of Sobhanadeva 
(Lord of Beauty), the crest jewel of architects, became true. 46. 

The younger brother of this mountain is Mainaka. He is protected from the 
thunderbolt by the ocean, and in turn all his life he protects the general and the 
minister, those two oceans. 47. 

Both tirthas were destroyed by chance by the barbarians, and were renovated 
m Saka 1243 by two men. The restorer of the first tirtha was Lalla, son of 
Mahanasimha, and [the restorer] of the second was Plthada, son of the merchant 
Candasimha. 48-49. 

Emperor Kumarapala, the moon of the Caulukya lineage, built the Blessed 
Vira temple on the high peak. 50. 

Fortunate are the people who see this Arbuda mountain, filled with wonders, 
adorned with herbs, and purified by more than one tirtha. 51. 

This Kalpa, strung together by blessed Jinaprabhasuri, this Arbuda Kalpa 
which is a nectar to the ears, should be studied by skilled people. 52. 

Thus the blessed Arbuda Kalpa is concluded. 

Chapter 18 

Astapada, by Dharmaghosasuri 
Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
which is superior due to the glory of Rsabha’s dharma, 
the refuge of Vidyananda, the purifier, 
praised by Devendra. 1. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where resided Rsabha the light of Astapada, 
which has eight feet, 

chief Astapada the remover of thousands of sins. 2. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where the 99 sons of Rsabha—Bahubali and the rest- 
superior ascetics, 

consumed the nectar of immortality. 3. 

Victorious is that lord of moun tains Astapada, 



where 10,000 seers, 

frightened due to separation from the lord, 
engaged in yoga for liberation. 4. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where his 8 grandsons and 99 sons 
went to liberation with Rsabha 
all at the same time. 5. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Indra established at the site of the three pyres 
three stupas with images, 
like three jewels. 6. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Bharata made 
the fourfold temple Lion Seat 
with the image Liberation Seat 7. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where the temple one yojana long, 
half that wide, and three kro’sas high 
is enthroned. 8. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Bharata made the image of his brother, 
the images of the 24 Jinas, 
and his own image. 9. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Bharata described the images 
of the 24 contemporary Jinas, 
each described with its own shape, color, and mark. 10. 
Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where the Emperor [Bharata] built the stupas 
with images of file 99 brothers, 

and the stupa of the Arhat [Rsabha]. 11. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Bharata made the 8-footed, 

8-yojana long ’sarabha 
to kill the lion of delusion. 12. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where many millions of great seers, 
the Emperor Bharata, and others 
succeeded to liberation. 13. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 

where Subuddhi told how the seers in Bharata’s lineage, 
with Sagara’s sons at the forefront, 



went to liberation and perfection. 14. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Sagara’s sons contained the ocean 
by making an ocean-moat 
which protects [Astapada] on all sides. 15. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Jaina [mountain] rests on the Ganga 
with its unceasing rolling [waves] on all sides, 
as if to bathe its own sins. 16. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where even DamayantI, by giving a tilaka to the Jina, 
received on her forehead a permanent tilalra 
which matched the fruit [of her deed], 17. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where Ravana was stepped on by Bah’s foot, 
and having as a result thrown the mountain into the ocean, 
cried out in anger. 18. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where the king of Lanka 

received from Dharanendra the power of infallible victory 
by performing the Jina festival with an instrument held 
in his hand. 19. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where the Ganabhrt praised the Jina images 
—four, eight, ten, and two— 
in the four directions of west, etc. 20. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
for on this mountain people who have praised the Jina as 
they can 

—exactly as Vira said— 

attain unshakable welfare from their own power. 21. 
Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where by studying the lotus-text spoken by the Lord, 
the godlike Pundarika 
came to know the ten Purvas. 22. 

Victorious is that lord of mountains Astapada, 
where, after praising the Lord Jina, 
the Gana-leader Gautama 
initiated 1,500 ascetics. 23. 

Victorious is that lord of mo untains Astapada; 

this long-standing poem made with eight feet, 
like the Astapada mountain, 



ennumerates in great detail the great tlrtha. 24. 

Thus the blessed Kalpa of the Great Tlrtha Astapada is 

It is the work of blessed Dharmaghosasuri. 

Chapter 24 


After worshipping the feet of Jinas, which were worshipped by the King of 
Gods, I will tell the all-purifying Kalpa of NandlSvaradvlpa. 1. 

NandlSvara is the eighth continent, resembling heaven. It is encircled by the 
ocean NandlSvara. 2. 

It is 1,630,840,000 yojanas in circumference. 3. 

This is an enjoyment land of the gods, with various arrangements of gardens. 
It is made beautiful by the congregation of gods intent on worshipping the Jinas. 

In the center stand four collyrium colored mountains of collyrium, in the 
directions in order, starting with the east 5. 

They are 10,000 yojanas on the ground and 1,000 yojanas high, the height of 
a small Mem. 6. 

In the east there is Devaramana, in the south Nityodyota, in the west 
Svayamprabha, in the north Ramanlya. 7. 

There are Arhat temples 100 yojanas long, half that wide, and 72 yojanas 
high. 8. 

Each of the four gates is 16 yojanas high, 8 yojanas in the entrance, and 8 
across. 9. 

They are known by the names of the sky-dwelling gods, asuras, nag as, and 
birds, with which they are connected. 10. 

In the middle [of the temples] are jewelled seats 16 yojanas long and wide, 
and 8 yojanas high. 11. 

Above the seats are divine umbrellas made of many jewels, which are much 
longer and higher than the seats. 12. 

Rsabhas, Vardhamanas, Candrananas, and Varisenas, each one made of gems, 
and with their own families, are seated in the lotus position; there are 108 
images of each of the eternal Arhats. 13-14. 

There is a naga and a yaksa, holding pots, at each image, and behind each 
image is an umbrella-holding image. 15. 

In [the temples] are incense, jars, garlands, bells, the eight auspicious 
symbols, banners, umbrellas, gateways, baskets, tranks, and seats. 16. 

There are 16 full pots as adornments, and the earth there is gold and silver 
dust and sand. 17. 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

With the Size 0f tera P les are silver chief-pavilions 
1 8 OT £ pmpose of Performances, assembly halls, and jewelled seats.’ 

At every step there are pleasing stupas and images, pretty temples and trees 
divine India banners, and lotus ponds. 19. try temples and trees, 

to™^ 16 e3Ch ° f four ' <loore d so there are 2,508 in 

In the four Erections from each collyrium mountain are fishless pure lakes 
100000 mm y ° janas lon S’ h 000 deep [or 1,000 up the sl^]’ 

Gostapa^ SudarSana, Nandottara, Nanda, Sunanda, Nandivardhana BhadS 
i&k, Kumuda, Pundarildnl, Vijaya, Vaijayanti, JayantT, and Aparajik 21-24 

10 l~r n Ch ° f * em ** *"* ™-yojanas wide and 

ta,WD f0r ** ***“»—. <-*** and 

ha™ ',t,'!h ddi£ °f 1116 Ioras p0n4s ** Dadhimukha mountains, which 

SaCkS - 316 ornaments, 

at a?” “ 2h “ d OTend d0WD I -° 00 - ^ 216 1M0 ° 

® 3 e ^‘f® 18 P 001 * “ wo Loon-Making (Radkara) mountains; so them 
are Jz Love-Making mountains in total. 29. 

AthTTM^Tfe^ 11 WMaldn * “ountains am temples of the eternal 
J ust on the collynum mountains. 30. 

In the four intermediate directions of the continent are four Love-Makinv 
mountains, 10,000 yojanas long and wide, and adorned with a height Jn000 

IZT ^ ^ ^ ° f many <*** * ems > - d have the shape of a 

On the two Love-Makings to the south are Sakra's [capitals], and Hana's are 
similarly on the two to the north. 33. 

100000 diret 5° nS f 6 the Capitals of ei ght great goddesses. They are 
100,000 yojanas wide and long, and adorned with Jina temples. 34. 

In order they are: Sujata, Saumanasa, Arcirmall, Prabhakara, Padma Siva. 

SudaiSanI - A"' 213 ’ Apsaiii, Rctoth 
v „„ ’ _ Jf 3, Ratnoc chaya, Sarvaratnaratnasancaya, Vasu, Vasumitrika 

Vasubhaga, Vasundhara, Nanda, Uttara, Nandottarakuru, Devakuru, Krsna! 

. naraji, Rama, Rama, Raksita, beginning with the easL 35-38. 

fT g 311 “** reUn ” es P“f°™ «* °s*)m at the 

temples on the beneficial days of the blessed Arhats. 39. 

Sakra performs the astahikd in the four-doored Jina temple with the eternal 
images on the mountain in the east 40. 



Sakra’s four directional guardians perform the astahikd according to precept 
in the temples of the eternal images of the Arhats on the four crystal Dadhimu- 
kha mountains in the great tanks located in the four directions from that 
mountain. 41-42. 

Kanendra performs it on the collyrium mountain to the north, and his 
directional guardians perform it on the Dadhimukha mountains in those tanks 

Camarendra does the festival on the collyrium mountain in the south, and his 
directional guardians on the Dadhimukhas in the tanks. 44. 

Balindra does the festival on the collyrium mountain in the west. His 
directional guardians [do it] on the Dadhimukha mountains in those tanks. 45. 

By performing the worship of Nandlsvara on Kuhti tithi, and fasting starting 
on the annual Dlpavali, they attain protective auspiciousness/wealth. 46. 

He who worships Nandlsvara on every parva by singing praises, hymns, and 
recitations with devotion to the temples, surely will cross over his sin. 47. 

Thus the Nandlsvara Kalpa is written by Jinaprabha Acarya, in verses which 
were given by the former teachers. 48. 

Thus is the blessed NandlSvaia Kalpa. 

Chapter 26 

Aristanemi of Anahilapura 
After bowing to Aristanemi, 

I will make famous the Kalpa of Aristanemi, 
refuge of the Brahmana Gaccha and 

garland of Anahilapura town. 1. 

It is said that formerly in Kannauja city there was a very wealthy and very 
rich merchant named Yaksa. Once in the course of trading he took his wares in 
a caravan of bullocks and departed for Gujarat. Gujarat was a dependency of 
Kannauja; it had been given as dowry to Mahaniga, daughter of the king of 
K a nnau ja. Yaksa stayed on the banks of the Sarasvati in Laksarama. It is said 
that this is the original site of Anahillavadaya town. The monsoon fell upon the 
merchant while the caravan was there. It began to rain. In the month of 
Bhadrapada the entire bullock herd wandered off somewhere. No one knew 
where. He looked for it everywhere, but couldn't find it He worried ceaselessly 
that it was all destroyed. Then the blessed Ambadevi came to him one night in 
a dream. She said, “Child. Are you awake or asleep?” Yaksa said, “Mo ther ! 
How can I sleep? My bullock herd and all my belongings have disappeared.” 
The goddess said, “Good man. There are three images here in Laksarama at the 
base of a tamarind tree. Dig down three fathoms and retrieve them. One image 
is of blessed Aristanemi SvamI, another is of blessed Parsvanatha, and the third 
is of Ambika Devi.” Yaksa said, “Goddess! How can I know where it is among 



a U ““f* trees? ” 7116 g0ddess said > “ You see a circle of 

metal and a heap of flowers. That is the location of the three images If you 

uncover and worship the three images, the bullocks will come to you of their 
own accord. He got up at dawn, did the worship as he had been told, and found 
the three images. He worshipped them according to the proper rite At that 
moment as though unexpected, the bullocks returned. The merchant was happy. 
He built a temple there and consecrated the images. 

Another time blessed YaSobhadrasuri, the ornament of the Brahmana Gaccha, 

fr th ! lS T ° f thC] monsoon se ason, while walking towards 
Khaipbhata from Aggahara village which is adorned with 1,800 upafrayas The 

116 Saying, " Loid! Y ° U 03111101 g0 on if y™ bypass 
Uns nrt/ui. So the sun worshipped the images with praises. The banner raising 

festival was performed on the day of the full moon of MargaSlrsa. Today the 
btmner raising is son performed on that day every year. Hie banner-raising 
festival occurred in Vikrama 502. * 

eStab !r, hed by Vanaraja> *** P earl of the Caukkada [Capotkada, 
Kint/A m V ^ rama 802, m Late5r ama in the region under the rule of 

King Anahifla. Seven kmgs of the Cavada dynasty reigned: Vanaraja, Yogaraia, 
Ksemaraja Bhuyagada, Vajrasimha, Ratnaditya, and Samantasimha. Then eleven 

° f dynaSty reigned 111 town: M “laraja, Camundaraja, 

Vaflabharaja, Durlabharaja, Bhlmadeva, Kama, Jayasimhadeva, Kumarapa- 

ladeva, Ajayadeva, the younger Mularaja, and Bhlmadeva. Then reigned the 
kmgs m the Vaghela years: Lavanaprasada, Viradhavala, Vlsaladeva, Ariuna- 
deva Sarangadeva, and Kamadeva. Then in Gujarat came the rule of the sultans 
today d dlDa ’ CtC ’ BUt Ari?t3nemi SvamT is stiU worshipped in the same way 

May this Aristanemi Kalpa, 
be excellent to us. 

It was written by blessed Jinaprabhasuri 

who heard it from the mouths of those who know former things. 

Thus the Aristanemi Kalpa. 

Chapter 27 

The Parsvanatha at Sankhapura 

* *i Said that . 0Q ce Jarasandha, the ninth Prativasudeva, went west from 

nintw- ^ *** eDtire ^ He was en 8 a S e d in war with Krsna, the 

ninth Vasudeva Krsna also left Dvaravati with all his retinue to face him, and 

came to die border of his country. Lord Aristanemi blew the conch Pancajanya 
there, and so the aty Sarikhesvara [Lord of the Conch] was founded. Jarasandha 
grew fearful at the sound of the conch and so worshipped his kuladevata Jara. 
She caused old age (jam) to beset the army ofVismi. Kesava was perplexed and 
worried at seeing his own army struck down by sicknesses of coughing and 



(short)-breath, and asked Lord Aristanemi SvamT, “Lord! How can my army be 
freed of this affliction? And how can I get the blessedness of victory in the palm 
of my hand?” The Lord looked at the unseen with his avadhi jfidna, and said, 
“An image of Parfva the future Arhat is worshipped in Patala by the serpent 
gods. If you worship it as your personal god, then your (army) will become free 
from affliction and you will obtain the blessing of victory.” After he heard this, 
for seven months and three days — or, according to another opinion, three days 
— Visnu worshipped the serpent king by fasting in the proper manner. Then the 
Naga king Vasuki appeared. Had with bhakti and respect asked for the image. 
The Naga king gave it to him. It was brought with full festival, and Krsna 
established it as his personal god. Thrice-daily puja in the proper manner was 
begun. Visnu sprinkled the entire army with the water from the lustration (of the 
image), and the army was freed from the oppressions such as old age, illness, 
and suffering, and became fit. Jarasandha was defeated. The image was 
victorious in removing all obstacles and creating all wealth due to the proximity 
of Dharanendra and Padmavatl. It was established in ^ahkhapura. Over time it 
became concealed. Then it reappeared in the Sankha well. Today it is wor¬ 
shipped in the temple by the entire congregation of the faithful. Even the 
Turkish kings proclaim its glory. 

This kalpa of JineSvara Parfva, 
whose image is located at Sankhapura, 
the tirtha of desires, 

has been written by me in accordance with a song. 1. 

Parsvanatha, Lord of $ankha, Lord of lords, 
a wishing tree of auspiciousness: 
may this God forever place wealth 
in the bodies and homes of good souls. 2. 

Thus the blessed Sankhapura Kalpa. 

Chapter 40 

Kokavasati Parfvanatha 
After bowing to Parfvanatha 

who is served by Padmavatl and the Naga king, 

I will tell the story 

of Kokavasati Parfva. 1. 

One day Abhayadevasuri of the blessed PraSnavahana Kula of the Harsapu- 
nya Gaccha left Harsapura on tour and came to blessed Anahillavada Pattana. 
He remained outside of town with his mendicant family. One day blessed 
Jayasimha, lord of men, mounted his elephant and came to the royal park. There 
he saw Abhayadeva's unwashed and dirty clothes and body. The king dismount¬ 
ed his elephant, praised Abhayadeva, and gave him the name Maladhari in 


recognition of his difficult asceticism. The king then requested that he come into 
the city. He gave him an upaJraya next to the ghee market. The suri stayed 

Some years later the blessed Hemacandrasuri, -widely famous for composing 
various books, was on Abbayadeva’s patta. He went to the ghee market to give 
a sermon every day during the four month rainy season retreat. One day in the 
ghee market temple someone from the ghee market association started a bali 
offering for ancestor worship. Hemacandrasuri arrived to give the sermon. The 
gath ering forbade him, saying, “No sermon can be given here today, for there 
shouldn't be a sermon at the site of a bali offering.” The suri replied, ‘TU have 
to give at least a short sermon today, or else there will be a break in the 
sermons of the rainy season.” But the people of the association were not 
persuaded. The acarya returned to the upa&raya angry and embarrassed at what 
had happened. A wealthy layman named Mokhadeva Nayaka came to know of 
the guru's depressed state of mind. He sought land near the ghee market to build 
a new temple in order that such an insult against the faith should not occur in 
another temple, but could find none. Finally he obtained land from a merchant 
named Koka. In opposition the ghee market assembly offered to give three times 
the price. The suri came with the congregation to Koka's house. Koka honored 
him and said, “I gave the land at the proper price, so build the temple in my 
name.” The suri and the laymen accepted this. The temple Kokavasati was built 
near the ghee market Blessed PanSvanatha was established in it and thrice daily 
puja was begun. 

Later, during the reign of blessed Bhimadeva, Pattana was looted by the king 
of Malava, and the image of ParSvanatha was broken. Ramadeva Asadhara, a 
descendant of the wealthy Nayaka, began to restore it. Three pieces of marble 
were brought which had flaws. Three images were made from them, but the 
guru and the laymen were not happy. Ramadeva vowed, “I will not eat as long 
as the ParSvanatha image has not been carved.” The guru also began a fast On 
the eighth day Ramadeva received an instruction from a god, that he would find 
a wooden plank covered with flowers, with a stone slab as many hands beneath 
it as it was far from the temple. He dug up the earth and found the slab. A new 
image of ParSvanatha was carved. In Vikrama 1266 Devanandasuri performed 
the pratistha to establish it in the temple. It became famous as Koka ParSvana- 

Merchant Ramadeva had two sons named Hhuna and Jaja. Tihuna's son was 
Malla. His sons are named Delhana and Jaitaslha; today they perform puja daily 
to Pargvanatha. 

Once Delhana was given a dream by blessed SarikheSvara ParSvanatha. “I will 
be present in Koka ParSvanatha at dawn at 4:00 a.m.. Those who perform puja 
to that image at 4:00 a.m. will be doing puja to me.” Koka ParSvanatha when 
worshipped in this way by the people fulfills [requests] like SankheSvaia Parsva- 
natha. People's puja, yatra, vows, etc., done in connection with Sankbesvara 


Parsvanatha are also fulfilled here. Thus is [the story of] ^ mir f cl f. W .°^ 
image, 33 fingers high, of Koka Parsvanatha, which is attached to the Maladhan 


May this short Kalpa 

of Kokavasati Parsvanatha 
who adorns Anahila Pattana 

destroy the obstacles of the people. 1. 

Thus is the Kalpa of Kokavasati Parsvanatha. 

Chapter 49 


After bowing to Rsabha 

who is like the world-engendering eight-legged Sarabha 
with a golden body 
I will recite in brief the Kalpa 

of Astapada Mountain. 1. . 

On this Jambudvlpa continent in the ntiddle of the southern hdf 

ic a citv called Ayodhya, which is rune yojanas wide and twelve 

]ojam s long. It is the biithplace of the Jinas blessed ¥j?abta, Ajit* Ahhu™- 
darn Sumati, and Ananta. Twelve yojanas to the north of it is the extern 

mountain called Astdpada, also known as Kailasa, which 

* nure crystal It is also famous among the people as unavaiagm. 

£."£££ rids atop Uddaya Hill near Ay^yd. one can see the 

whiteness of its range of peaks if the sky is dear. 

The great MSnasa Lake is also there. There are many fine trees and Mfi 
warerfX QouTriavel in the vicinity. It is filled with the noise of intoxicated 
peacock^ and other birds, and made beautiful by kinnara and khacara women 
STST* takes away the hunger and thirst of people such as «s and 
Sramanas coming here for caitya-vandana. ,, 

The residents of Saketa play various kinds of games w the v ^y 
Svami was established in paryanka-asana by fourteen devotees; on.tins^peafc 
attained nirvana with 10,000 homeless mendicants on the morning of Magha 
dL 13th in the Abbijita naksatra. Sakra and others performed the cremation 

^ *** "« ° f ** 
“ Jwest. Three were built by S 

S^Xld^RSde.Tout oTgems andpredous of 

ttjle sixteen niches made of gems. There are sixteen nffi. narngnte 




f h a rf T° m ***? gat6WayS *** 316 four expansive pavilions. Ahead from 
these pavilions are four assembly halls. In the middle of the assembly halls there 

SSSMV" ° f '«* •— N ban is a 

made of gems. Ahead of each assembly hall are jewelled benches. Atop them 

are cattya-stupas made of gems. Ahead of each caitya-stupa in eachXction 

are nnmense jewelled benches. Atop each of them is a c^-tree. Lrig 4ch 

™ ageS “ ^ Poryanka-asana oi the eternal Zt 
Rsabha, Varddhamana, Candranana. and Varisena, measuring 500 bow-lengths 

d “2 °!i f SOrtS f gemS ' Ahead from each ofthe caitya-stupas are caitya- 
trees. Ahead from each caitya-tiee are jewelled benches, and atop each of item 

if* ““ ^ tadra Baaoes is a N^d* 2^JlH 

stairway and archway, full of pure cool water, adorned by multicolored lotuses 
eauhful, like a Dadhimukhadhara lotus pond. In the middle portion of the great 
caitya Ljon Residence is an immense jewelled bench. Atop it is a colorful Jod- 
made of gems. Atop that is a multi-colored canopy. Under the canopy on 
the side is a hook made of diamonds. Hanging from the hooks are garland! of 
aige pearls shaped like pots and mangoes. Amidst the garlands are stainless 

toe Ss of Se™' ^ ldSt ^ T laDdS ° f ^ ^ garlands of ^onds. On 
hang 24 ^g^to" 5 ^ * "*** 

g0d ***** ™ ages made by 1Ba P am “mala of the 24 Jinas - 
Snr^i t ~ m diamond, each bearing its own foim, identification 
coior Smeen images — Rsabha, Ajita, Sambhava, Abhinandana, Sumati’ 
SuparSva, Srtala, Sreyamsa, Vimala, Ananta, Dharma, Santi, Kunthu, Ara Nenfi 
M^yrra - «.made of gold. Those of Munisuvrata and Nemi 

P , c ^ 0Se °5 Candraprabha md Suvidhi are made of crystal. Those of Malli 
and P^vanatha are made of cat's eye. Those of Padma^toha and v4up12 

h T taa8e “ ° f diam0Dds ^ 

y red dye. The edge of each nail appears as if sprinkled with juice of red gems 
or lac, hence they are called moistened. The surfaces of the navel, hairiine 
gue, palate, Snvatsa, nipples, hands, and feet are made of refined gold The 
lotos-eyes, popfe facial baits, eyebrows, body baits, and head baL J£. ^ 

The‘ h™A emS ' he PS f* made 0f 00131 gems - ^ teeth 316 made of crystal 
The head bumps are made of diamonds. The insides of toe nostrils are golden 

ZZZZil* - 

CaCh [JiDa] ™ age is another “uage, made of diamond, holding pearls 
and ko ? anta ' dish > gariaud, and staff made of crystal arnTgem’ 

and holdmg aloft a white umbrella Fan-holding images made of di4S’ 
^jewebed ta ate on either stde of each [L] 
of each image and honoring it are two ndga images, two vaksa images two 

otr^ tW ° kun4adhara ^ages, made of diamond, with their hands 
folded in obeisance and shining limbs. On the god seats are twenty-tom 



diamond bells, twenty-four jewelled mirrors, twenty-four s tanding lamps made 
of gold, with bouquets of flowers in diamond baskets, hair-brooms, small tablets, 
ornamented baskets, holding standing incense burners, lamps, diamond 
auspicious lamps, diamond pitchers, diamond platters, receptacles of refined 
gold, diamond sandalwood pots, diamond lion seats, astamahgalas made of 
diamond, golden oil pots, golden incense burners, and golden lotus holders. All 
of this is in front of each image. 

The caitya is adorned by a moonstone tree. It is surrounded by diamond 
pillars, which are wonderously decorated with wolves, bulls, crocodiles, horses, 
men, kinnaras, birds, bearded creatures, antelopes, deer, oxen, elephants, and 
creepers. It has a beautiful banner and is adorned with a golden flagpole. There 
is toe sound of tiny bells. A lotus king pot sits atop it It is marked by 
decorations in finest sandalwood paste. There are dancing women with multi¬ 
colored moving limbs and uplifted breasts. Both sides of toe gateways are 
adorned with a pair of pots smeared with sandalwood paste. Garlands scented 
with incense hang at an angle. The floor is made with five-colored flowers. It is 
full of apsaras holding incense-holders with camphor, aloe, and musk; it is also 
filled with vidyadharis. It is adorned by sweet caitya-tiees and jewelled benches 
in front, behind, and to toe sides. It was prepared with copious diamonds 
according to toe proper rites at the instruction of Bharata. He made images of 
his 99 brothers out of divine diamond, with an image of himself in attendance. 
Outside toe caitya he made a stupa of Lord RsabhasvamI, and one stupa for 
each brother. He made an iron protector man so that men and women should not 
commit a&atana while coming and going. One cannot proceed past him. The 
peaks of toe mountain were tom by firm diamond to make toe mountain 
undimbable. One yojana inside Bharata made eight stairways in toe shape of 
girdles, so that it is impassable by men. From this it became famous by toe 
name Eight Steps (Astapada). 

Many years later toe 7,000 sons of Emperor Sagara opened toe earth with 
firm diamonds and made a 1,000 yojana [wide] moat for the protection of toe 
caitya. They filled it with water by breaching toe bank of toe Ganga with firm 
diamonds. When [toe bank of] toe Ganga was broken, Astapada seat, villages, 
towns, and cities were flooded. Prince Bhagrratha, toe son of Jahnu, used a firm 
diamond to open a river pathway to toe eastern ocean at toe command of 
Sagara. It went through the Kutus, to toe south of Hastinapura, to toe west of 
toe KoSala country, to toe north of Prayaga, to toe south of toe Ka£l country, to 
toe south of toe middle of Vatsa, and to toe north of Magadha. In this way toe 
tfrtha of Gangasagara was bom. 

Rsabha SvamTs eight grandsons and 99 sons led by Bahubali became siddhas 
with Svaml on this mountain; thus its miraculousness was demonstrated by 108 
becoming immersed in excellence at one time. 

Blessed Varddhamana Svaml himself said, “The man who climbs this 
mountain by his own power and performs vandana to toe caitvas will attain 



liberation in this lifetime.” After hearing this. Lord GautamasvamI, a storehouse 
of attainment, climbed this excellent mountain. He did vandana to the caityas, 
and saw ascetics with limbs emaciated from asceticism, striving at the base of 
an Aioka tree, while he himself was strong in body. “Oh! I must not be 
misunderstood,” he said, and so he composed the Pundanka Teaching to ward 
off uncertainty. Pundanka himself, with robust body but purified sentiment, 
went to Sarvarthasiddhi. Kandanka, with his weakened body, went to the 
seventh hell. A striving Samanika became determined when he heard this 
Pundanka teaching from Gautama. He entered into Tumbavana and was 
conceived in the womb of Dhanagiri's wife Sunanda, and became the ten-Purva- 
holder Vajrasvaml. Gautama SvamT descended from Astapada and gave diksa 
to 1,503 ascetics from Kaudinya, Dinna, and Sevan. *1116 Kaudinyas and the 
others in these lineages climbed the first, second, and third lower levels after 
they heard the words of VIra, “whoever performs caitya-vandana in this tirtha 
attains hberation in this fifetime." They could not go further, but they were 
amazed to see Gautama SvamT climbing unimpeded; they were enlightened, and 
took diksa. 

Millions of various maharsis became siddhas on this mo untain , with Emperor 
Bharata at the fore. Subuddhi was the chief minister of Emperor Sagara In the 
presence of Jahnu and the other sons of Sagara he heard from Adityayaias the 
examples of how the rajarsis bom in the lineage of King Bharata went to 
Sarvarthasiddhi and to liberation during die first five million of the ten-million 
sagaropama years. 

Vlramatl, in accordance with the preaching of the gods, placed tilakas made 
of gold inlaid with diamonds on the foreheads of the images of the 24 Jinas on 
this mountain. Sire was bom as a pigeon, a twin, and a god, and then in her 
birth as DamayantI the tilaka on the forehead was successful in removing the 
darkness [of ignorance]. & 

Bali Maharsi was firm in kdyotsarga on this mountain. Then DaSagnva, who 
remembered a former enmity and grew angry as he descended in his vehicle, 
opened up the earth’s surface. He entered into it, and in his enmity uprooted 
Astapada and threw it into the Salt Ocean. Then he lifted up the mountain by 
calling to mind 1,000 spells. The rajarsi [Bali] knew of this from his avadhi 
jhana, and pressed down on the mountain peak with his toe to protect the caitya. 
The sound of fierce vomiting came from the ten mouths of the contracted body. 
Thus he became known as Ravana. Then he was freed by the compassionate 
maharsi, bowed to his feet, did ksama, and returned to his own place. 

There [on Astapada] the Lord of Lanka performed before the Jina The vina 
broke due to a divine spell. In order that die flavor of the performance not be 
broken, [Ravana] cut a tendon from his own arm and restrung tire vina. 
Dharanendra, who had come to praise the tirtha, was pleased at the Hating 
devotion exhibited in the sound of the limb-viha, and gave Ravana a spell with 
the power of unfailing victory. 



Gautama SvamT entered the southern .gateway of the caitya Lion Residence 
on this mountain. First he performed vandana to the four images of Sambhava, 
etc.; then he circumambulated to the western gateway and [did vandana] to the 
eight [images] of ParSva, etc. ; then at the northern gateway to the ten of 
Dhaima, etc.; finally at the eastern gateway to the two of Rsabha and Ajita 
This tirtha -gem is unattainable; 

[but] those good souls who with purified bhdva 
remember its unapproachable crystal grove, 
or see in water the reflection 
of its caitya, banner, and pot, 
receive as much fruit of lofty bhdva 
as the fruit from pilgrimage 
and doing puj'a and anointing. 1-2. 

Those who bow down and glorify 
this caitya-stupa along with its images 
which was made by Lord Bharata 
are blessed with the abode of Sri. 3. 

Benefit shine s 

in the good souls who in their own mind 
contemplate this Astapada Kalpa 
composed by Jinaprabhasuri. 4. 

The meaning which was sung in brief earlier 
in the Astapada Stava 
has been publicized at length 
here in this Kalpa 5. 

Thus the blessed Astapada Kalpa is concluded. 


the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 



TSPC = Trisastitolakapurusacaritra of Hemacandrasuri. 

VTK = Vividhatirthakalpa of Jinaprabhasuri. 


<i869b - i873x ,ata w98o) ' p— 

Nabheya = “Son of Nabhi” = Rsabha. 

01 - a W » s “ Weber 

Narada = a Jaina sadhu. See TSPC V, 154-5. 

Spoke = ara Time revolves in an endless cycle, with each descending 
(avasarpini) and ascending (; utsarpim ) half-cycle consisting of six spokes 8 

tod^Ir e oJ Uberati0n ^ P0SSible 0nly 1111,36 two spoked The 
tturd spoke of the present avasarpini began during the life of Rsabha the 

str L ^ 

Descent of time = avasarpini, 

Yugadi^a = “First Lord of the era” = Rsabha. 

Siddha = enlightened and liberated soul. 

Padmanabha = first Jina in the coming utsarpini. 

Arhat = Jina. 

Nemi = 22rd Jina of the current avasarpini. 

Enyeror = Cakravartin. According to Jaina universal history, there are 12 
Cakravartins in each cycle of time. See Cort (forthcoming) 

Bt S TSPC I bhaS ddeSt ^ ** Cakravartin of *e present avasarpini. 

Bahubali = son of Rsabha. See TSPC 1,273-326. 

Marudeva = Rsabha's mother. 

Sommasarava = the platform in the shape of a cosmic axial mountain atop 
wtach each newly enlightened Jina gives his or her first semton. See Norton 

= me mendicant Ieattas of the congestions established by each 

"ZEZSS&* 1 *“ - »**«**■ TSPC 1,356-358; and 

Hist son of the fist Emperor = AdityayaSas. See Weber (1901:250). 



|fcheca = vidyadhara = wizard. 

Nami and Vinami = two vidyadhara kings. See Cort (1987:239). 

Dravida and Valikhilya = two sons of Rsabha who “fell out with each other and 
made war, but afterwards they were reconciled and undertook pilgrimages to 
i Satrunjaya” (Weber 1901:250). 

; sadhu = general term for all Jain male mendicants. 

s Muni = male mendicants of the lowest rung. In common usage, sadhu and muni 
are synonymous. 

■> Jaya = the 11th cakravartin. See TSPC IV,365-367. 

1 Rama = the 8th Baladeva See TSPC IV, 107-352. According to the Jaina 
; universal history, among the 63 Great heroes {tolaka purusas ) in each cycle 
of time there are 9 Vasudevas, 9 Baladevas, and 9 Prati-Vasudevas, who 
occur in sets of one each. The Vasudeva and Baladeva are half-brothers, 
while the Prati-Vasudeva is their opponent See Cort (forthcoming). 

[ Pradyumna = son of Krsna by Rukminl. See TSPC V,188-218. 

Samba = son of Krsna by Jambavatl. See below, chapter 3, and TSPC V,214. 
Sagara = the 2nd Cakravartin. See Fick (1888) and TPSC 11,63-220. 

The Prakrit Ajitatenti Stava of Nandisena is a favorite Jaina hymn. 

■ Rebirth = avatara. 

Samprati = grandson of ASoka, considered by the Jainas to have been a devout 
Jaina and great builder of temples. 

Vikramaditya = legendary king. See Merutuhga (1899-1901) and Weber 

Satavahana (or Salivahana) = Jaina king of Pratisthana. See Merutuhga (1899- 
; 1901:14-16). 

; Vagbhata = prime minister of the Caulukyan Emperor Jayasimha Siddharaja. See 
| Merutuhga (1899-1901:129). 

i Padalipta = a miracle-working Jaina acarya, author of the Nirvana Kalika and 
: other works. See Triputi (1952:230-246). 

■ Ama =8th century king of Kannauj. See Chatteijee (1978-84:1:169). 

: Datta = Dharmadatta = son of the future King Kalki. See Weber (1901:307). 
f Vxdeha = another continent where liberation is possible. See Caillat and Kumar 
; (1981:28). 

Kalikacarya = famous acarya, who reputedly lived in the early centuries B.C.E. 
See Brown (1933). 

Javada = see verses 71-83, and Weber (1901:304-306). 

[• Meghaghosa = see verses 109-113. 

: Kalki = future king. See Weber (1901:307). 



V a90i^T = forecast t0156 ^ last Jaina ^ of m era - See Weber 

DU (190i?08) ri = f ° reCaSt t0 ** ** l3St Jaina of ^ era - See Weber 

Congregation = tirtha. The Jain religion will disappear among humanity, but the 
_ memory of Satrunjaya will be kept alive by the residents of the heavens. 

Adyajine&tr = Rsabha. According to Jaina biology, even plants have souls which 

Congregation = sahgha, the fourfold congregation of male and female mendi- 
cants and male and female laity (sadhus, sddhvis, frdvakas, travikas).ki the 
life of each Jma there are five benifidal events ( kalydnaka ): conception birth 
renunciation, enlightenment, and liberation. (See Fischer and Jain 1978:1.) 
These are the places where the five events in the lives of the 24 Jinas of the 
present avasarpinf occurred. 

Namaskara Mantra = the most sacred hymn of the Jains. See Jaini (1979:162- 

Wizard = vidyadhara. 

Praise to the Arhats” — namo’rhadbhyah. 

Padalipta = Palltana, the town at the base of the mountain. 

First Arhat = Rsabha. 

108 Vikrama era = 52 C.E. 

Cakre^vari is the yaksi goddess who presides over the teachings {Sdsana) of 

fl98^63^ i ^ ^ ^ yakS ° g0d Wh ° PrCSideS 0VCr See Sh ah 

Root Lord or Main Lord = mulandyaka = the principal image of a temple. 
Spdt a ^ mountain = 111616 316 two ^ges atop Satrunjaya, separated by a shallow 

Iksvaku = the lineage of Rsabha. 

Vmni = the lineage into which Krsna and Nemi were bom. 
caryto-tree = see Shah (1955:65-76). 

RajadSna = the tree atop the mountain behind the main temple of Rsabha 
known as the Rayana tree. ’ 

AdKa = First Lord = Rsabha. 

Mulajina = Root or Main Jina = Rsabha. 

incarnation = avatdra. Representations of other tirthas are known as avatdras- 
fiom worship of them one approximates to having performed the pilgrimage! 
Satyapura = Jaina tirtha in Southern Rajasthan. See VTK chapter 17. 
Stambhanaka = Jaina temple in Cambay. See VTK chapters 6 and 59. 

Sakra = Indra = the king of the gods. 



Santi= the 16th Jina. See TSPC HI,199-336.As part of the rite of consecrating 
a new or renovated temple, members of the congregation drop money, gems, 
and other wealth down a hole over which the main image is then cemented 
down. This gift is a provision for any future renovation of the temple. 

Vrsabha = Rsabha. 

Vairotya = ancient snake goddess, and one of the Jaina goddesses of magic 

Magical powers = siddhis. 

Enjoyer of one incarnation = one will be reborn only once before attaining 

Vastupala and Tejahpala = 13th century ministers of the Vaghela kings. See 
VTK chapter 42 and Sandesara (1953). 

Plthada (also Pethada) = layman of Mandavagadha who, in 1264 C.E., led a 
sahgha pilgrimage to Satrunjaya and established a pavilion and an image of 
Santinatha (Dosi 1955:4). 

1369 Vikrama = 1313 C.E. 

Kali = the fourth and most degenerate age according to Brahmanical cosmology, 
here equated with the fifth spoke of the descent of time. 

alpaprabhrta = Kapadia (1941:93) notes that this is the only reference to this 
text which had come to his attention. 

Bhadrabahu = Jaina acarya, died 357 B.C.E., 7th in succession from Mahavira. 
See Triputi (1952:119-137). 

Vajra = Jaina acarya, 13th in succession from Mahavira. He lived from 31 
B.C.E. to 57 C.E. See Triputi (1952:284-303). 

1375 Vikrama = 1319 C.E. 

Jyestha = June-July. 


The successor to VajrasvamI was Vajrasenasuri (38 B.C.E. — 90 C.E.). See 
Triputi (1952:301-307). 

Living Lord = Jivantasvami, a title applied to the Jina while still living. 

AmbadevI = Ambika, the yaksi goddess who presides over the teachings of 
Neminatha. There is a temple to the Hindu goddess AmbajI above the Jain 
temples on Gimar, atop the first peak. See Burgess (1869a:48-49). 

Siddha Vmayaka = a form of GaneSa. See Weber (1901:295). 

Ksetrapala = local protector deity. 

Correct faith = samyakdrsti, i.e., is a Jain. 

Baladeva = Balabhadra, half-brother of Krsna and the 9th Baladeva. 

Kubera = the lord of the underworld and of riches. 

box-length = samudga. 



Rajlmatl = Nemi’s fiancee. See TSPC V,255-261. 

Vidyaprabhrta = See Kapadia (1941:92). 


one yojana = a distance somewhere between 2% and 9 miles. 

Siva = Nemi’s mother. 

Beneficial moments = kalydnakas. See above, notes to chapter 1. 

Pundarlka = see above, chapter 1. 

Astapada = see below, chapters 18 and 49. 

NandlSvaia = see below, chapter 24. 

Amba = the yaksi goddess who presides over the teachings of Nemi. Nemi 
(Rathanemi) was in his own wedding procession — the wrong path when 
he heard the cries of the animals in their pens which were to be slaughtered 
for the wedding feast, and decided to renounce the world — the good path. 

Ratna = see below, chapter 5. 

Kusmandl= Amb5 


Bowlength = dhanus = four forearms (hasta) «= six feet (Monier-Williams 

gavya = According to Monier-Williams (1899:351,466,1294), 1 gavya or gavyuti 
equals 4,000 dandas (staff, fathom), one danda equals 4 hastas, and 1 hasta 
is approximately 1.5 feet. 5 gavyas therefore = 5 x 4,000 dandas x A hastas 
x 1.5 feet = 120,000 feet « 22.7 miles. Clearly that is not the distance 
intended here. 

cubit = hasta (forearm) « 1.5 feet 
Kohandi = Ambika. 

sahamiya — sahammi (Skt sadharmi), co-religionist? 
fathom = danda (staff) °» 6 feet 

Vaidakha = May-June. 

Jayasimhadeva = Caulukyan emperor of Gujarat whose capital was at Anabilla- 
vada Pattana in North Gujarat. His reign was from 1094 to 1143 C.E. 
Khahgara = see Merutuhga (1899-1901:95-96) and Majumdar (1956:68-70). 
1185 Vikrama = 1129 C.E. 

Kumarapala succeeded Jayasimha. He reigned from 1143 — 1175 C.E. 

1220 Vikrama = 1164 C.E. 

twelve chapters prom the guidebook 

VIradbavala <d. UM W - 

wherc 20 ° f fte 24 

of this era attained liberation. 

MarudevI = the mother of Rsabha. 
lamp of the Yadava clan = Nemi. 

§iva = Nemi's mother. 

Samudravijaya = Nemi’s father. 


On Abu, see also Jayant V.jay >■ western India, whose main 

— ° f ^ ^ 18 

worshipped by women who desire to 
1088 Vikrama era = 1032 C.E. 

Yugadideva = Rsabha. 

1288 Vikrama era = 1232 C.E. TeiahpSla, who died young. See 

Luna = elder brother of Vastupala and Tejahpaia, 

Sandesara (1953:27,37). 6 ^d 59. 

~ « by is a, AcaleSvaax 

centmy. According ® Thp® ^ royalty constdered 

courts of NSgota, Sakambban, an J b Gunacandra m a public 

to as a personal gun. He defendThe ^ ^ (eacbin g S , W 

debate in the corn, f Pf^S^Led laina temples. His Mowers 

'££££££** ofRSja Gacch * 

= either 6,000 or 12,000 feet. 

Bharata's brodter = BShubali. and to inhabit the 

= "a fabulous—^P^^ ^ U on" (Monier- 

cnravv mountains, it is P 


ran CUVER ADULTERESS and the hungry monk 

W-M48 = f0r te Jaina mTy of Damayaai®a vadaBB ^ Nah _ ^ wpc 

m ? 0 " of devodo “ - 
jting or Lanka, and the 8th p ra h' \r- . * 

d^IT 0 ' t " medJ2ina ***“ s< *®c“ma TCPCIV ' 107 ' 352 - 
‘ *** 101,1 of * ——• 136 ' 

anabhrt = Gautama Svaml, the chief disciple of iu 
P urvas = the “fnrmpr” , u^cipie of Mahavira. 

^ K *. a™ k«. See Jaini (1979:49.50). 


°S“‘(SSSa °° * 

Kins of Go* = Indra ’ “ d Hscber ”«• Jain (197801:19) 

- - - — ^ In 

zz (stah i9 ” ,wl ■* tey flounsb 

55 (No^^rc^xi i%rs- 

Kuhfi = new moon. 

porva - the three annual 8-day festivals. 

Gaccha = mendicant lineage. 

™r cha - 00 - ■* <*£ «zsksss- 

Bhadrapada = September-Ocloben 
Khambbata = (he modem Cambay. 

B^bmapa between (he 

4^“^ wh ° - -» *» 

upaSraya = mendicant rest house 
Margaslrsa = December-January. 

502 Vikrama eia = 445 Qg 
802 Vikrama era = 746 c.E 



For a slightly different list of the seven kings of the Cavada dynasty, along with 
the years of their reigns, see Meruturiga (1899-1901:19-21). On the Calukyas, 
see Majumdar (1956); on the Vaghelas, see Sandesara (1953). 


On Sahkhapura/SafikheSvara, see Bhadragupt Vijay (1982), Cort (1987), and 
Jayant Vijay (1942). 

Dvaravafi = Dvarka in Okhamandal at ihe western tip of Saurastra. It was 
Krsna's coital. 

Aristanemi = the 22nd Jina, and cousin of Krsna. 

Pancajanya = Krsna's conch. 

For the story of Nemi's blowing of Krsna's conch, which is here transferred to 
North Gujarat from Krsna's arsenal in Dvarka in order to provide a derivation 
for the name of Sarikhapura, see Brown (1934:46-47). 

kuladevata = lineage deity. 

Visnu = Krsna. 

KeSava = Krsna. 

avadhi jhana = “a limited ability to become aware of things which lie beyond 
the normal range of the senses, as in clairvoyance, the‘divine ear,’ and so on” 
(Jaini 1979:121). 

Patala = the underworld. 

ParSva = the 23rd Jina, and therefore at the time of the story not yet a Jina 

serpent gods = panmgas. 

Naga = another kind of serpent deity. 

Padmavatl = queen of Dharanendra, and the yaksi associated with the teachings 
and congregation established by Pargva. See Cort (1987).The image was 
efficacious not on its own, but because Dharanendra and Padmavatl 
responded to the faithful prayers addressed to the image. 

congregation = sahgha. 

good souls = bhavya, those souls with the possibility of at ta i nin g liberation, used 
generally to refer to Jains. See Jaini (1979:139-141). 

The second verse is in Sanskrit. 


Naga king = Dharanendra, the husband of Padmavatl. 

Abhayadevasuri, PraSnavahana Kula, and Harsapuriya Gaccha = “Harsapura was 
fo unde d during the reign of King Allata of Chittor and named after Queen 
Hariyadevl. In the Jain congregation, the acaryas of the Pra&iavahana Kula 
of the middle branch of [followers of] acarya Priyagranthasuri stayed there, 
from which the mendicant congregation of the gaccha of the PraSnavabana 

THE clever adulteress and toe hungry monk 

- * - «. 

Gaccha became known as the SSr* 1 71,0 ““^Mya 

Kamadeva due to [Vijayasimha'sl disdoteThh ?? 3 “ *** time of King 
1952:567-568). ' J toaple Abhayadevasuri .” (TriputT Maharaj 

Fi8MP ° 7 “indicants who naval under g^dance of 
Maladhari = dixty. 

uri acarya = the highest position in the hierarchv of 
patta = seat, position of authority within a mJT v CantS ‘ 
Hemacandrasuri Maladhari discfole of the ^ ^ 

devasori, and author of commentaries A J amic commentator Abhaya- 

HaribhadrasOri's Vi§esdva$yakabhdsya He Anuyo 8 adv °m, and 

younger contemporary HemacandXri cafitl»-! ^ “* 

One of the Kali Yuga), author of KaMaIasarv ajna (Omniscient 

antamani, Trisastiialdkdpurusacariirlvft* S ^f ddh ‘ Aea *> Abhidhdm- 
worics. P urusacar itr a yitaraga Stotra, and many other 

long preached agri^° futility '&£?**** BrahmanicaI nte. Jainas have 
303). * mC Utlhty of ®«W«r worship. See Jaini (1979:302! 

Tiince dsily &iii3 ~~ m n • 

YogaJastra HU22-123 (pp 580 584^1} Yk nao 6Vening - See Hemacandra, 
Humphrey (1985).Bhlm^eva and 

wooden slab (?) = gohalia. & 

1266 V.S. = 1210 C.E. 

in a temple. There is 


^arabba — astapada (see above, notes to chapter 18) 
golden = astapada. ^ 

Ajita = second Jina of this era. 

Abhinandana = fourth Jina of this ere. 

Sumati = fiffo Jinaofthiser ^ 

Ananta = fourteenth Jina of this era. 

Dhavalagiri = White Mountain. 

kinnara = divine musician. 
khacara = vidyadhara or wizard. 

(Stefo 19633221 Jama meDdicant wfa0 1125 «&e power to travel m the air” 


Sramanas = “strivers” = Jaina mendicants. 

caitya-vandana = the rite of praising an image of a Jina in a temple. See 
Williams (1963:187-198), Cort (1989:348-357). 

Saketa = AyodKyTt 

paryahka-asana = the lotus posture. See Bhattacharya (1974:138-139). 

Sakra = India = king of the gods. 

astamahgala = representation of the eight auspicious objects: svastika, Srfvatsa , 
nandyavarta, powder vase, throne, fall pot, mirror, and pair of fish. See Shah 

India Banner = India dhvaja. 

D adhitrmkhadhar a = the lotus ponds on NandlSvaradvIpa; see chapter 24. 
frivatsa = diamond-shaped symbol on the chest of every Jina image. 
koranta = branch(?). 
kundadhara - type of mga. 

a&atana = an expiable moral fault See Williams (1963:225-229). 
siddha = liberated soul. 

Varddhamana SvamI = Mahavlra. 

Gautama SvamI = the chief disciple of Mahavlra. 

attainment = labdhi. See Jaini (1979:142-144). 

bhdva = internal state of the soul. See Glasenapp (1942:40-43). 

Sarvarthasiddhi = the highest of the 14 heavens, from which one will be reborn 
just once more before attaining liberation. See Caillat and Kumar 

Samanika = type of god. 

ten-P«rva-bolder = knower of ten Purvas, the “Former” texts which are now 
lost See Jaini (1979:49-52). 
diksa = initiation as a mendicant. 

twin = in the first three spokes of the current downward cycle of time, people 
are bom as twins. See Stevenson (1915:273-274). 
kayotsarga = “abandonment of the body,” a form of standing meditation. See 
Williams (1963:213-215). 

Da^agriva = Ravana. 

Ravana = “the roarer, the vomiter.” 

ksamd = ritual pronouncement that one’s evil actions may bear no fruit. See 
Shanta (1985:415). 

Astapada Stava = chapter 18. 

Verse 5 is in Sanskrit; the rest of the chapter is in Prakrit. 





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Appendix 1 

Jinaprabhasuri CE in the village of Mohilvadi in Gujarat in 

Jinaprabhasuri was bom around 12 • ’ name was Subhatapala. Gujarat 

a family of the Srimall merchant caste. Hi ^ 13th century did the 

at that time was still under Hindu rule; n«^ ^ Tughlak Sultan of Delhi 
last Hindu dynasty fall to the army o $ V etambara Jaina sadhu at the age of 

Subhatapala took diksa (mendicant Gaccha , and was given the name 

8 from Jinasimhasuri, lea** of ^^^asuri, and in 1284 he became 

—o—. -•« - - 1333 - 

thereafter. 1 , first Quarter of the 14th century was 

Jinaprabhasuri travelled widely, even o ^ ^ ^ course of his travels he 

a time of great social change an u laces and centers which he visited. These 

wrote small treatises on die Jau»P ^Ztirthakalpa also known as the Kalpapra- 

evcntually were compiled to form the were composed between 

dipa. The colophons to f ^ different chapters varied, as will 

1308 and 1333 (Code 1953:4445)In some cases he used other 
be seen from the colophons of the chap ^ ^ he copied down the oral traditions 
written sources (see chapters 1, 2, ), Qne case his description is based on 

concerning a place (chapters 5, 26 X # yariety of source s (chapter 8). His 

popular songs (chapter 27) and in som ^ ^ rf uddaya Hill outside of 

descriptions of Anahillavada Pattana personal experience. He also 

Ayodllya’in chapter 49 both sound ^^“verbS, as in the case of the 
incorporated texts by other, “ * 0 ^ Dh armaghosasuri. As befits a compendium 

•‘AstapadaMahatlrthaKalpa (chapt ) . the Vividhatirthakalpa ** v* 

Sanskrit and some m Prakn , descrintive account, 

also used the three genres of hymn, o ^ ^ ^ & member of court of the Tughlak 
Jinaprabhasuri spent the last years when the latter shifted his capital 

Sultan Mahammad Shah. He a^omp^ * na prabhasuri was honored by the sultan m 
from Delhi to Daulatabad in the De ^ \ e Bha ttaraka Sam, and the sultan also 
Daulatabad in 1332; he was given a resid , ^ ^ ^ time the Sultan 

constructed a meditation hall an a em another time granted the right o 

also arranged for Jaina laity Svetambara and Digambara Jaxnas^ 

Akbar . 6 

— »*■ *- » *■ (1 ” 8lU - 13) - 



rm CLEVER adulteress AND the hungry monk 

^ S'* 6 ' h '”' '• 3 ' *• ». »d 24 „e in Smbiu nd ^ 

gN* h jJ,“•»««. on to. 

5. See VTK, ch. 51. 3 

Wa»y: a*, for «mpltT“c,!Tof HOTnTdT- ?*" = "‘" Ki in lnd, m 

“ IuitJ ’" **■« *-*■ ° f “ 

Appendix 2 

Pilgrimage, sacred geography and cosmography in the Jain* T ,• • 

The patterns and networks of oil<™ Tradltlon 

way in which the members of “ nStitUte one 

chapters translated here, the tirthas Cnil™ ^ their umverec - As is seen in the 
sites that from an outside perspective fcWjn tb^ ^ ^ ^ V6t5mbara Jaina s include 
cosmography, but are here nTLinguished as such 9 ^7°^ of S^grtsphy and 

Giranara, Sankhesvara, Anahillavada Arbuda ’ S ° mC u ° f * e sites — Satrunjaya, 
^dra, and Jinaprabhasuri’s accoums 7 ^ ^pi/of 
Astapada is geographically locatable as the Jain ^ T®*** ,he * P laces himself. 
Himalayas; but a reading of the desertions <JT s ?T ° f MoUDt ***« hr the 
as understood by the Jainas only slight overland 77 * 0WB *« * e ffrtfcz 

geographers. With NandTsvaradvip^ c Wv h mountain known by modem 

^Phy. Jaina cosmography posits a series of chcrtTc “ 1116 ” ain ° f Cosm °- 

the axial Mount Meru; Nandliwaradvzpa is L seventh' ^ “ d ° CeanS centcred ™ 
Medieval and contemporarv Ju ^ ^tinents. 

depictions of five major pilgrimage SaCICd geograph y ^art with 

flST ^ G ^ a (^otnt “ii^r^d ? ^ ***■ 1,1686 « 

(Arbuda) m southern Rajasthan, Sammeta R ^ ) ln ^rashtra, Abu 

Himalayas. All of these are mountains ^ 31111 A ^P ada « the 

events m the life of the first Jina or Tirthahkarfof th” ^ associated with 

Rsabhanatha), Giranara with the life of AelS r! ^ a8e ’ Adin5tha ’ known as 
is the site of the final fiberarion 7 Sammeta Sikhara 

descriptions of these tfr^s hi LZ3 £If ° f *«• ™«e - many 

Paintings, scrolls, and sculpture. This framlw^TV^ y “* fret i uen % depicted in 

geography, and the „>*«, saearbyawS ** >*2 

the number oftentimes is greater tlm five p - ^ pahea tirthis , even though 

jmh.,- For ™ p!s . *. %£££ ^ No^TS "»S 

Kambor, Taranga, Simandhar Svami in MehsJf CaiUp ’ Metrana ’ Bhildi, 

and Pansw (Dosi 1981:38-57)- „d (“I'rf ?'S"™*' Gambh “- Bh °y“i- 

Mujpnr. Vadgan, »„ U paiyala , &»». 

famous brSuso of '' S "“" >,te “ •" 

Peei y due to the images (munis) enshrined 

within the temples, these tirthas are visited only by those Jainas who permit image 
worship, the Murtipujaka branch of the Svetambaras. But tirtha has a broader 
connotation within Jainism than just a pilgrimage place. Jaina authors distinguish between 
immobile ( sthavara ) tirthas , such as the places described by Jinaprabhasuri, and mobile 
( jahgama ) tirthas, in particular Jaina monks and nuns. Thup pilgrimage to one's 
mendicant guru is as popular as pilgrimage to a place, and pilgrimage among the 
Sthanakavasis and Terapanthis is restricted to pilgrimage to mendicants. 3 Jaina authors 
further distinguish between spiritual ( bhava) tirthas such as the teachings of the Jina and 
the Jaina scriptures, and physical ( dravya ) tirthas such as those described here. 4 Most 
pilgrimage is performed by small groups of either family members or neighbors. Such a 
pilgrimage might be a one-day visit to a nearby temple, the annual three-day darsana of 
all the temples in Patan on the first three days of the new year, a four or five day trip to 
Satrunjaya and nearby pahea tirthis , or a several week long bus tour of the major 
tirthas of North India. Jaina mendicants are not allowed to reside permanently in any 
one place, but must always spend eight months of the year on the move. The travel of 
the mendicants can be seen as lifelong pilgrimage. 

Jainas for many centuries have also performed large congregational pilgrimages, 
known as cha'ri palaka sahghas (“congregations which uphold the six -rfs”). These 
most frequently occur at the end of the four month rainy season retreat ( caturmasa , 
comdsu), during which the mendicants must stay in one place. Oftentimes at the 
beginning of their eight months of wandering, the mendicants will travel to an important 
tirtha, accompanied by a large group of lay persons. For the duration of the pilgrimage 
the laity take temporary vows to observe six mendicant-like restrictions: (1) eating only 
once a day; (2) sleeping on the ground; (3) walking barefoot (or at least on foot); (4) 
having deep faith in Jainism; (5) avoidance of‘living’ food, i.e. food the eating of which 
involves much karmic harm ; and (6) celibacy. The restrictions are summarized in a 
Sanskrit verse, where each provision ends in -rf; hence they are known as the six rfs.’ 5 

In addition, there are six duties (kartavya) incumbent upon each pilgrim: (1) gifting, 
(2) austerities, (3) wearing pure clothes, (4) playing devotional music, (5) singing hymns, 
and (6) offering reverence ( bhakti ) in the temples visited. 6 

Such a group pilgrimage is usually sponsored by a wealthy layman, who upon the 
successful completion of the pilgrimage receives the title of sahgha-pati (congregation 
leader), which then becomes the inherited family name of Sanghvi. A cha’ri palaka 
sang ha might be a small undertaking of one day to a nearby pahea tirthi, or a large 
undertaking to a major tirtha such as &atrunjaya or Abu by hundreds of mendicants and 
thousands of laity lasting many weeks. 7 


1. Another list is given by DosI (1955:45^48): Radhanpur, Vlramgam, Patan, Carup, and 

2. See DosI (1955) for lists of the pahea tirthi of Saurashtra and Marwar, and Kuruva 
(1986) for those of Ahmedabad (two sets), Kacch-Bhadresvar (two sets), Satrunjaya, 
Baroda, and Gimar. 

3. See McCormick (forthcoming). 

4. See Susllsuri (1975). 

5 Quoted by Susllsuri (1975:27). He does not give a source for this oft-cited verse. 



the clever adulteress and the hungry monk 

Su^tf I*-'**”*. ^-„o„a, and prcW. 

r#~- Ah^brf to 

Rama Prabha Vijaya <194118 22) a^S^] 1 "- a f”T- < ^'? la ”‘ “ 1939, see 

z b * at “ ,e 1935 c ““ «• m «2‘ to 

T- ~ 

Sed, Manetklbhai Mansukhbhai, betweeo 500,000 and OOO.OOO^T ““ “ P ”“' 

Appendix 3 

A Note on the translations 

JrrtiL™ ;“ZeXT;tT ^-? r* k ^ *- 

endeavored to make these taxations enable white “at the’^^Sf * yh %. IhttVt 
translator's sin of improving upon the oiiiLs Half of th. K * ** 

prose and the other half in vpr«o- t u ® chapters translated are in 

exception of chapter 18 This is ihe^" T 15 " 0 * 1 . '' ,1J of tbem !rto English prose with the 

narrative bn. *££ o^a 'LS h °“ T **** "" ^ *- of 

Eogbsh poem P»*a-hynm, and so I have tendered i, in th. ft™ 0 f „ 

only alimimdta^wl rfrt, ° f “ a hare « •« 

explain most of the references in ti™n 'jtoliSL" &n“ P ”' i<l “ 1 “'1 no “ s •<> 
resulted in the notes outweighing th ^ ® ^ explanation would have 

minimal definition and pro^dTd' a^Tf ' ^ ^ 1 have ^ ven on] y a 

learn more about the jlT ^ ** ^ <=“ * ader who -ntsto